In 1936, the head of the department of aircraft of the Air Force Academy. Zhukovsky Victor Bolkhovitinov, happy with the success of the development of languid four-engine bomber DB-A, refers to the dilemma of the creation of a high-speed military aircraft. Of the many options it chooses scheme layouts with 2 M-103 engines mounted one by one (tandem) with transmission on coaxial propellers.
To solve the puzzles he designs paired with the next set of engines working off the shield. Bench tests divide encouraging results, because in 1937, running Bolkhovitinov developed project high-speed close-bomber, received code "C" (there were several options for decryption index "Stalin", "Spark", "Spartacus").
Along with the construction of a loved bomber DB VF Bolkhovitinov inherent in the frequently changing contingent of students who were part of it, the beginning of the design of other aircraft equipped with a similar twin powerplant. So far the project has been started and a high-speed fighter-1 with 2 M-107 engines.
In KB Bolkhovitinov this car was designated the "I". Development was carried out until the spring of 1941 I had to overcome a lot of problems of constructive and technological nature. But the sudden obstacle stopped the development of the car. April 25, 1941 Bolkhovitinov was called to a meeting by the Deputy People's Commissar of the aviation industry Balandin. Those present at the meeting, the Director of the engine plant Lavrentyev and chief designer of the engines Klimov said about the impossibility of creation Sparky M-107P engines.
The basic premise of failure was excessive speeding up the M-107P, it was believed that this stress over the engine when installing an elongate shaft at preset rpm may appear unsafe resonance phenomena that lead to the destruction of structures, In addition, the plant had a great plan for the production of engines, led complex work on fine-tuning engines M-105, M-107, M-120. Cornered Bolkhovitinov had been proposed that at least some other type of engine available in the country and recycle it for your own project. Upon reflection designer chose diesel M-40, which although it was heavy, but expended half as much fuel.
The change resulted in a motor and change the whole project. Preliminary surveys conducted in May — June 1941, returned to the circuit designer "C".
I-1 was then included in the plan of experimental aircraft for 1941, due to the similarity of bolshennomu design and construction with the aircraft "C", 2 M-103 and "C-2", equipped with an engine M-103 (Front slider to center was left in place, but his box was disconnected from the second propeller.
Overall project And 1 was repeated to try out some aircraft, "C", but with a much more massive motors M-107 of the same family of engines, the work of Klimov Design Bureau. By the differences of the layout was a single vertical tail and vertical tail crutch in the form of a swinging heel of steel with shock absorber. Oil and vodoradiatory were developed by machine type "C", but with a kind of oversized flow area due to thermal stress regime engines compared with the M-103. The stabilizer was performed with the ordinary scale of 4.5 m without the introduction of the endplates that were needed prior car for a better view reversing the side arrow. The high speed, which was due to develop plane evaluated in conceptual design 750 km / h Time to climb to 5,000 m was 5 min. Ceiling — 9500 m Shock was estimated range — 2000 km by 0.8 Umaks.
All small arms and cannons in the wings. During the landing gear fairings were built two 23-mm cannon load cell system Volkov and Yartseva, down the scale — four mnogokalibernyh gun ME Berezina. Under the wing panel was likely OUTDOOR suspension 2-or 4-caliber bombs from 100 kg to 250 kg.
But, in light of the events of that time recognized as his fighter was never completed due to the retargeting of EDB to a nearby fighter with expander BI.
Since the beginning of the war theme And-1, together with other architects designed aircraft was closed. With the interceptor missiles BI EDO muchilos directly to 1947
In the project I-1 have been identified, many new technological methods assembly, riveting and bonding of aircraft parts, pilot ejection in flight, a corresponding range of speeds of 600-750 km / h
Around the middle of 1941 were completed study of coaxial propellers in TsAGI allowed to do the following conclusions:
1. Performance coaxial screws with large relative translational (large pitch speed, that is a big step corresponds to the highest flight speed) by 2 — 4% higher than the efficiency of the 1st track of the single screw.
2. On take-off at the corners of the blades is less than 35 ° coaxial screws efficiency somewhat less than the efficiency of single propellers. With huge power factor coaxial rod screws na take-off more than a single screw rod coated (equivalent work surface), equal to the total coating coaxial.
3. In order to power the front and rear propellers were similar when the maximum efficiency, the angle of the rotor blades should be adjustable at 1 -1,5 ° less than the angle of the front propeller.
4. Changing the distance between the screws composition boundaries of admissible constructive propositions (within the width of the blades), perceptible effect on the efficiency value has not,
During the war, but to put into practice the results of the research work could be likely. After her graduation from captured German archives, it became clear that in Germany in the period 1941-19 42 years, studies have been carried out vast coaxial propellers in the wind tunnel of the Institute DVL, which actually coincided with the Russian research work. They coinci
de with the findings of American scientists from NACA, but, as already mentioned, it's time to jet aircraft.
Wingspan, m 13.80
Length, m 12.96
Wing area, m2 22.90
maximum take-off 4810
Motor Type 2 PD AM-107
maximum 2 x 1400
rated at 2 x 1250
The highest speed, km / h
at the ground 640
Range, km 2000
Rate of climb, m / min 1000
Service ceiling 10,000 m
two 23-mm cannons and four load cells 12.7-mm machine gun BS
two to four bombs caliber from 100 kg to 250 kg.