Fighter I-16 due to its own corresponding silhouette, surely familiar to everyone, especially the older generation. At the time, these small planes have been possible to tell the media stars of the era, they were filmed in the movies, twisting unimaginable shapes and striking the imagination of the audience, a pack of I-16 filled with children's books, quite often arose plane and posters with the image of the mighty Russian leaders of the country. No exaggeration to say that the I-16 fighter was the most famous, popular and beloved of military aircraft in the USSR.
Fighter I-16 was designed and built in the design office Polikarpov in 1933. This aircraft was created as a high-speed fighter — the latest generation of monoplane, which immediately had to have a higher combat maneuverability. The resulting aircraft was a free carrying monoplane with retractable landing gear, characterized by small size, which provided him with performing aerobatics small moments of inertia. But in fact turned out that the rear centering (over 30%) and small size makes plane unstable in flight, which sought more attention from the pilot, because the plane reacted to the smallest movement of the handle. But the pilots who were able to perfectly master the subtle control of I-16, usually without much problems mastering other machines.
Aircraft designer Nikolai Polikarpov
December 31, 1934 experienced fighter I-16, under famed test pilot Chkalov, made its own first flight.
At the trials plane showed great speed properties. And in 1934, I-16 was put into mass creation. The fighter had a lot of modifications after each modification of the rate ceiling and weapons (including quick-aircraft guns and missiles, it was the first time the fighters) of the aircraft is constantly growing. Since 1936, I-16 began to produce a more massive M-25A engine. So far, with about different versions And-16 were designated as the type of aircraft. So option-16 with M-25A was called the I-16 type 5. Before 1937, the Soviet Union was the only country in the world, which had a high-speed fighter aircraft in service.
Despite the fact that the new fighter flew and was climbing much faster all of his predecessors, in pilots combat units-16 special ecstasy did not cause. Specifically, thanks to the highest rate of new fighter was much more difficult to manage, it does not forgive even the smallest mistakes pilots that are slow-moving biplanes simply "did not direct attention." In the end, happened a few severe accidents that have undermined the credibility of the stronger newcomer high-speed monoplane.
But there were those pilots who immediately looked at the latest battle car latest milestone in the development of the fighter. These pilots were for example, fighter pilots and Stefanovsky Peter Stepan Suprun, who decided to prove to the employees that I-16 does not have to equal themselves fighting qualities: speed, maneuverability, rate of climb …
Legend says … follow: This is a demonstration performance was like a circus trick. Hundreds of airmen who had gathered at the test airfield, watched with amazement as the pilots for something associated with bright red ribbons wings 5-16 fighters. Small Takeoff — and five up in the air. Magnificent cascade aerobatics has been done together, and so pure that none of the four tapes was not broken!
This is the sensational performance of "red fives" and following the demo flight in the Air Force changed the attitude of the pilots newcomer to the aircraft. The pilots realized that the new aircraft ask to cancel a different approach.
Fighter I-16 on the exercises in the Red Army Air Force School
Baptism of fire I-16 adopted in Spain, during the civilian war. Republicans dubbed the I-16 "Mosca" (fly), and the Nazis — "Rata" (Rat). The first batch of I-16 arrived in Spain in October 25, 1936. The first battle took place on November 9, our fighters came out of it without loss. In the skies of Spain in their fight with the enemy Russian volunteer pilots, as Spanish pilots trained.
I-16 with the identification marks of the Spanish Republic.
Then began the real life combat this delicious Russian fighter.
In October 1937 I-16 and the pilots headed to China. November 21, 1937 there was the first fight I-16 with the Japanese (near Nanjing). First combat loss of I-16 in the Sino-Japanese War (during the bombing destroyed plane Kao Chi Khan, commander of the IV tattoo pilot died.
October 1937 Dispatch of the first I-16 with pilots in China
November 21, 1937 the first fight I-16 with the Japanese (near Nanjing). First combat loss of I-16 in the Sino-Japanese War (during the bombing destroyed plane Kao Chi Khan, commander of the IV tattoo pilot died)
March 1, 1938 start of the official supply of I-16 to China.
March 1938 First occupied by the enemy-16 (Spain, I-16 type 5)
March 1938 Deliveries of I-16 type 10 in Spain.
March 23, 1938 the first fight I-16 Type 10: lossless shot down four enemy aircraft.
May 31, 1938 by Anton Taran Gubenko in the sky of China.
August 1938 Construction in Spain-16 fighters RTSF-54
October 20, 1938 flyby of trophy-16 type 5 in the test center Luftwaffe in Rechlin.
May 1939 deserter pilot flew on I-16 in western Manchuria, the plane was captured by the Japanese and flight tested.
May 22, 1939 1st-16 clash with Japanese fighters during the conflict in the Halkin-Gol. Shot down I-16, the pilot Ivan T. Lysenko died.
June 22, 1939 The turning point in the air war on Halkin-Gol.
August 11, 1939 between the USSR and China signed a protocol on construction in Urumqi assembly plant I-16.
August 20, 1939 the first combat use of the aircraft missiles. In Halkin-Gol area of conflict, the pilots of the fighter-missile submarines in the 5-16 launch projectiles fired RS-82 by Japanese fighters from a distance of about one kilometer. Shot down two enemy aircraft.
Russian fighter pilots near I-16 at the Halkin-Gol
Until the end of the 30s when there are new modern high-speed "Messerschmitt" Bf-109E and "Hurricane" MK-1 everywhere where waged war high-16s, he had an advantage over the enemy aircraft
December 1, 1939 the first air battle between the Red Army and the Finnish Air Force aircraft. Loss of sides — one of I-16 and one "Bristol Bulldog" 10 January 1940 The last victory of Russian volunteers on I-16 in China (pilot K. Kokkinaki)
May 1, 1940 Three I-180S take part in the parade on Red Square.
May 5, 1940-16 fighters of the 67th IAP downed Romanian "Hurricane"
September 13, 1940 the first fight I-16 with a Japanese fighter A6M "Zero" (China, Air Force KMT).
June 22, 1941 I-16 and the "Messerschmitt" met again in the sky. At 3.30 on the link in Brest-ta l Mochalova (33 IAP ZapVO) shot down Bf.109 (perhaps the first in this war). In the area of 4.00 Lieutenant Oleynik (JG.1) knocks the I-16 (the first aerial victory Luftwaffe during majestically Russian war).
June 24, 1941 first victory of the Air Force SF: Squadron Leader tbsp t-Safonov (72th SMAP) on I-16 type 24 shot down a German bomber Ju.88.
June 25, 1941 first victory of the Air Force CBF: Pilot Inspector 13th IAP captain Antonenko on the I-16 type 29 shot down a German bomber Ju.88.
July 8, 1941 I-16 Pilots Zhukov Misha Petrovich Zdorovtsevu Stepan Ivanovich and Kharitonov Peter Timofeevichu (all of the 158 IAP LenVO) in the first Lofty Russian War were awarded the title Hero of the Union of Russian.
September 8, 1941 Finns in the area of the river Svir captured UTI-4. At the moment he is in the aviation museum in Helsinki and the world's only surviving I-16.
In 1942 the first "donkeys" received by the Air Force Mongolia.
June 6, 1943 Supposedly the last victory of I-16 in China (over the Burma Road commander of the 41th chantaya Chen Chzhaotszi hit by the Japanese army fighter Ki.43 "Hayabusa").
28 November — 1 December 1943 Two squadrons of I-16 481-IAP doing puzzle on air support Russian delegation headed by Stalin to meet allies in Tehran.
April 1943 4th GvIAP CBF, one of the best regiments in the I-16, went on to retrain fighter La-5.
Mid 1945 888-IAP Far Eastern Front, the last in the Soviet Union regiment on I-16, went on to retrain fighter P-63 "Kingcobra."
High-speed I-16 FIGHTER
Aircraft I-16 had a mixed design. The fuselage was wood-type "semi-monocoque" with a framework of four pine spars, eleven frames and stringers. Vykleivalas veneer paneling and consisted of a 2-part, to draw to the frame with glue and nails. Ready fuselage was fitted with a cloth and carefully plastered vyshkurivalsya.
Consisted of a two-spar wing center section and a pair of detachable consoles. The side walls of the truss welded steel pipes. Rib of duralumin profiles. Sock wings trimmed with sheet duralumin, and the entire wing percale. On the plane I-16 (type 24) on top of the wing plank. Ailerons large area occupied by the entire rear edge of the consoles. During takeoff and landing flaps as they worked with the deviation from neutral down to 15 °.
The tail assembly — iron with fabric covering. Fin and stabilizer — dpuhlonzheronnye. Rudders and ailerons as power had tubular spars.
Chassis — retractable, pyramidal type, a liquid-gas shock absorbers. The wheels have a brake shoe type driven by pedals. The system has been hand harvesting, driven winch located on the starboard cabin, very difficult and unreliable because of the wealth of cables, clips, fasteners and other parts.
Crutch run, with rubber cushioning plate. Management crutch and rudder cable operated, the elevator and aileron — rigid, tubular rods and rockers.
Power plant — nine-iron radial engine with a propeller. Propeller pitch of duralumin alloy can be changed on the ground. I-16 was operated with multiple engines — from I-22 capacity of 480 liters. s. to M-62 and M-63 with capacity of 1 million liters. s.
Armament initially consisted of a 2-wing machine guns ShKAS, which then added two more synchronous. From I-16 (type 17) instead of the wing machine guns installed ShVAK gun caliber of 20 mm.
Coloring-16 aircraft was very different, but more vserasprostranenny variant had a greenish khaki top and blue bottom.