In 1949, in Paris, published a book of Russian philosopher Seeds Lyudvigovich "Light in the Darkness." It shows the final position of the Russian philosophy cosmism as to what constitutes reform. What kind of trying to do better, or simply change the reality of the Russian reforms should be considered in the real sense of the word? In answering this question quite normal, cosmism philosophy, which is fundamentally not limited reform of the political or economic changes. It was about the disproportionately larger — about the life of the reforms, the reforms being. It is no coincidence: in fact the historical path of the Russian Federation is littered with shards of failed not been brought to the end of the political, economic, social, legal, judicial, military and other reforms.
Only since 1550 and only their large number more than half the 10-s. And they all were broken counterreforms or simply stalled, melted into stagnation. Here tongued detail: Tribunal jury for the first time appeared in our four and a half centuries back, and now it is introduced in the fourth time. Gave land to the peasants and newly collected. Enters and cancels the local government of the Russian Federation … History shows that country Reform has always been open, she lived in constant preparedness, and they constantly fail.
Why? This issue is constantly and regularly troubled Russian thinkers. Maybe because all the reform plans do not take into account the traditions and characteristics of the Russian Federation? Because even earlier S. Frank, in 1933, the philosopher-cosmist Pavel Florensky, he's about. Pavel Florensky, has developed an extraordinary program from national reforms. In fact, this is not just a program that a typical philosophical and political treatise. Father Paul wrote to his bullpen in the investigation of the NKVD under death threat, torture in prison and izymatelstvah for a few days and ended March 26, 1933 Maybe this is the last piece Florenskogo philosophical work. It is called "Expected polity in the future."
In this "alleged device" important subsequent elements:
1. The municipal system. 2. Government staff. 3. Education and training. 4. Religious organizations. 5. Agriculture. 6. Extraction industries. 7. Processing industry. 8. The financial system. 9. Trade. 10. Footage. 11. Research. 12. People's health. 13. Genesis. 14. Domestic policy (policy management). 15. Outside politics.
In addition, Florenskii ponders the "General Provisions", "Historical Background" and the question of 'transition to the problem in the ranks. "
"The device is a reasonable first municipal building depends upon a clear awareness of the main provisions, which must adapt and machine control," — writes the philosopher. Some of these provisions, in his view, does not set a "sacred cow" of democracy. For the task of the country is not about to usher in the formal equality of all people, is to put every citizen in the right conditions under which it will be able to show what is capable of. Because there is no need to involve people in politics: the political freedom of the masses in a country with a presentable board is deception and self-deception terrible distraction from useful activities and involving in politicking. The democratic principle of consular virtuous: it leads to the domination of random groups and the universal corruption, the press is wallowing in heresy proceedings is staged justice. The whole life of a civilized society is an internal contradiction. In addition, no government if it does not collapse lust, can not rely on the decisions of the majority, puts them in their adjustments and, as such, does not recognize democracy, but uses it for cover. What the government should be responsive, it's the voice of professionals and scientists. Listening to all those who deserve it, the government still needs to do on my own and take a municipal responsibility.
The President should get immense information and open a discussion with professionals difficulties until the time until you get the ultimate clarity, but decides for himself and his decision is also responsible himself. "This is it povinet if the material given to him, was not a total or bad quality: his business to choose their advisers." In general, according to Florensky, the role of favorite country is unique and identifying. "No parliament, the Constituent Assembly … will not be able to bring the world's population of puffins and marshes, as there is not a case of finding out what is already there, but of insight into what else how would not. Required person in possession of intuition future culture, the face of prophetic warehouse. This person, based on your own intuition, albeit vague, should strike while the society. " He does not need to be a genius nor clever, nor morally tower up over all. What he needs is a great will, "the will, which spontaneously, may not even be aware of all that she does, seeks to target, yet not marked in the history of … The future structure of our country awaits those who, possessing intuition and will not be afraid to openly break the shackles with the consulate, partisanship, voting rights and the rest, and devoted himself to his entailing goal … In building the new system, forced to open a new period of history and its proper latest culture, there is one law — the force of genius, the power to create this system. The right one is just not human origin and therefore deserves the name of the divine. And like any similar was called the creator of culture — the dictator, ruler, king or somehow differently, we will consider it a real autocrat and obey not out of fear but because of reverent mind that this is a magic and living phenomenon creative power of humanity . "
The municipal system, according to Florensky, should be based on the principles of democracy are not (and it is clear from the foregoing), and dialectics. Municipal policy should be strongly divided on certain manifestations of individual aspects and areas of society. In all, there should be a single, centralized required limit on the contrary, in all that, without affecting the integrity of the country, can and should be varied, that its diversity enriches government and making parts of it suitable and stimulating each other, decentralization is necessary, but again, the principle of unity of command, and not on the
democratic principle. With the full unification of the major political aspirations every region of the country should create its own values, dates all over the state, and neutralize these abilities — is to deprive the government majestic sense of his existence. Look for each of the peoples of their function in the majestic collaboration — to his gratification at the same time more accurate to use local features, specifically the climate, the nature of land, mineral resources, ethnic moments — not an easy task, but why there is still the rulers, how not to deal with serious problems? ..
Of all the natural resources of the country's more valuable asset — its staff, according to Florensky, so it is possible that the government of the future will not be proud of safes with gold supplies, and lists the names of their own employees. Management personnel — both national and personal — have, to convince the philosopher, formed from the top down rather than bottom-up, in other words, through the mission of officers (in the broadest and most painstaking examination of candidates and in the control of special inspectors), and not their elections. Non-compliance will be destined to a large extent prevented by the small coupling between the salary and position: wages should be linked to a particular person, not the position, so that the position itself for itself will not be attractive to unsuitable persons, and wage increases must be justified experience and social rewards.
"The state, the future begins culture, looking forward, not back, and their calculation is based on the future, on the children" — these words opens Florenskii section on parenting and education. Under its proposals, the kids have as much as possible to stay longer the children, and to do this they need to be insulated from political anxieties of life squabbles. First place in the school should be education, not learning. Parenting habits of accuracy, the accuracy to executive, mutual respect, respect for the statements and emotions comrades, courtesy habits do not talk about what you do not know criticality in relation to discover, sexual probity, loyalty to the state and his own duty, enthusiasm to the point, observation, to a certain taste, love of nature, affection for his own family, to predation disgust towards people, animals, nature, in the end, physical development — these are the elements that the introduction of the school to attend to first.
The initial and secondary schools should be run by local organizations and the ability to be decentralized. The unity of the school is rejected, on the contrary, may be an abundance of types of programs and teaching methods, subject to the minimum necessary municipal requirements. Secondary education is better to locate in small towns in the estates, in the midst of nature. Higher should be spread across the country. It will raise the general cultural level, will create a more healthy way of life, link universities with local criteria with nature, improve educational skills. In addition, the place of professors and teachers in the measured, healthy, seems to be specially created for the art space — is to provide them with the ability of the growth of scientific and fruiting.
The school is designed to prepare physically and spiritually healthy people — without it there is no hope for the best possible future. Manifestation of their inner life is among the rest and religious feeling. Florensky, of course, agree that religion should be separated from the country — is in her best interest and in the interest of the country, which not only tolerates different religious organizations, but assists them and the right to expect support for themselves from their side. The government still allows freedom of religious and anti-religious propaganda, if neither the one nor the other affected areas of responsibility, and prevents that or the other in an unpleasant way. Government judge acts in the relations of religion and belief, the formal rights do not have any advantage to one another, in this case, if one party admits wrongdoing.
Enflame the modern society the question of studying the basics of Orthodoxy in schools theologian Florenskii decides how man of the world. "Religious education — he writes — is permitted in public policy only on reaching the age of majority, and in the home — for a small family or friendship groups — the sole discretion of the parents." For "when imposing religion — turning away from her … But when religion is gone, then start to grieve."
The economic direction of the country's alleged Florenskii thinks like municipal capitalism. It refers to such financial organization of society in which the means of production belong specifically to the state. In agriculture, the main production unit must be due to his own farm more profitable, but with it being allowed cooperatives, private enterprises and other economic organizations. Colonization, special or rare cultural features of the landscape can lead to farms in special forms.
Speaking of the mining industry, Florenskii introduces the idea of the state of the future as "the capacity for self-enclosed, independent of external ratings and prices of the world market." With modern liberal point of view, as it is accepted in the West, preaching self-reliance, isolationism sounds really amazing how, in general, and the negation of democracy presentable. But the philosopher, to the same philosopher cosmist, own, very different from that of today's look at things. Paul O. generally had a reputation as a conservative, priklnnogo in relation to any authority, including the communist than it repeatedly reproached (for example, his unchanging opponent, very highly popular in the West today philosopher Nikolai Berdyaev). But the point is, apparently, not in centuries, "the yoke and obedience", which found its expression in the outlook of Florensky. Philosopher adhered to the principle of "decision given", recognizing the reality of the historical reality from which everyone should proceed with this policy. Because Florensky wrote that "the order made by the Russian government, should be to deepen and strengthen, but not dissolved in the transition to building a newcomer. "
So in the "Note" is not a case of perfect, but a very real model in the criteria of the historical reality. A perfect model for Florenskogo — a medieval type of hierarchical power and the country as a monarchy, where there could be no democracy and no equality between people. On the contrary, the medieval worldview was based on the idea that each person has a different purpose, its own duty to the Creator, and therefore — their place in life.
Here and at Florenskogo municipal policy must ensure the future of the country is not political equality, and the division of spheres of activity and specialization. Hierarchical structure, eliminating the universal equality, enables multi samovyyavleniya in different areas — government, cultural, scientific, economic. Such a government does not need any games. "The opposition parties inhibit the activity of the country, the same party, want a particularly deliberate devotion, not only superfluous, and decompose the municipal system, replacing the whole government, narrowing its scope, and ultimately become janissaries playing state power. Reasonable state power is not required Praetorians, in the form of devotion to wanting to give directives. "
Of course, that there was such a "state Florenskogo" in the modern world (even in the world of modern philosophy 70 years ago), it would look perfect snow-white sheep with all its consequences. Because Florenskii and want self-enclosed states of this country, which will provide him the independence of the external market, in other words, the import of raw materials, products, food, and the mining industry pays attention. To it he attributes wood business, mining, product
ion of goods sea. The development of these industries should come by in-depth research and individualization, rather than copying foreign experience, in other words, to convince the philosopher should not move in the direction of the Western type, even overtaking, and for self-direction, which follows from the nature of the country. We have a lot of things that are not abroad, and there is much that is out there. Keenly looking closely to the foreign experience, we have to solve the puzzles, and — within their means.
Florensky, for sure, and never dreamed that 70 years later our homeland would teeter on the brink of transformation into a raw material appendage of the West, that the raw materials will be the main source of inflow of currency. He believed that as a result of foreign policy, directed towards self-isolation from the world market and non-interference in the political life other states, the demand for currency is a small, well run — tend to zero. With all of this industry will develop rapidly due to decentralization with the consequent konkurentnstyu as between SOEs and between them and other companies. Especially need to bother about the development of small companies that can go in front of huge factories, — scientific and experimental, inventive, where there are technical initiative and creativity. Local industry will get personal on their material that hard and expensive to get to the huge municipal enterprises.
The embodiment of technical thought, recognizes Florensky, it is very difficult, even when the idea is fully ripe, and often pass long years, before they manage to make a corresponding creation. Because you need to create as many special "embodying" companies (for the moment they are called innovative, venture capital, small science, etc.), and they must not extend into the area of state responsibility, to be cut into municipal plans: in this case " the development of their rapidly cease, "for" progress in technology is always based on the free play of the few initiatives and survival guides combinations. "
And because today's economy entirely depends on the technology (if Florenskii said similar about contemporary economy, which still read about today?), And the latter based research, the self-enclosed state, paving the way for a new modern culture and natural social and historical criteria, science has critical importance. Because of its very principled an effective organization. Building it, we must remember that "creativity is intricate and unexpected ways to advance that everyone is building the mind has its own methods and approaches." A recognition of the individualization of creativity leads to the conclusion that it is not necessary to collect the creators of some huge clusters that research institutions do not have to be huge, centralized, gathered in one place. This malicious not only to science, and of the entire country, as obeskulturivaet it and upsets the balance between center and periphery.
Means you have to walk through the creation of numerous, comparable small, very specialized and individualized tasks for scientific personnel at research establishments scattered across the country that are embedded in the most remote corners, and is closely linked with their local criteria to guide the implementation of local skills, interest some , the actual work for the good of the country. It seriously will help the overall decentralization of cultural and economic life, which is to be held by the state in all areas. In each area, so Makarov, will be its Sp in terms of issues which are of extraordinary importance for the region, with the experts at narrow, the best in the country, maybe the best in the world. Taking a specific role in the affairs of the edge, though only scientific knowing them specifically, these spices will be able to become really competent professionals, activities and tips that posodeystvuyut intensification of agriculture and culture.
It is significant that puts Florenskii section about the life ahead of the sections on the inside and outside politics. Life — an essential point of human life, and the government should realize that taking care of everyday life comes to the number of necessary management tasks. Health of the people, hard work, loyalty to the country, creativity — "all that much is dependent on the presence of a juicy and a nice, healthy life … Without life there is no taste of life … Life is rooted in the history of … Completeness of public life — in the richness and diversity of manifestations of life, the richness and abundance of the respective local criterion. Leveling life will inevitably lead to the destruction of a zest for life, joy of life, and therefore to slave labor and to all kinds of impoverishment. Strong cohesion of the country is not based on a monotonous unification of all its parts, and their mutual relationship, due to the deepest parts of the consciousness of mutual necessity, usefulness of each of them on their own place … Life is blooming life of each part of the state. "
The main thing in the internal politics of the country for Florenskogo — fundamentally ban all political parties and organizations of political nature. Hence the task of school and public political education: the generation of an automatic habit "to draw a sharp boundary line between politics and nepolitikoy." On the other hand, it is necessary that political administration also did not go over the demarcation line and did not interfere in matters of common culture, did not make the policy is that it is not. The stability of the country in almost everything depends on the balance of both principles — internal policy and a common culture, because the government should look at their balance.
In the section on foreign policy Florenskii vorachivaetsya to shocking at first glance the idea of self-sufficiency of the country, strong inside, a powerful but friendly, even indifferent to the outside world, closed within itself the whole, does not need the outside world and ability to not interfering with it living on own full, rich life. With all of this whole financial policy of this country should be built in such a Makarov, so it could be satisfied by internal resources and not to suffer from isolation would like it may be a long time wore on, in the main because of the decaying culture of the capitalist world is very "poisonous", and contacts with it would be nice to limit the scientific and technical issues …
To go to that "perfectly realistic" model, in other words, implementation of the "Programme Florenskogo" requires certain actions and conditions. First, on a physical level and burnout people need a rest, because there is lethargy throughout the country, tense and difficult lived almost two years, the 10-ka (this conclusion, made in 1933, all valid for 2012). The majority of the population, if not many, Florensky wrote all those years had to spend a lot of actual energy — even more than is the case in general. Role in politics, once so longed for for many, was not to be tempting. Over time, the forces of accumulated waste should be followed during their accumulation, "and the quiet power of creation is built on the foundation." This respite is likely only in this case, if the country is to lead an outstanding favorite, and lead the way to provide every kind of political, cultural and economic work, for which it is intended …