History of Creation
The history of the creation of the newest missile defense system, which received a resounding title of "Iron Dome" began in 2007, when the Israeli defense ministry has chosen this version of the system from the 14 others who participated in the competition. In December 2007, Israel signed a contract with the company Rafael to refine and following the creation of the system. Amount of the deal amounted to NIS 815 million (about 230 million dollars). According to initial plans, the system had to be rolled out first in 2011 already, but then again, these terms are not moved.
By 2011, the development of its own missile defense system Israel izderzhal for about 800 million dollars. This amount includes the cost of a system design, the ready prototypes and training professionals. In May last year, the Ministry of Defense announced that it will provide Israel 205 million dollars to the deployment of the system. Earlier, Israel claimed that for large-scale deployment has insufficient funds. If we talk about the funding of defense programs in Israel, that most of them directly funded by the United States. The yearly aid from overseas ally reaches 3 billion. bucks.
Officially, the development of a missile defense system came to an end in the summer of 2010, the same year it passed the finishing tests. During the test, under the Air Force, of Rafael and management for the development of tools and technologies, complex "Iron Dome" has shown himself perfectly, without missing a single rocket. Complex work inspected by rockets from the MLRS "Grad", "Katyusha" rockets and Qassam, used by Hamas.
On the terms of reference drawn up complex is capable of intercepting targets at a distance of 4 to 70 km. For information about the launch of the rocket system receives from the standard of early warning radar station and after its capture sends to intercept the missile interceptors Tamir. The latter should kill an enemy missile at the highest point of its line of motion. This method of capturing elected to the case sent rocket will carry biological or chemical warhead.
From the moment of detection of the target and launch missiles to intercept the least seconds to go. According to the developers of the complex disk imaging of Rafael interceptor missile has a maximum speed in a couple of times greater than the rate of Palestinian rockets Qassam (300 m / s). one battery of "Iron Dome" is able to cover the area of 150 square meters. km. missiles launched from within a radius of 15 km. The protected area will increase if the enemy missiles will be fired from a greater distance.
The structure of the complex battery comes multipurpose radar EL/M-2084 developed by the Israeli company Elta Systems, Fire Control Centre and 3 launchers, each of which is armed with 20 interceptor missiles Tamir. Tamir missile has a length of 3 meters, width of 16 cm, weight 90 kg and is equipped with non-contact warhead.
The complex is the "Iron Dome" is able to detect a possible point of falling vypushennyh missiles and if she does not have a residential area, the launch of an interceptor missile is not carried out. This feature is brought to life by economic judgments, the price of one missile Tamir in 40-200 times the price of Qassam rockets and "Grad".
Leapfrog with terms
Gunmen fire on Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip area is, in fact, common. According to Israeli intelligence in 2009 by country of Israel was vypushena 571 rockets and mortar shells, in 2010 — 99, in January of this year — 12. With all this great rebel activity was recorded in 2006, when only rockets at Israeli areas was launched — 1030. In the development of such criteria "Iron Dome" came at a rapid pace.
According to the plans of the first battery was to embark on a tour of duty at the end of 2009, then the deadline was shifted to the end of 2010, and later transferred out of the month for the month. Country's Defense Ministry explained the shift timing of a more painstaking preparation of soldiers who had to master the newest system. Constant postponement of the entry into operation of the complex has generated a lot of rumors. Some of them had read that this system is designed to protect military installations, not peaceful cities. The reason for its occurrence has served a number of occasions. The first of them was the emergence of the media reports that the dome was not so and steel. Frame for aiming and launching missile takes 15 seconds, and more than 1, as stated previously. With all of this most of the Israeli settlements, which are placed in a particular shelling close to the border and vypushennye on them achieve their missiles faster than 15 seconds. The official authorities of this rumor is not confirmed or denied.
At the end of December 2010, the Israeli newspaper "Haaretz" has written an article that there are some indications that the "Iron Dome" will be used to cover only military bases. According to the newspaper the price of one missile Tamir is about 14.2 thousand dollars, while creating the most conventional missiles "Grad" is estimated at $ 1,000, well, makeshift Qassam generally estimated at 200. So Makar, the paper concludes that in the case of frequent attacks on Israel, the system will be economically unprofitable, even in this case would not intercept rockets falling outside built-Fri According to the plans of the Ministry of National Defense to cover the northern and southern Israel planned to have 20 batteries of the "Iron Dome", for which the equipment in full combat readiness of interceptors would be required in 1200.
According to military, which were announced in November 2010, on the creation and deployment of a designated number of batteries will be nearly 1 billion. shekels (284 million U.S. dollars). A huge part of this sum, Israel must get from their own overseas partner. Meanwhile, rumors of a reassignment of the "Iron Dome" does not take into account one important detail. The introduction of the complex may be profitable in this case will reduce payments to the victims of aggression, which operate in the country since 1970 and the payment of compensation for damage to real property. Payments for these items from time to time up to several million shekels.
Aces up its sleeve
The first battery of the new complex missile defense Israel launched on March 27 near the town of Be'er Sheva, located near the Palestinian Authority. In total, the Israeli Air Force ordered until 7 batteries of the complex, to be deployed by 2013. Two batteries military has already received, it is expected that the sec
ond missile battery will be deployed state near the town of Ashdod, located on the Mediterranean coast near the Gaza Strip. Selecting a location for the installation of the battery seems a bit weird, because most of the rockets fired from sector boundaries, fails to fly to here, the radius of the most frequently used Qassam rockets is only about 10 km. Until Ashoda can fly only Fajr-3 rockets and Fajr-5 having a radius of 80 km in the act.
Meanwhile, the Israeli authorities, together with the deployment of the system point out that for another couple of years, the "Iron Dome" absolutely will not be able to cover the area of the country. According to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, the system is still only at the experimental stage and unable vsepolnotsenno protect the country from missile attacks. When this is completed the experimental stage it is not clear. It is clear only that the system "Iron Dome" will be included in a multi-layered missile defense system being developed by Israel. In the same system should enter protivoballisticheskie missiles Strela-2 and Strela-3 also antimissile systems "Sling of David."
First flight tests of the complex Strela-3 is scheduled for this summer. At the current time are full bench tests of the missile. According to estimates of the Israeli Arrow-3 developer Israel Aerospace Industries, the third version of their anti-missiles would be the most perfect in the world. Technical properties of missiles kept secret, but it is clear that it will defeat the purpose of the kinetic warhead. Previous versions of missiles "Arrow" and "Strela-2" using non-contact warhead.
"Strela-3" is designed to intercept ballistic missiles, Iranian missile similar Shihab, Syrian missiles "Scud" or Lebanese Fatah-110 with the effective range of 400 to 2000 km. In turn, "David's Sling" is also called "Magic Wand", will be used to intercept missiles with a range of 300 km in the act. About this development as there is virtually no disk imaging, it is clear only that this missile will get dual homing having electro-optical and radar detector.
When exactly multilayered missile defense system Israel will be able to earn the full force hard to say. But at the moment some of its components is ready to put the country on exports. So India discusses the possibility of acquiring protivoballisticheskih missiles "Strela-2" and complexes "Iron dome. "