Ivan Betskoy — leader of the Russian Enlightenment

Ivan Betskoy — a prominent figure in the Russian Enlightenment. On his initiative was created first in Russia women's school — Smolny Institute generous girls, as the Foundling Hospital for orphans and foundlings kids. He was the personal secretary of Catherine II in 1762 — 1779 years and the president of the Imperial Academy of Arts.

Ivan Betskoy born February 3, 1704 in Stockholm. His father — Prince Ivan Yu Troubetzkoy, caught in the Northern War, was captured by the Swedes. Clear information about the mother is not. Under one version — this is Baroness Wrede, on the other — the Countess Shparr, other versions say that his mother was generally customary title. Here's what he wrote about it, Prince Mikhail Mikhailovich Shcherbatov:

Prince Ivan Yu Troubetzkoy, having been captured by the Swedes, had a mistress, they say, a single generous lady in Stockholm, who made sure that he was a widower and had a son by her, who was named Betsky, and this under Peter Lofty was honored generous and has already been in the officer ranks.

In 1718, Ivan Troubetzkoy and Autonomous Golovin were exchanged for captive who was in the Russian Swedish Field Marshal Renshilda. On his return from captivity Ivan Jurevicha his family took malehankih Vanya as his own. After several decades of Ivan Yu, who had no legitimate male heirs in the band, will offer to change the name and the offspring become Trubetzkoy. But he will be denied. Mr. Smith replied that "became known under the name Betsky and this is the naming and die."

Betskoy was sent to study in Copenhagen, a local military school, and then briefly served in the Danish cavalry regiment during the exercise was thrown by horse and very dented, it seems, and caused him to turn away from military service. He traveled to Europe for a long time, and 1722-1728 years were spent "for science" in Paris, where, together with the fact was the secretary at the Russian and after John was presented the Duchess Elizabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst (mother of Catherine II). There is a version that specifically Betskoy and is a real father of Catherine II.

In 1729 he arrived in Russia, served in the College of Foreign Affairs, the state adjutant at once with his father.

With the accession of Anna Ivanovna Prince Troubetzkoy, coupled with A.Kantemirom, Yaguzhinskaya and others, was in the middle of the main supporters of the autocracy and he gave the famous Empress petition, which was signed and the young Betskoy. On April 8, 1730 Betskoy Trubetzkoy been identified in the title of the Adjutant General, but that position was approved in the Military Collegium was only 5 September 1733 and, moreover, to the rank of Maori, and through year was promoted to lieutenant colonel. Continuing to serve with his father, Betskoy ridden in 1739 with his daughter Anastasia (which in 1738 entered the second marriage with the Prince Ludwig of Hesse-Homburg) abroad and visited various places in Germany, and Dresden, Leipzig, Berlin, winter of 1740 and returned again in Russia.

In the 1741 coup Betskoy personally did not take a proactive role, but only served to Chetardy with different orders of Empress Elizabeth immediately after its entry into the palace. His sister Anastasia was able to capture the special arrangement of the Empress Elizabeth, being with her in a palace coup in 1741, for which he was granted November 25, 1741, State lady. Thanks to her, he became close to the court of Elizabeth.

February 18, 1742 Betskoy, being the rank of lieutenant colonel, Chamberlain was granted to the heir to the throne of Peter Fyodorovich. In this post Betskoy often arose in the Court and not once seen with the princess of Anhalt-Zerbst, Joanna Elizabeth, who arrived in 1744 in Moscow with his daughter, who soon married to Peter Fedorovich. During this time period, according to Catherine II, "her mother is very closely tied to the spouses of Hesse-Homburg, and more — to the chamberlain Betsky. This is not like the Countess Rumjantsevoj, Marshal Brumaire and generally everything."

In addition, the state's chamberlain small courtyard, along with Peter Sumarokov, Lilienfeld, Dicker, Peter Deviera, Betskoy, who spoke excellent French and German languages, and already having seen a lot on his own lifetime abroad, had the opportunity as a fascinating conversationalist direct the attention of the heir to the throne and his wife, preferably before the other person a princely court, consisting mostly of Germans. In 1747 Betskoy shared the fate of the latter and, at the insistence of Chancellor Bestuzhev-Rumin, was removed together with other approximate stately prince, because they are influenced by His Highness in the spirit, not the essentially political types Chancellor.

Betskoy, but was chamberlain, but very rarely arose in the Court, and even made a trip abroad again in 1756, along with Prince Dimitri Mikhailovich Golitsyn, married his niece, Katya Cantemir (daughter Anastasia Ivanovna Hesse-Homburg from the first her marriage). During this extended stay abroad Betskoy visited Germany, Holland, France and Italy, examined the different institutions and charitable institutions. Met in Paris with many painters, scientists, and writers (as, for example, with Grimm, Diderot, etc.), also with Ms. Geoffrin and visited her salon, which gathered leading figures in French literature and the arts. Perhaps, but then in Paris Betskoy acquainted with the teachings and the gaze of both encyclopedic and Rousseau and his followers. This acquaintance in almost all affected in different projects Betsky, presented to them and then to Catherine II.

Municipal activities, glorified it, began with the arrival of Catherine II to power. Decree of 3 March 1763 he was charged with governance, and in 1764 he was appointed president of the Academy of Fine Arts, where he organized an educational school. September 1, 1763 was issued a manifesto on the establishment of the capital Orphanage on plans drawn up, according to one source, by Betsky, according to others — Dr. Metropolitan Institute AA Barsov, on the instructions of Betsky. By thinking Betsky, opened in St. Petersburg "educational society generous virgins" (later the Smolny Institute), entrusted to his care and management of the main.

Betskoy dreamed of a brand new nobility — the educated and hard-working. He thought not only about the nobility. He offered to bring in Russia, "the third rank of the people", the right to trade, industry and crafts. In other words, the Russian bourgeoisie, enlightened, that would be just as hard-working as the West, but with all this would have been brought up not by the love of money, and love for people. If you dream, it was a good foundation to build a capitalist society "with a human face". Moreover, Betskoy thought of "third rank" should go not only merchants and manufacturers, and the people who live in mental work, in other words, the intelligentsia. Ideas ahead of time Betsky almost 100 years: the bourgeoisie, the intelligentsia in Russia XVIII century incipient.

Betskoy advocated teaching "easy and natural." He wrote that "teaching kids to lead to, as a sweet, topped with a flower box, and thorns in the hold are just irritating nature, Especially at first, but these things are only from nerazumeniya educator." Betskoy was sure that teachers should take into account the age and psychology students do not make a lot of them learn by heart, overloading memory. In his view, teachers should try to intrigue the kids, "using their natural children's curiosity." Here Betskoy had offered great promise for a pleasant procedure: children as much as possible to show different things, so they studied the "things, not words." Because it is recommended to keep in the classroom globes, stuffed animals, models and collections of ston
es, often also arrange sightseeing trips with the children. For those who are older, you need to follow the work of artisans. By choosing craft for themselves to their liking, they will first play in it, but specifically in the game will learn database work. Naturally, Betskoy was against corporal punishment, believing that they develop and vindictiveness and hypocrisy. Instead they put it, "conviction", which for the moral man stronger whip.

According to the views of Ivan Ivanovich, training new people should be held away from the society and its laws and morals. Specifically on such principles were organized Smolny Institute and the Foundling Hospital in Moscow.

Since its inception Orphanage fundamental importance was attached to honey nuances of the institution. According to the Master Plan, "The chiefs and ministers Orphanage" in the foster home provided for staff medical staff consisting of doctors, healers and midwives. So Makar, the Imperial Capital educational home can truly be considered the cradle of Russian pediatrics.

Foundling Hospital run by the board of trustees and funded by personal donations (including the name of the majestic monarchs and princes) and taxes — a quarter of the collection with the public spectacle and a special tax on branding cards. All playing cards are sold in Russia, were taxed at 5 cents a pack and 10 Russian production — from overseas, bringing 21 a thousand rubles in 1796 and 140 thousand in 1803. From 1819 to 1917 the Foundling Hospital had a monopoly on the creation of maps, which only made it belonged to Alexander Manufactory in St. Petersburg.

In 1772 The Board of Trustees also managed by banking institutions — the Loan, custodial, and the widow of the treasury, in the XIX century became the main source of income. In the same year, at the expense of P.A.Demidova opened Demidov School of Commerce and the studio theater impresario Maddox. Kids up to 11 years old learn the basics of writing and crafts in the walls of the institution, and in 1774 were given to the training of a stranger factories and workshops. Gifted students are sent for further studies at Moscow State University and the Academy of Arts, and 180 people were sent to study in Europe. Most of the graduates did not have the same benefits of such — they were given clothes, one ruble funds and the passport of a free man, allowing merchants to join and open their own businesses.

In 1770, again at the initiative of Ivan Betsky on the model of the Metropolitan Orphanage was created Petersburg Foundling Hospital.

Smolny Institute, thought Catherine II had to become a model institution, the likes of which was not then in Europe. By statute, the kids had to come to a place no more than six years of age and stay there for twelve years, and the receipt was taken from the parents that they will not pursue them back for any reason before the expiration of that period. The Empress had pinned hopes of removing the kids on a long period of uninformed media and returning there already developed and ennobled lady, help mitigate the characters and make a "new breed of people." Senate was instructed to print and distribute this institution being tired all the provinces, the provinces and cities, "to any of the nobles could, if they so wish, to charge their own daughters in children's education established these things." The decree foresaw education generous two hundred girls in a new Novodevichy Convent.

In 1765, at the Institute, initially established as a closed privileged school for the daughters of noble families, revealed department "for middle-class girls" (nedvoryanskyh classes, not counting the serfs). Building for Meschanski school was built by architect Yuri Felten.

In the first class vospitannitsam taught Russian and foreign languages, mathematics, and also, of course, a variety of handicrafts. In the 2nd administered geography and history. In the 3rd — literature, architecture, heraldry, music, and dancing. Classes last had to make the pupils of the Institute pleasant members of society. Since that time Smolyanka themselves had to sew dresses for herself. 4th grade absolutely devoted to practical exercises. Older pupils take turns doing with the younger to learn how to bring up children. They are also accustomed to maintain order and domestic savings. They were taught to negotiate with suppliers, create expense calculation, pay the bills and determine the cost of products.

Ivan Betskoy - leader of Russian Enlightenment

I.I.Betskogo portrait by Alexander Roslin (1776-77 g)

31 year — From 1763 to 1794 Betskoy was president of the Academy of Fine Arts.Academy contained in the treasury funds and connects the inside is actually academy and art school. Performance management director who kept a large academic press. Director elected from among the directors every four months, but less than 3 times in a row, his responsibilities went supervision of the general order of the Academy of Arts, education and training. The school accepted boys of all classes of five or six years (this age Betskoy considered likely to begin to educate people worthy of the Fatherland), and for 9 years they have been taught general subjects, and copying prints and drawings. More capable of translating into special classes and within 6 years of their trained architects, painters, engravers and architects.

June 27, 1769 Betskoy requested authorization Empress contain at its expense, since 1770, with 10 boys, taking them every three years. By 1785, there were already 60 people reared on account Betsky at the Academy of Fine Arts. With subsequent to 1786 the size of the configuration percent PlatyMO bank Betskoy not found more likely to continue this work and informed about the forthcoming council earlier in 1788, a new reception pupils.

Artistic subjects taught academics. The Academy of Arts were banned corporal punishment. In his own letter to the Academy's Board of Trustees (1784) Betskoy wrote: "… the man, saying that like a man should not allow to do with him like an animal." Sam Betskoy loved theater and tried to pass on this love to his pupils. At the Academy of Fine Arts was opened theater, in which students played (they are produced and scenery for plays). Often held balls, illuminations, paintings alive. Music education students include learning to play the harpsichord, violin, cello, musical-theoretical disciplines and singing. Were formed Student Orchestra and Choir students of the school.
Betskoy bequeathed to the Academy two cabinets with engraved Antique, very old and rare images of different casts of historical figures, made mostly by French painters. This collection was assembled by him during his foreign travels.

In 1765 he was appointed chief of the land gentry housing for which was fatigued on a new basis. According to the approved in the same 1765 "pt for change" Cadet Corps (in the set are positively directed to "all corporal punishment of cadets now impeach"), Betsky was drawn up a new charter of approved Empress of September 11, 1766 There are also repeated start, findability and other statutes, drawn up Betsky: taken into the body of nobles kids only, not older than 6 years, with the ancestors gave a subscription that give kids voluntarily, more like fifteen years, the continuation of which will not even take kids on vacation. The case was closed institution, had 5 ages (or classes) in each age remained three years. Entering the 4th age, Cadet had the right to elect a civilian service and in accordance with this kind of studied other sciences, other cadets who have
not learned. Instructed to bother about the physical and moral development of the cadet, treat them gently, never peel or epee fuhtelem, to try to prevent and avert mistakes and misdeeds, etc. Graduates received a full course of military service, the best were awarded medals, and more worthy had the right to , with the consent of the parents, to travel abroad for three years at the expense of the body. All charters drawn up Betsky, achieved particularly good-quality teachers and educators, in what at the time felt a big drawback, because had to resort to the assistance of foreigners. The desire to remove foreign influence prompted Betsky in 1772 to present a special report to the Empress, in which proposed to arrange for land for housing special education department bourgeois kids, of which over time could be formed deserving teachers and educators for the housing. The Empress approved the project on October 27. In 1773 he was appointed director of the Corps Lieutenant-General purple and Betskoy remained the only member of the council, before it was abolished in 1785

In 1768 Catherine II Betsky made to the office of the real Enigma adviser. In 1773, the plan Betsky and the means of Procopius Demidov, was established Educational commercial school for kids merchant.

Betsky entrusting the management of all academic and educational institutions, Catherine gave him bolshennymi resources, a significant proportion of which he devoted to the works of philanthropy, and in particular on the development of educational institutions. According to the standard of the capital Betskoy opened Foundling Hospital in St. Petersburg, and when it organized the widow and the trust of the treasury, which formed in the base made them a generous donation.

Ivan Betskoy - leader of Russian Enlightenment

Portrait II Betsky by Alexander Roslin (1777)

In 1773, the Senate held the meeting in a festive embossed Betsky in his honor, according to the High will, for the establishment of scholarships for their money in 1772, a huge gold medal with the inscription: "For the love of country. From the Senate November 20, 1772. " As director of the Office of the buildings Betskoy contributed much to the decoration of St. Petersburg State-owned buildings and structures, the largest monuments of this side of his work remained a monument to Peter Lofty, granite embankment of the Neva River and canals and the lattice of the Summer Garden.

By the end of his life Betsky Catherine lost interest in him, stripped him of the title of its own reader. From her expression, "Betskoy prisvoyaet for himself the glory of gosudarskie "can be thought that the reason for the cooling rooted in the conviction of the Empress that Betskoy only for himself attributes the merit of educational reform, meanwhile, as Catherine and she claimed to be a significant role in the case.

Betskoy was unmarried, but had a number of "students", including Anastasia Sokolova, which he bequeathed 80,000 silver rubles and 40,000 in notes, and two stone houses on the Palace Embankment. He was the curator of the Smolny Institute, and as an old man, took to the house to discover 17-year-old living graduate Glafira Alymova that is very jealous. When a woman is married and could not stand the constant monitoring Betsky, fled with her husband to Moscow, Betsky has struck blow, he almost died and went to most of their own affairs.

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