The huge bronze clock that belonged to the mysterious healer Ivan the Terrible, with all the zodiac signs came to life in one of the vernal days. A pair of unusual creatures clapped and spun in a mechanical dance music because it came into the world the greatest of masters and inventors — Ivan Kulibin. Beautiful and romantic history birth of the famous self-taught was told Yuri Klarovym. She is so clearly outlines the importance of Nizhny Novgorod for the simple-minded Russian mechanics that ignoring the problem in the development of true article would be incorrect.
April 21, 1735 in the family of the little boy was born merchant Believer. Ivan Petrovich ancestors lived in a village in the Nizhny Novgorod refurbish the county. The proximity of the Volga made Kulibina specific witness hard work boatmen, because one of the most noticeable of his inventions was sent to his relief. But this will be discussed a bit later. With youth boy began to show interest in the mechanics, but because of their own rootless origin education Kulibin difficult to reach. Still, the kid took to teach local artisans. Soon he mastered the bench and lathe work, I realized the base mechanics, also began to understand the complexities of the movement. Perseverance and hard work have made him famous watchmaker. By 1764, Ivan Petrovich began to create their first unique creations.
Perhaps, the first outstanding work Kulibina was a clock in the shape of a duck egg. They had a very sophisticated device, as had a number of exciting and unusual features. At certain times of the mechanism cover swung open, and put forward to the surface of the gold pieces staged a true representation. Inside the egg was placed musical device that could play several different tunes at once. These watches inventor donated to Catherine II at the time of festive meeting. There is a legend that shortly before his meeting with the Empress Ivan Petrovich had a weird dream with the role of 3-eagles. By coincidence of events presented his Empress specifically Count Orlov. To judge the veracity of the stories we will not, because life is always accompanied by recognizable individuals in different amusing inventions, with some of them completely can be based on real events. Later Kulibin designed the watch, ring, planetary small device with a clockwork mechanism on the arrow as zamudrennye clock tower.
An enormous role in the life of Kulibina played his particular Kostromin manager, who promised to make the Empress amazing devices and mechanisms. Inconsistent and addictive nature of Ivan Petrovich almost wiped out all the efforts of his boss and friend. The fact is that, despite the approaching visit of the Empress, which was guaranteed by the demonstration finished, "egg" hours Kulibin suddenly decided to construct a microscope and an electronic machine. How Kostromin not indignant and did not seek to return to the wizard to work on clockwork, the result was not followed. Catherine II saw an unusual testicle is not capable of doing all of the claimed features masters. But presvyaschennaya ruler still believe in the talent of self-taught and is allowed to modify the mechanism. Soon she was not only an unusual hour egg, and an electronic machine with a microscope.
Already in his youth mechanic-autodidact can offer customers the most comfortably sudden and seemed untold inventions. Failures Kulibina was complete lack of entrepreneurial spirit. He did not know how to use their designs and new ideas to extract at least some income. The genius of this "peasant Lapotnikov", "self-taught" and "ignoramus" is better than the other confirms the invention of the self-propelled barge that could move against the current. Mind-boggling design ability for their own use only the power of the movement of water, for a long time recognized scientists led to confusion. The barge is very reminiscent of the famous "Perpetum Mobile", but despite all the prejudices she was. Naturally, Ivan Petrovich put into the base of the motor barge only actual physical laws, but the idea was so brilliant that understand it without further investigation proved unfeasible. If Kulibin provided only designs and drawings of such a mechanism, it would just laugh, but the inventor has shown work at the barge bolshennom gathering of people. Machine as if bewitched went against the current! It was certainly a breakthrough in the field of river transport. Yet, the vast spread of the invention, genius mechanics have not received, or become necessary after his death. "Vodochody," was known as a self-propelled barge, was sent to the scrap heap.
It should also be said that in the period of its activities as head of the machine shop in the famous Petersburg Academy, he often collected and analyzed the most complex watch "Peacock." At the top job so rootless person appointed Empress, shocked Kulibina gift back in 1769. Master served in that position for about 30 years, but the state is not saved up. Yet, the contribution to the development of instrumentation was great. Ivan Petrovich projects belong to the creation of astronomical devices, and devices for the introduction of agriculture. Numerous drills, lathes for machining parts, including glass surfaces and the rest were designed by the inventor, but not accepted for large-scale production.
In 1772, Ivan Petrovich entrust the development of the bridge. His project is once again astonished his contemporaries, he was the best and more than modern. Gaps in the design provides many times longer than that of counterparts, and have the support promising configuration. The experimental model, made in 1:10 scale struck testers own strength and stability, but the government again refused to implement unique ideas to life.
It is also noteworthy invention Kulibina under the name of the spotlight with a parabolic reflector type of small reflective surfaces. The idea of creation device with the ability to emit a powerful beam of light at the source feeble Ivan Petrovich came in his youth. Before the emergence of light-gun ships had the ability to receive and transmit information in a black clock. If stationary objects — lighthouses could ignite fires, then a small wood board having a strong, albeit localized fire was severe threat. Searchlight has decided to issue the exchange of information, but the inventor has again not received large profits because his idea was quickly assimilated by other artists, and customer flows surged to Prof. traders.
It is surprising, but contemporaries excellent mechanic is not impressed and pedal-propelled machine, the design of which he used the original gearbox, flywheel and brake system
. Highborn mass motivate just amusing toys and fireworks, while most of the relevant models are simply overlooked.
In the memoirs of those years remained description Kulibina. Ivan Petrovich was sympathetic and straightforward person does not drink alcohol and do not smoke tobacco, stuck to the Old Believer lifestyle. He was adored in the community, despite the absence of the noble roots, because inventor different joyous and restless character. At social evenings, which often invite the professional mechanic, he was in a long coat with bright bushy beard. All kind Kulibin resembled an ordinary Russian men, but nature had thinned. In his spare time, he cleverly wrote poems and read books, loved to joke and jest, but always remained decorous and pleasant. He loved his job recklessly, could spend the whole day in the studio. The passage of time seemed to have stayed for him, he did, zapamyatyvaya the needs for food, water and rest.
Ivan different loveable and used success with the ladies. He was married three times, and the last time the marriage is concluded upon reaching seventy years. His last wife gave birth to 3 beautiful daughters. In all, there were eleven kids Kulibina, in some sources mention 12. Any one of the sons was not a bad education, and has been arranged in the life of the Pope. Inventor offered a knighthood, but in exchange for it, he had to shave off his beard. Kulibin had to abandon because a similar instruction was contrary to his faith.
Empress appreciate the simple-mechanical, she even ordered to cast medal with its naming and the words "Worthy. Academy — Ivan Kulibin mechanics. " Over eighty-three years, who had lived inventor, they had constructed an unlimited number of devices in different directions of the national economy and science. It's entirely possible that we can now outline and teach only a small part of his thoughts and works, because in some periods of his life he had trade their devices, or as they are not identifying. After the death of Catherine II, and in particular to respect and tsenivshey Kulibina, Master resigned and returned to the small home. During the war and post-war Ivan P. enthusiastically worked on the leg prostheses. Despite the fame and recognition, the last years of its existence were marred by poverty. Inventor died on August 11 in 1818. His third wife in order to arrange a proper funeral, had to implement the last of his projects and existing devices.