In Russia, there are two basic ways to capture cities and fortresses, "have traveled" or "Banish" (equestrian squad broke into the strengthening of the gate, which did not have time to close, or through holes in the walls left by the recent siege) and immediately the siege (long, sometimes passive "oblezhanie").
The main meaning of "oblezhaniya" was to deprive the city of food and water when thirsty and hungry opponents give up without a fight. In ancient writings of the siege was also called "hardships", "obsedaniem", "The Society" or "obstupleniem." It was the most common way to mastering the ancient fortresses. They were surrounded by a ring of troops from several lines of fortifications. The outer line was, in case the enemy will come outside help. Internal providing protection against possible attacks by attacking the enemy from the fortress.
Active steps could be in the form of assault, accidental or gradual attack attack.
Random attacks are usually held at night, in low, not too closely watch, through bribery or treason. Attacked from several sides, trying to seize the gates and let them through the bulk of the troops. For direct entry into the city, there are no rules, played a decisive role stealth and a good case. Often on the way to the wall climbing "turtle": warriors get up close to the wall and formed a sort of ladder, raising shields. The shields assault columns climb up on the wall. If around the fortress was also a moat, it is usually filled up fascines (large bundles of firewood or sticks).
The assault, however, arranged by day, with a large force. The first echelon put shooters, which protects portable or movable on wheels, wooden shields. The purpose of the shooters had to drive defenders off the walls of the fortress. In the second tier moving workers, who filled up the ditches and mounted the stairs to the wall. In the third tier mostly solid mass impending assault convoy, she covered herself with shields on all sides. In most cases, simultaneously attacked from all sides, even from the sea. Assault was repulsed repeated again.
Gradual attack was carried out when the fortress was considered good food and strong garrison. Actions attackers were limited to slow progress with minimal losses. This was achieved through the gradual destruction of the defense of the city, usually with the help of various machines — throwing, destroying, podstupnymi.
Ordinary course of gradual attack was as follows. First fortress besieged: has several camps outside the affected area of the city, organized two fortified lines. Chose several locations for the main attack and opposite them installed catapults to defend their fault (special sheds on wheels, without a floor, with a roof made of raw cowhide, which is not flammable). Vinea was placed in front of each muscle podstupnymi machine, similar to the construction of the fault, but which had a large and sloping protective shield. In this corridor gradually moved to the fortress, usually to the towers.
Going to the shaft, arranged gelepol (multistory mobile tower) and, using its height, the wall finally disarmed. Simultaneously, the ditch filled up and ramming a ride that make a break, and stormed the fortress. In cases where the ram used was not possible, sap for penetration or collapse the walls.
If gelepol was significantly lower walls, beside the castle in advance poured earthen terraces, which are then placed on the car.
Chronicles relate that dared to direct assault is extremely rare, only a few cases, such as when the opponent was obviously weak garrison. Basically fortress captured by the blockade.