Native history we all know for the most part poorly. Russia emerges from a distance of something like: "… fun in Russia is Petey …" and other "goy-Thou." It seems, in connection with an anecdote about the choice of faith. Supposedly, Prince Vladimir, precisely because Islam would not accept that it is forbidden to drink wine …
Moreover, historical films and even touching children's fairy tales contribute their mite to the formation of ideas about the Old "Golden Age": endless feasts prince with his retinue, cups and Bratina, everywhere "… flow through mustache", but in the mouth, which is interesting, is not fell.
Of course, only a very naive person will undertake to study the history of the people on the "Finist — yasnu falcon."
Starlings, nightingales and Klyuchevsky Tatishchev Kostomarov, who devoted his life and Vyatichi Krivichy entire volumes did not notice it either woodcut joy or home ease. Hard work, a harsh climate, a tribute to the princes and frequent quarrels. Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, in his essay "On the people," wrote in the middle of the tenth century, paints a picture of contemporary Russian prince.
While reading this story, it is easy to understand what the goods are loaded Russ their caravans of boats rafted to Constantinople in the summer: it was a tribute to the kind collected by the prince and his entourage during the winter detour forest product industries: furs, honey, wax. Described, and that the princes bought from Byzantium: gold, jewelry, precious stones, weapons, fabrics.
But there is not the slightest mention of the import to Russia of wine or any beverage laughing. And there are no documents in the business of Russia is no mention of the production or consumption of alcoholic beverages.
The life of the worker and soldier are incompatible with friendly gatherings and copious libations. Neighbors — the Byzantines, Arabs, Greeks, are Russian with respect, fear or dislike, but in no way binding characteristics of people with uncontrolled drinking.
Moreover, creates the impression that a Russian man in that uncomfortable time, regardless of their social class, not only had no reason to frequent joy, and peace of the ordinary was deprived. History between X — XIV centuries like a report from the field: Svyatopolk, Boris and Gleb, Pechenegs, constant squabbling between Yaroslavovich and Vsevolod, the Tatars, from the western neighbors of trouble … simply breathtaking!
You can, of course, rely on the fact that political and administrative disasters were primarily the "upper echelons of power," and the people saw themselves in pleasure and the need to develop resistance. However, there was no reason, no leisure for alcoholism in Russia. Wonder dignity that our ancestors managed between the wars, invasions, fires, have children, grow, nurse and treat them! Increased population, which we, in a far more greenhouse, can not get …
Obviously, in this period of history in their own and other people's eyes we are "white and fluffy." Mead — the strongest known drink, and he used rarely and with dignity.
We already know what happened in the same age in other lands, so critical to Russia. So there's some drinking, gentlemen, so drunk! And in this case had a long and varied experience.
Wine and ritual
In Russia, no rituals associated with wine. Did not need to drink, taking the oath of allegiance or getting put on the lord.
Performing religious rituals, pagans incredible scale ate the meat of the sacrificial boar. The word "priest", suggest directly derived from the word "eat". But drinking beer with honey or committing ritual was not necessary. No intoxicating drink does not become sacred Slav.
For the Greeks and Romans the wine was sacred. In pre-Christian, and later in the Christian European and other cultures, ritual and religious practices are inextricably linked to wine and winemaking. In Greece, Dionysus was the most famous of the gods of viticulture and winemaking. The body of Dionysus was a vine, and blood — wine.
In honor of Dionysus staged rowdy celebrations that lasted for weeks. In other words, the people fell into a state of long, now referred to as "heavy drinking." Similar stories with the god Bacchus with remarkable consistency arise from the Romans.
And believers in Christianity drink wine — the blood of Christ. Because of his religious or ritual use wine has become one of the essential elements of Western civilization.
But the Slavs is not the god of wine, beer or god god mead. Among the Slavic pantheon — Dazhdbog, Perun, Yarila and others — no one can boast such a remarkable specialization. Even such a Slavic deity as refreshment or Oslad that can somehow relate with pleasure, perhaps a stretch and "medopitiem", just patronized art and was always accompanied by Lada — Slavic goddess of love, beauty and harmony.
Ritual feast accompanied game burner and it is nothing like the love game, anticipating marriage, also called fret.
Risk of wine
In "Bylina" cheerful feasts described in the court of Vladimir the Red Sun. But they do not describe opivshihsya, lying on the ground, losing a human. All Western epics they are: in the "Elder Edda," and in the "Prose Edda," and "Song of the Nibelungs." And in "Bylina" — no!
Generally the only time reference drinkers and drinking in Old Russia — this is the story of Sadko and holmium erratically. But, first, this epic Novgorod — the most European city of Russia, a member of the Hanseatic League. Second, endless adventure Sadko contain only one "drunk" episode. Other examples feast — no booze, but rather impetuous, daring fun, such as the dance of the Sea King by harp Sadko.
Walked-on feasts played Sadko. And before a Sadko property was not.
We call attention here to what detail is in Russian legislation there are no restrictions and penalties for drinking alcoholics. No condemnation of drunkenness, stories for children about the dangers of drinking. This does not exist in the "Instructions" Monomakh, nor religious in patristic literature, nor in the other books of ancient Russia. There is no mention of the harmful effects of drinking, in fact, anywhere.
The reasons for this may be two: either totally drunken nature of society …
But we already know that drinking enough.
Or, apparently, is not another assumption: the consequences of drinking and drunkenness were not a public problem.
However, where producing wine and tradition in wine drinking, there had to pay attention to the negative effects of alcohol on health and character.
In the wine culture issues about whether alcoholism is transmitted by heredity and how drinking affects parental physical and mental health of children. And mythological heroes behave accordingly. From Roman mythology knows that a drunken Jupiter and his wife Juno was born lame Vulcan. This kind of warning drinkers — that's what can happen! In Slavic mythology, there is nothing even remotely similar.
Where drinking and heavy drinking, there appear various rules and restrictions. Known severity of early Roman morals. But against the background of the wine-drinking laws are very strict. In ancient Rome, according to the laws of Romulus men to 35 years of age are not allowed to drink wine, not allowed to drink wine, women. If Roman woman allowed herself to a drunken husband buried her alive. (!)
In ancient Greece, a law was passed prohibiting the newlyweds drink wine on the day of marriage. In Carthage forbidden to drink wine in the days when performed marital duties.
In ancient China, only 60 years old man received three privileges: to grow a beard, walking with a stick and drinking wine.
In ancient India, if incriminating in drink representative of the higher caste — Brahmin, then forced to drink of hot boiling liquid metal container as long as he did not die. The wives of Brahmins, if violated a vow of abstinence from alcohol, were expelled from the house, they were awarded the soul to move to a dog or a vulture, and on the forehead of them burned with a hot iron image bottle.
In the Middle Ages, Abu Ali Ibn Sina (c. 980-1037)., The great philosopher and physician, a public figure in Central Asia, a poet and literary critic, in a poem about medicine
"Urdzhuz" wrote about the use of the wine:
You drink wine, it does not seek oblivion
Not bring themselves to intoxication
Since your health you are not enemies
You can not drink every day on an empty stomach.
Content with only small. Drink nabid —
Wine of the dates will not hurt.
Eat with him quince, and summer times
Dilute the wine with water ice.
Especially when you're given
Any long-term wine.
Remember, cloudy wine neduzhit
And much stronger than the other circles.
Drink strong wine doubly dangerous
It destroys health hourly.
But the Middle Ages in Europe noted widespread drunkenness and alcoholism. "Germany zachumlena drunkenness" — exclaimed in XVI century church reformer Martin Luther. But is one Germany? "My parishioners — complained simultaneously with the English pastor William Kent — every Sunday all dead drunk."
Even before the Norman invasion in 1066, the people of Britain, mostly Saxons won reputation bitter profligate.
And all because of the beer, which began to consume instead of water, because, as we noted earlier, the pathogens in the water is dangerous diseases. On the eve of the arrival of the Normans in England, even at every monastery and abbey had a beer plant.
"Russ came in the Middle Ages sober" — according to experts who have studied the issue. With this agreement, in principle, many. But the fact that Russia and came out of the Middle Ages sober.
The appearance of leaded alcohol in Russia recorded only in the fifteenth century, they gave us Europe. And used it in Russia at first exclusively for making herbal infusions, medicines and poultices.
Russian to the sixteenth century, mainly drinking honey, beer, and partly imported wine. But how many imported wines and how many can you buy it? Drunkenness as such in Russia was not. No problem — there is no fear of the issue. There is no treatment effect.
Viticulture in Russia
In the south-east of the Russian Empire, Bessarabia region, wild vine inhabitants of this land knew a long time ago: in the time of the copper-stone age, Stone Age, that is seven thousand years ago. Tribes lived here Tripoli culture involved in gathering and, of course, could not get past delicious nutritious berries. In these circumstances, to winemaking is only one step: it is necessary to leave for a few days, a pot of crushed grapes, and sweet juice fermented to turn into wine.
Therefore, wine, even the most primitive, in all probability, was invented long before people learned to domesticate grapes. However, cultural wine also appeared quite early. On pottery shards tripol fashioned twenty-eight centuries before Ovid, archaeologists found two clear prints of grape seeds, and one of them belonged to cultivars.
Of course, wine Tripoli era had little resemblance to the current vintage wines of Moldova. Steppes of the Black Sea close to the northern boundary of wild grapes. The relatively cool climate, short summers do not allow to preserve and accumulate a lot of sugar, which means that even when the total fermentation could not form a lot of alcohol. Wine gets weak, sour, cloudy. But still it was the wine.
A 2500 years ago during the Great Greek colonization, the nomadic tribes of the Northern Black Sea coast for the first time closely in touch with the highly developed ancient world. Greek colonists introduced the Goths, Dacians and Scythians with new crops, farming methods, techniques agroremesla. And with wine, too — in fact it was one of the most important sectors of the economy of ancient Greece.
Despite the fact that in our Black Sea coast it all started with the Greek and later Genoese colonists to the original history of the Russian people, their wine making and wine-drinking is irrelevant. The development of the official Russian winemaking began with annexation of Bessarabia to Russia in 1812. It is in the order of government Bessarabia were brought by German and Swiss settlers to engage in winemaking.
Characteristic detail: Russian masters wine originally was not, had to bring in foreign.
In another region of Russia, the Don, wine there since ancient times, as evidenced by the excavations of the ancient Greek cities of the time. They — in Olbia and Panticapaeum — found much evidence winemaking survivors from wine jars and ruins of old brick buildings, which served for production and storage.
However, after the Greek wine-on-Don for a long time were not engaged. Old Cossack way of life, war, and stern, did not allow to get drunk. Cossacks would simply not survive and could not withstand the Nogai Horde, Crimea and Turkey if drunk.
Home winemaking is put on the Don Peter, who in 1706 ordered to plant vineyards here, which sent vines Astrakhan, Serbian, French and Hungarian. Things went particularly well after 1821. Novocherkassk was the wine trade center, where for Don wines drove the Greeks. Moreover white wine from the village Razdorskaya and red — to match the quality of Tsymliansk best French wines!
In Astrakhan Region first vineyards appeared in the early XVII century, when Persian merchants (musulmane!) brought here Caucasian vines. Then, at the behest of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich, a monk threw a beautiful garden, where fruit and grapes were sent to the king's table.
Very great was Caucasian wine region.
These included: Kuban, Terek and Dagestan region, Stavropol and Kutaisi province, Black Sea region and the department of Sukhumi, Tiflis, Erivan, and the Baku Elizavetpol province Kars region, Batumi, Artvinsky and Zagatala district. Caucasus annually produce up to 10 million buckets of wine, 40% of which was exported.
But even here there is wine from Russian late — only in the XIX century. Prior to that time engaged in wine growing in the Caucasus, Georgians and other local people.
Viticulture, and in our time there and developed mainly for wine: only 10% of the world's wine is consumed raw and about 5-6% of the crop is used for drying (raisins and sultanas), and 85% is processed for wine. Therefore, in France and in some other countries do not take into account yield in tons or centners of grapes, and in decaliters or hectoliters of wine produced per hectare.
Ratio eaten and turned into wine grapes in Russia is somewhat different than in the world: we have eaten and made into raisins instead of 15%, and 20-21% of harvested grape harvest.
And today we are not among the leaders in wine trade.