Old Russian Chamber

Old Russian Chamber

Chamber — One of the most famous and at the same time one of the most mysterious of Ancient Rus. Everyone knows that is the body of the Russian "popular sovereignty." But as to the real content of the term in ancient sources, researchers disagree on a number of fundamental questions:

When there was a Chamber as a political institution?

What was the social composition of the veche meetings?
What questions were within the scope of competence Chamber?
What is the geographical distribution veche concepts?

Naturally, in order to find answers to these questions, you need to take into account all the news about him. This rule primarily makes V.T.Pashuto agree with the conclusion of the ambiguity of "Chamber" which is able to bind to:

— meetings of the nobility,
— town meetings "smaller" people
— conspiracies,
— military advice,
— insurrections, etc.

Besides direct mention of the word "Chamber", apparently, should be considered and the messages in which the point is that the citizens and the citizens or prince "sdumasha" about anything. In any case, the IJ Froyanova were sufficient grounds for similar news in the study "veche" issues. One of the most compelling arguments in this case is a classic reference in Article 6684 (1176), the meeting of the Veche in Vladimir, the question of the prince, who was to take the throne after the murder of Andrei Bogolyubsky.

"In the year 6684 [1176] Novgorodtsev in the beginning, and resin, and kyyane and Polotsk, and all power to the Duma yakozhe, converge in the Chamber, and on what elders sdumayut, in the same suburb will become."

We shall return to this phrase, but for now just note that it actually allows I.Ya.Froyanova interpretation, according to which "gathered at the Chamber — is like to come together on a thought, think, and take veche decision means" sdumat '" .

At the same time, this approach to the determination of the amount of material that can be used to study the council, meets and quite serious objections. In particular, MB Swerdlow believes that:

"Chronicle" reports the collective decision of the tribes: "sdumavshe meadow", "and decide for yourself in sobe", "sdumavshe [drevlyans] with his Malom prince." On this basis the assumption of the existence of tribal veche assembly. However, this information is too general to determine how to address — in the tribal meetings or elected officials, princes and nobles. In the annals of a similar form to report "solved Kozar," "pochasha Greece prositi world," though in IX-X centuries. Khazar Khanate and the Byzantine Empire were the countries where political issues are not addressed by the National Assembly, and the monarchs and their retinue. Consequently, the news has not yet indicated the annals of tribal gatherings in the tribal principalities and the more tribal alliances, territorial size that makes such meetings impossible, limiting the number of participants only individual representatives may tribal nobility. "

However, this observation is not likely to involve a collective decision veche meetings, and by the very nature of these meetings, to their composition. As for the possibility of indirect references to "Chronicle" Khazar and Byzantine "veche assembly", do not forget that we face — not only scientific description of the structure of neighboring states with Russia, and its reinterpretation in "their" terms that are familiar and clear as the chronicler, and the potential reader. Consequently, such language can be seen as indirect evidence of the prevalence veche orders in. Unless, of course, the original hypothesis I.Ya.Froyanova true.

But let us return to the quotations from Laurentian Chronicle. It is quite complicated and causes some differences in understanding. Actually, I should say, relatively few direct references to the veche meetings so vague and ambiguous that they allow to express a variety of assumptions, including direct opposite. Thus, for example, according to the SV Yushkov, in this case, refers to the fact that:

"From the beginning of power Novgorod, Smolensk, Kiev, Polotsk and authorities of all other cities gather in council, at a meeting (Chamber): On what authority poreshat older cities, and suburbs have to do."

B.D.Grekov Well thought logical stress in the above passage made quite another point that:

"Refers not only to the existence of veche system (the chronology veche assembly chronicler hardly thought here), but to the ordinary duty to obey the suburbs of the city …"

Marked time undisputed. Indeed, the suburbs did not collect their Chamber and had to submit to the decision veche assembly "cities." This for us is also of considerable interest. But the question of how to understand the chronicles "from the beginning" is still open. Generally BD Greeks held on the question of the lifetime of the Chamber rather curious position. Without denying that Chamber — a phenomenon related to a very ancient period (which, however, should only from indirect observations), he at the same time, wrote of "silence" Chamber X to XII century:

"In this book, dedicated to the Kievan state, writing about the Chamber can only be subject, for the simple reason that in the Kievan state, as such, the council, strictly speaking, is not functioning. Dawn veche activity falling for the time of feudal fragmentation. Only at the end of the Kievan state can be observed in some cities veche assembly, showing the growth of cities, ready to get out from under the power of the Kiev Grand Duke.

The justification of this chapter, "Some remarks about the Old Chamber" is only the fact that the literature on the Chamber does not always distinguish two periods in the history of our country: the period of the Kievan state, when the Chamber is silent, and the period of feudal fragmentation, when it says, and even loud enough. "

Be that as it may, apparently, there is no reason to believe that the Chamber — the product of the state apparatus. Rather, it is — the predecessor and the source (or one of the sources) of ancient statehood. At the same time, apparently, should listen to the opinions of B.D.Grekova, which, inter alia, said: "is not all that is or could be called (historians believe) called veche — identical phenomena. This restriction applies not only to the different periods of history, but also to simultaneously co-existing institutions. " That's what the scientist wrote:

"… Public meetings drevlyan must be distinguished from the prince of Kiev meetings with the boyars. First — this is not done away with the remnants of the tribal system from the period of the highest level of barbarism, the second — a consequence of strengthening the princely power, separation of power from the people, have had time to go beyond the limits of tribal society. We should not confuse the fact that both phenomena occur simultaneously in one and the same time. Our country and at this time was huge difference in terms of development by stages in some of its parts varied. It is a mistake to ignore these facts and consider all of the vast territory of Russia as a uniform of stages. "

And yet, as determined by the time of appearance veche orders and whether it can even be set to any degree of accuracy?

He considered VI S., relying on the already quoted text Laurentian Chronicle: "According to the initial and the later chronicler, who lived at the end of XII century, the Chamber has always been."

And he continued, referring to the initial news of the legendary Russian chronicle (the Khazar tribute negotiations drevlyan with Olga, the Belgorod jelly, etc.): "Veche customary law as a phenomenon has existed since the dawn of time … events of paramount importance, paving the way for a new order of things , is the conquest of the Tatar invasion of the Tatars … first met Russian reign with authority, which must obey unconditionally. Soil for the development of the Veche was destroyed at once. "

Researchers speak of the antiquity of the council, often cite evidence of Procopius of Caesarea: "These tribes, the Slavs and the Antes are not managed by one person, but from the beginning live in popular sovereignty, and because they have happiness and unhappiness in life is a common cause."

It is from this the conclusion that: "Tribal Chamber — the brainchild of olden times, palladium democracy Eastern Slavs." In any case, the vast majority of historians of the opinion that: "in origin Chamber — an archaic institution, rooted in the bowels of the primary formation."

The changes that took place in the social structure of East Slavic society has changed and the nature of the institution of collective power. Early, "tribal" Chamber era of primitive society or a military democracy, apparently, is much different from the "Parish" Chamber the second half of XI-XII vvek At the same time, raising serious doubts about the thesis B.D.Grekova that the Chamber temporarily — due urban growth — ceases its activities during the period of Kievan Rus. Such a statement is not only illogical, but is not supported by factual information (what to look for another P.P.Epifanov).

Most likely, the Chamber continued to operate, but it has changed. In any case, the convening of Prince Chamber explicitly stated in the story "The Tale of Bygone Years" by 6523 (1015 G.), Yaroslav the Wise, slaughtered on the eve of Novgorod "deliberate men, Who byahu issekli Viking" the prince heard that seized power in Kiev Svyatopolk Damned.

"Zautra same collecting excess of Novgorod, Yaroslav he said:" Oh, Luba, my squad, yuzhe izbih yesterday, and now things were made hath need of him. " Dried her tears, and said to them in vechi: "My father died, and Svyatopolk sedit Kyeve, beating his brother." And solve Novgorodtsev: "If Prince, our brothers excised essence, tobe able to gate."

There are no grounds to say that in this case the Novgorod Veche in nature was no different from any of the People prior pores or from subsequent veche gatherings. However, even less reason to assert that in XI century Veche activity at the time stopped. In any case, you can refer to the arguments I.Ya.Froyanova, who concluded: "As the facts show, Chamber collected and X, and XI, and XII centuries."

Here is another example. About the Chamber as the current city authorities explicitly stated in the "Story" and under 6576 (1068) was:

"Pridosha inoplemennitsi on Russian land, harbored many polovtsi Izyaslav same, and Svyatoslav and Vsevolod izidosha opposes UML to Lto. And the former the night, podidosha opposes sobe. The sins for the sake nashih May God upon us poganyya and pobegosha the Rus princes and conquer polovschi. Izyaslav same Vsevolod Kyevu pobegschyu and Svyatoslav Chernigov and lyude kyevstii pribegosha Kyevu and stvorisha Chamber to Targovishte, and decide poslavshesya to the prince: "Behold Polovtsy rosulisya on earth forbid, Prince, weapons and horses, and even wrestle with them ". Izyaslav these things are not obedient. And nachascha lyudie govoriti for governor on Kosnyachka; idosha the mountain ting Chambers and sell Kosnyachkov the yard, and not having acquired it, the court of Stasa Bryaschislavlya and to say 'oids, landed his squad s cellar. " And razdelishasya two: half of them ideal to the cellar, and half of them are ideal for bridges; si same pridosha to the prince yard. Izyaslav same sitteth on seneh with his retinue, nachasha Preto with Prince, worthwhile part. The prince of the little window and gazing worthwhile squad at Duke reche Tuky, take Chudinov Izyaslav "vidish, prince, lyude vzvyli; then, amb Vseslav watch over." And behold him, saying, the other half having come from lyudy cellar otvorivshe cellar. And rekosha squad prince: "Behold the evil is, after to Vseslav, amb prizvavshe flattery to okontsyu, pronzut and sword." AI not knyadz this hemisphere. Lyude same kliknusha and idosha to prubu Vseslavlyu. Izyaslav same cross videv with Vsevolodom shoots s yard lyude same vysekosha Vseslav s Poruba, Bb semtyabrya day 15, and in the yard and proslavisha knyazha. Yard zh Knyazhev razgrabisha, beschislenoe mnozhstvo gold and silvery, Coon and underwear. Izyaslav fled in Lyahy. "

By the next year we find a new mention of the Kiev Chamber:

"In the summer of 6577. Oids Izyaslav used Boleslav on Vseslav; Vseslav same oids resist. And come Belugorodu Vseslav, and former the night, escaped from utaivsya kyyan Beloagoroda in Potlotssku. Zautra same prince who saw lyude bezhavsha, vzvratishasya Kiev and stvorisha council, and poslashasya Kl Kl Svyatoslav and Vsevolod, saying, "We have evil esmy target, the prince of his prognavshe, and this is upon us leads Lyadskuyu ground and poideta to hail his father; If ye Do not want, then we captivity: he hath lighted a degree, stepped Bb Grechsku land. '"

The last time the "Chronicle" tells of the Chamber at 6605 (1097), when the battle for South Vladimir was seriously wounded Prince Mstislav Svyatopolkovich, who died the same night:

"And the Taisho and 3 days, and Bb 4th day on povedasha vechi. And solve lyude "Behold Prince uben yea ashche Xia vdamy Svyatopolk destroy HN everything." And poslasha to Svyatopolk glagolyasche: "Behold your son uben, and we pine away like surface. Yes, If ye be come, though Xia lyude traitors who can not tolerate GLADA. '"

As we can see no reason for it to be considered Veche "silent" in the XI century, we have not. So M.B.Sverdlov was right when he wrote that the question of power in Kievan Rus was "closely related to determining the fate of the tribal meeting — the council, the supreme body of the tribal people's government and the court."

Another question: Who can participate in the Chamber and it remained there throughout its existence, "the supreme body of the national government and the court"?

Social composition Chamber calls for researchers, perhaps, the greatest differences and disagreements. S.V.Yushkov believed that "Candlelight mass meetings were the leading elements of the city and the land on the most important issues."

Opinion as close I.Ya.Froyanov. He writes:

"Noteworthy democratic veche meetings in Kiev Russia. Chamber — is the national assembly, which was an integral part of the socio-political mechanism of ancient society. Just as in the old days people did not do without meeting tribal nobility. And in Kievan Rus indispensable parties to them were senior person: princes, church hierarchs, nobles, wealthy merchants. Often they led veche meetings. But to lead and rule — not the same thing. Therefore, the presence of leaders-leaders (note, incidentally, that without them unable to function any society, even the most primitive) on veche assemblies can not be regarded as a sign that points to the lack of free will "vechnikov." Old Russian nobility did not have the necessary means to subdue Chamber. Sabotage his decision, it was also not able to. "

Interestingly, the last point is a logical consequence of the presumption of "broad" of the city Chamber:

"We have discussed veche gatherings are the people's congresses in the literal sense of the word. Composition veche assembly socially homogeneous: there are ordinary people, and the "best", that is, noble. No annoying errors than those under which the people at the Chamber was something like docile sheep in the hands of the nobility. On the contrary, the voice of people in the Chamber sounded powerful and imperious, often forcing concessions to the princes and other distinguished "men". "

Besides I.Ya.Froyanov stresses that veche meetings "involved not only the inhabitants, but the villagers." Rather curious argument in favor of this thesis is the text of acts already Laurentian Chronicle Joint Chamber of Rostov, Suzdal and Vladimir, who are dealing with the question of a successor to Alexander Bogolyubsky on the throne. In particular, attention is drawn to the expression "the whole power yakozhe the Duma, on Candlelight converge." According to I.Ya.Froyanova, we are talking about the "representative of the whole parish." Such an interpretation is supported by the text, that the Moscow chronicles the end of the XV century we are interested in the text is somewhat different, as follows:

"Uvedevshe same Knyazhev [Andrew] death and the Rostov and Suzdal Pereyaslavets vsya oblast and its snidoshasya in Volodimer …"

According to I.Ya.Froyanova allocated words mean: "representatives of the entire parish." Of course, this may be true, but the word "area", in addition to the reporting I.Ya.Froyanovym value "of a population of ownership," was in Old Russian language and a different meaning: "power", "domination" (cf. " possess "). Moreover, in the annals of talking about "it", that is, Andrew "field." In this connection, the question arises why the text can not be understood as "all members of the prince's power"? This reading significantly alters the understanding of those who gathered at the Chamber of Vladimir.

True, I.Ya.Froyanov N.A.Rozhkova refers to the opinion that in veche meetings can participate and rural residents. But a closer look reveals that N.A.Rozhkova it was not so much about the real participation of free peasants, but about the potential, but often not realized the possibility of such participation, "the peasant population was virtually little interest in preserving the council, because it is devoid of much of the actual veche gatherings to attend. "

So even if we assume the possibility of participation of rural people in veche meetings, have to admit that it was still really Chamber urban institutions. Especially since, as rightly emphasized N.A.Rozhkov, "is one thing — the presence in the Chamber, the other — the deciding vote on it."

In contrast to the above and similar points of view, P.P.Tolochko, who studied ancient Kiev, believed that the institution of Chamber "was never a body of the people, grassroots democratic participation in government."

He is joined V.L.Yanin — best expert of ancient Novgorod. Citywide council of Novgorod the Great, he said, — "an artificial entity that emerged based Konchanskoe representation", which in the early period of its existence participated 300-400 owners of city estates. Chamber then united "only the great feudal lords and was the national assembly, and the assembly of the class in power." In the future, "with the formation of five ends vechnikov number could increase to 500 €.

By this point of view was close and I.H.Aleshkovsky, believed, however, that with the XIII century. Novgorod Veche was supplemented by a small group of the richest merchants.

A detailed description of the "aristocratic" Chamber gave M.B.Sverdlov:

"Based on the news of the Chamber in the ancient sources and comparative-historical materials, it can be concluded on ending veche assembly in X-XI centuries. in addressing public policy and legal issues, and a lack of regional bodies of national governments in a princely administrative and judicial apparatus. Probably as a form of public meetings community self persisted in Konchanskoe Chamber of large cities and rural community gatherings Verviers, indirect evidence of which is the recognition of Verviers as a legal entity in its relations with the princely power and at the same time, implementation of its functions and authorities of the court in relation to their members …

Thus, the sources allow you to set different fate of the People in Old Russia: local assemblies, rural and possibly Konchanskoe (in developing large cities), transformed into a feudal institution of local self-government tribal Chamber — the supreme organ of self-government and free trial members of the tribe — to form State and tribal members free trial — with the formation of the state has disappeared, and in the largest regional center — the city (though not in all the Russian lands) Chamber as a form of political activity of the urban population appeared in XI-XII centuries, due to the growing social and political independence of cities. "Renaissance" of "Veche" explains its persistence in the practice of ancient life with a large number of values.

If our view is true, it can be concluded that: the IX-X centuries simple free population was denied the right to participate in the political administration of the state, the political institutions through which such participation is carried out — the tribal people's congresses, or council, had disappeared. This meant that the question of power in the ancient Russian state was clearly decided in favor of the ruling class. Functions tribal Chamber were replaced by higher prerogatives prince — the head of state and the hierarchy of the ruling class, and the council of elders of the tribe changed its senior squad and the highest part of the administrative apparatus of the state. "

As you can see, the latter view is very close to the views already leads B.D.Grekova. She, in particular, strongly shares the oldest council, former body "popular sovereignty" and later veche meeting — artificial education related only to the ruling class. By the way, almost did not explored the role of the representatives of the church in veche meetings. Discussions are continuing on the Chamber, and put them in point is premature.

It is easily seen that the question of the social composition of the Chamber really is even more serious problem, which can be formulated like this: who, what real social forces opposed to the prince and the squad? Was it all the citizens, just as it was in the western industrial and commercial centers? Or an urban patriciate, "Boyar" top cities, but then who are these very urban — non-military — "boyars"? — Large traders have become landowners, just as it was in Novgorod and Pskov? Either this is some city officials, city government apparatus itself (perhaps largely mysterious "Elders grad" or "deliberate men", or even more mysterious "old chad")? All these questions remain unanswered, and the reason lies in the fact that many of the social categories simply poorly understood in the national historiography. Most researchers tend to "invest" in a particular term source of "their" content, close, for some reason most historians, or necessary for the proof of his own conceptual ideas. Moreover, methods of extraction and processing of the sources of information are far from perfect. We can only say that in front of a lot of work on the study of social stratification of ancient society, which requires the development of more sophisticated methods of collecting and processing of historical information from extant historical sources.

All these problems lead us to the far side to give up details of the "third power" in ancient Russia. We agree that, in speaking of her, we will use the most neutral in social terms, the word "city". Unfortunately, most of the concretization of this vague notion impossible.

Order of the Chamber. In ordinary thinking veche meetings are often presented as a kind of half-anarchic meetings at which the decision is determined by the power of screaming involved. In fact, as shown by the sources, the council, apparently, was quite disorganized. It's — well directed and staged the play. Thus, according to the Laurentian Chronicle, to the Chamber in 1147:

"Pridosha Kyyan lot of people, and of the holy Sophia sedosha hear. And said to Volodimer to the Metropolitan, "Behold my brother sent two Kyyanina husband, the atoms they say his brothers." And ledges and Dobrynka Radilo and rekosta "Kissed cha brother, Metropolitan Xia worshiped, kissed, and Lazarus, and Kiyany all." Rekosha Kiyani "Molvita with what you sent the prince." She rekosta "Taco rumor Prince. Kissed me cross and Svyatoslav Davidovich Vsevolodich, he also al lot of good target, and Nona wanted me KILLED flattery. But God and the cross barred me honest, it is the essence of me kissing. And now, brethren, poideta for me to Chernigov, a horse who has not, who is foreign to the lode. What are the bo not less than one wanted killed, but you iskoreniti. '"

About as it is described in the Chamber and the Ipatiev Chronicle. The only difference is that instead of the words on the set of Kiyan, sitting in the temple of Sofia, where we read:

"ER and MR Kiyani also vshedshim from young and old alike to the holy Sophia at yard vstavshem same vechi them."

By the way, according to I.Ya.Froyanova it — "one of the most striking examples of how people store Old Chamber."

The main thing, however, is that the story of the chronicler of the Chamber in 1147 in Sophia plays the conduct veche assembly. I.Ya.Froyanov writes:

"We have not chaotic crowd, screaming for a different way, a well-ordered meeting, taking place in compliance with the rules. Developed veche practice. Descended to Sofia Kiev sit sedately waiting for the beginning Chamber. "Meetings" directs Duke, metropolitan and tysyatsky. Ambassadors, as etiquette, welcome by one metropolitan tysyatskogo, "Kiyan." And then tell them to Kiev, "Molvita, Prince sent to obtain." All these touches convince available in Russia in XII. more or less sophisticated methods of conducting Chamber. MN Tikhomirov considered quite probable existence already at the time of the minutes veche solutions. "

Pretty interesting detail is the fact that the participants were in the Chamber. Many researchers have suggested in this connection that the veche area had to stand bench. Ironically, this piece takes us back to the question about the number of vechnikov. Carefully position the place in Novgorod veche meeting place, VL Janine had to say, investigative experiment: the veche area were put benches on which sat Novgorod archaeological expedition members and students of local universities. It was found that under these conditions the area could accommodate up to 300-400 people, which indirectly confirms mention Kilburgrera like Novgorod run 300 "Golden Belt". According to VL Ioannina, 300 boyar families could belong to almost all large estates, to place within the city limits (in the calculation that each homestead occupied 2,000 square meters).

One of the few experts who opposed this view, is V.F.Andreev. He believes that the average density of Novgorod farmsteads was once in 4 smaller (500-600 square feet), which in his opinion, should dramatically increase the number of citizens who were present in the Chamber. But most importantly V.F.Andreev believes that the only chronicle text confirming "sitting" vechnikov (at least in Novgorod) is Article Novgorod First Chronicle under 6867 (1359/1360) was:

"… Otyasha posadnichstvo have Vondreyana Zaharinitsa entire city, tokmo Slavensky end and Dasha posadnichyastvo Selivestrov Letievu and target protorzh not small at Yaroslavl yard and slashing byst: zanezhe Slavs dospese hooked byahu and razzgonisha zarichan, and they were without armor … ".

In this context, it is not clear, however, what action is behind the verb "to sit down", for in old Russian, it could mean not just "sit", but "attack, roost" (cf. modern podsidet). As we see, in the reasoning V.F.Andreeva there is some logic. But today is a more fundamental point of view is still V.L.Yanina. And this in turn leads to an indirect recognition of the benefits of this in terms of the researcher on the social composition of the Chamber.

The competence of the Chamber. The above material sources can make some observations about the fact and the range of issues that could be addressed to the Chamber. He appears to be quite broad. First of all, peace and war, the fate of principalities and princely administration. In addition to the Chamber addressed issues related to the collection of funds among the citizens, the order of the city finances and land resources. The latter, in particular, says Novgorod charter middle of the XII century.:

"Behold, the great prince lang Izeslav Mstislavich the blessing episkupa Niffonta isproshal seven at St. Novagoroda Pantelemonu Vitoslavitstsy village land and serfs, and fields Ushkovo and to forgive."

According I.Ya.Froyanova quite logical conclusion, "ask" award monastery "in Novagoroda" Izyaslav could only to the Chamber. "

As we shall see, the range of issues relating to the council, almost coincides with the scope of the problems that the prince was discussing with his retinue. Consequently, all of them — Prince, the squad and the Chamber — could share (or conversely, separately and in completely different ways to solve the same problem. This certainly sooner or later had to be conflicts. As these examples demonstrate, the prince is not always able to act on their own. Often he had to deal not only with their immediate environment, but also with the citizens (regardless of how large urban strata are meant in this case.) Therefore, the conclusions IJ Froyanova perhaps and are somewhat dogmatic, but the truth in them is. He writes:

"Chronicles the data relating to the XI century, draw Chamber's ultimate democratic authority, which developed along with the prince's authority. It was in charge of matters of war and peace, authorized the raising of funds for military enterprises, changed princes. Equally important competence veche assembly even more clearly speaks against the sources covering events XII century, there are some new features in the prerogatives of the Chamber. "

In written monuments Chamber acts as the manager of public finance and land funds … but Earth Chamber … disposes dependents resembling slaves treasury of early medieval Western Europe …

Conclude international treaties Chamber also kept under surveillance. In the preamble to the agreement Novgorod Gotha Bank and the German cities it says:

"Se lang Yaroslav Volodimerich, sgadav with posadnikom with Miroshka, and tysyatskih Yakovom, and with all novgorodtsi, potverdihom world Arbudom old Ambassador, and with all the children of German, and gty, and with all latinskim language." With "all Novgorodtsev" Yaroslav communicate, we must think not in a private conversation over a cup of wine, and at the Chamber. The phrase "all ye Novgorodtsev" sufficiently eloquent: it as clearly defines the participants gatherings, leaving no doubt about the fact that we are dealing with a mass meeting of the citizens, which probably was attended by delegates from Novgorod suburbs and rural districts. "

At the same time, not without reason and observation A.E.Presnyakova, says: "If the right of historians of law, that the council, not the prince should be recognized the supreme authority of ancient parish policy, then, on the other hand, the filaments of Old Parish administration agreed in the hands of the prince, and no Chamber or any of its agencies. This original feature of ancient statehood. "

Therefore, the researchers said, "is seen as a relationship of Prince of the council, and a small capacity Chamber without a prince … The known manifestations of the power and value of Chamber are entirely the nature of his performances in the event of an emergency. It powerfully interferes with their demands and protests in Duchesses control, but does not take it into their own hands. It judges and punishes people disliked him, intervenes on its own initiative, sometimes because of the treatment of the prince in mezhduknyazheskie relations and politics princes, but all of these manifestations veche life has not worked out anywhere except Novgorod and Pskov, a permanent and systematic organized governmental activities. Only in matters of high politics stood Chamber led parish. Its management was in the hands of local communities, or fractional, or … Knyazhev administration. So the activity of Chamber could create a strong and united organization internally parish. "

No less interesting than the previous issues of the issue of geographical distribution veche orders in Russian lands. Indeed, most of the examples refers to Novgorod, the specificity of national development which consisted precisely in the crucial role as the main Chamber of government institutions.

In considering this question, M.B.Sverdlov veche gives examples of solutions in Belgorod (997), in Novgorod (1015), Kiev (1068-1069 gg.), Vladimir Volhynia (1097). At the same time, he notes that:

"These reports convene Chamber only in cases of emergency or war, rebellion, and all of them belong to the cities, large social groups, centers of craft and trade. And these references Chamber extremely rare — only 6 for 100 years (997-1097 years.): One — in the Belgorod and Novgorod, two — in Kiev and two — Vladimir Volhynia. Data on the Chamber in the countryside or on the socio-political and judicial functions, typical tribal society, no. "

Moreover, all of the references are only to the end X-mid XI century Regarding the later period have to carefully consider the specific content of this term in the various sources of the different regions of Eastern Europe. In particular, attention is drawn to the fact that the Chamber in XI-XII centuries. not mentioned in the legal document and assembly sources. All known cases reported in the chronicles and works of ancient literature, which somewhat complicates the legal characterization of the Institute.

In addition, according to the observations of MB Sverdlov, the word "Chamber" in the XII century "was not used in the Novgorod and northeast chronicle [where such references appear only in the XIII.] … In the Laurentian Chronicle under the 1209 and 1228 years. posted messages on the council, borrowed in the process of compiling the grand arches of the Novgorod chronicles, and under the 1262 and 1289 years. mention Chamber is inextricably linked to the uprising against the Tartars. Therefore, it becomes apparent complete lack of information about the Chamber as a self-governing bodies in the north-east Russia.

Of the nine reports of the Kiev Chamber vault XII Rurik Rostislavich century, preserved in the Ipatiev Chronicle, four relate to Novgorod, and news on the 1140 and 1167 years. indicate to the Chamber in close connection with the performances of Novgorod against their princes, in the data reported under the 1169 Chamber of secret "house to house" — conspiracy, and under 1148 — the Novgorod and Pskov meetings initiated by the prince to organize a campaign. In similar values Chamber mentioned only once in a century Galician Zvenigorod, Polotsk, Smolensk (the latter due to the protest Chamber troops during the trip). Only in two cases — under the 1146 and 1147 years. — "Veche" called meeting of citizens in Kiev during the acute social and political conflicts that accompanied the class struggle of the citizens against the Prince of princes and administrative apparatus. And when you consider that in the Galicia-Volyn chronicle XIII century. (Up to 1292), incorporated in the Ipatiev Chronicle, the word "Chamber" is used only twice — in 1229 and 1231 under the years. — In the sense of "opinion" (Defenders of the Polish city of Kalisz) and "advice" (Prince Daniel Romanovich), it is apparent widespread use of the term, but not to refer to the People-government authorities in South and South-West of Russia. "

At the same time M.B.Sverdlovu have to explain the absence in the Novgorod chronicle XII century any mention of it veche meetings. Deny the existence of Novgorod Veche impossible, so the opinion is expressed that greatly reduces the degree of evidence and all previous counter I.Ya.Froyanovu. M.B.Sverdlov believes that: "the lack of mention of the Chamber in the Novgorod chronicle to the XIII century. can be regarded as normal for the chronicles mention a government, they report very little. "

When correlating this observation to the lack of direct mention Chamber in "normal" conditions in other cities of Ancient Rus hypothesis I.Ya.Froyanova gets even, perhaps, additional justification. Besides, if we deny the spread veche orders in cities outside of North-Western Russia, you have to prove that already leads the chronicle of the phrase "original" Chamber not only in Novgorod, and Smolensk, Kiev and Polotsk.

"Is the result of improper distribution of Novgorod Veche practices known to him [the chronicler] cases Urban Chamber," that "it was a political construct and not a compilation of really existing intercity relations generated veche practice."

Yet, this is not easier than to prove the conjecture I.Ya.Froyanova, and its supporters and opponents operate mainly indirect arguments and logical constructs. Therefore, strictly speaking, as long as nothing can stop to hold the view that the "Chamber in Kiev Russia met in all lands-counties. With the help of the council, the supreme authority of the former city-states in Russia of the second half XI — beginning of XIII century., People influence the course of political life for themselves in the desired direction. "

While there is no conclusive evidence, and such opinion.

So, we can formulate some conclusions about how the powerful ancient Chamber Institute:

1. There are some grounds to believe that Chamber is rooted in the ancient history of the Slavs. At the same time, it undergoes certain changes. Apparently, you can not talk about veche meetings X century and XIII century as a common phenomena in nature.

2. The social composition of Chamber — also changing in time category. If the ancient period it was a real "people's assembly" the widest range of free adult members of the tribe, then in the last stages of its existence Chamber is the representative body of the cities (the social structure until it can not be confirmed).

3. The competence veche assembly could include a wide range of issues, from raising funds for the urban militia and recruitment of military units to the expulsion or the election of the prince. Unclear but, always the Chamber of similar problems or sources recorded exceptional cases involving, as a rule, with serious social crises and disasters.

4. Apparently, in the early stages of development of the state urban veche assembly existed everywhere. Later, their fate in different lands were different. If the Northwest Chamber from XII century experienced a kind of dawn, on the North-East, it seems, by the end of XII century, ceased to exist. However, the story in the Chamber of specific land needs to be developed further.

IN Danilevsky.

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