Popular sovereignty — the joint management of people of public processes.
Old Russian popular sovereignty — one of the most interesting phenomena in Slavic history, performance, it remains unique in our eyes.
Osprey council, board, council, council
Historians tell us that in ancient times, long before the existence of states, various non-Slavic tribes existed in the principles of leadership — led by the village leader.
In Russia as a special kind of control — popular sovereignty, where people together to solve all problems.
Many centuries of this method of control allows the society to live in prosperity, family and community. Some people believe the old Russian popular sovereignty — the wisest method of management of all.
Evidence of Procopius of Caesarea: "These tribes, the Slavs and the Antes are not managed by one person, but from the beginning live in popular sovereignty, and because they have happiness and unhappiness in life is a common cause."
In contrast to family issues — to solve them in the family, or the kind of questions — they decided among relatives, popular rule existed to address important social issues people a certain area.
I think you have heard the words: osprey, council, board, council, council.
What is it and what is the difference?
The most popular name narodopraviya — Chamber.
In the annals of different sources the meaning given to the word "Chamber" was a little different. If you take all the sources in general: veche meeting is any gathering — be it folk thought, osprey go another meeting.
On the territory of distribution in all Slavic lands veche system was universal phenomenon: it is not peculiar to any one land.
Hereinafter, the management in Russia:
— stages of labor, community standing (from the period of the settlements — to the period of the formation of cities and principalities) — let's call doknyazheskim period.
— the existence of principalities — let's call the princely period.
— end of an era and the beginning of the principalities of the existence of kings — let's call the tsarist period.
Osprey council, board, council, council — all of these names are one and the same methods of traditional management in its various forms.
The existence of different forms of which are changing the way and the way of life in a different period of time, resulting in a modification of the method narodopraviya happened.
Evolution can be simplified as: generic communal system (life on the family estate in the land, territorial associations in the village) — the formation of large settlements — urban education — education kingdoms — the kingdom of Russian education.
The text of the Laurentian Chronicle: "According to the initial and the later chronicler, who lived at the end of XII century, Chamber has always been: Veche customary law as a phenomenon has existed since the dawn of time …"
Historians often for different forms of Chamber at different times prefixed — "tribal" council, "Parish" Chamber, etc.
Since its establishment, the principalities veche rule became fade and actually an effective method narodopraviya — disappear. In all, there were elements in the society narodopraviya Slavs until the late 16th century.
Narodopravie the royal period
In this late period, when there was the kingdom of Russian, narodopravie still be valid, was named Cathedral — and he was going to address the most important public issues. When the need to convene the council did not occur, the sovereign rule is also not alone. Current issues he discussed with the Boyar Duma, which was zakonosoveschatelnuyu body. Formula of any decree read: "the king commanded, and nobles were sentenced."
Beginning with the first Tsar Ivan the Terrible and more control gradually changing towards centralization of power. Cathedral was about less and less, the boyars rights curtailed since the last elements of popular sovereignty had disappeared and been replaced by a vertical rule.
Narodopravie in princely period
Now on to the princely period.
"Bo from the beginning of Novgorod and Smolensk and Polotsk Kayani and the entire government as it is in the Duma for Candlelight converge. On what stareishie sdumayut, in the same suburb will become. "
According to historical records in the princely period — Chamber of issues solved quite wide. First of all, it is the question of war and peace, the fate of principalities and princely administration. Chamber has been asked and removed the princes, to take any other important decisions — which bezprekoslovno performed.
Note that in the period of the prince in the Chamber attended by all adult citizens.
In the Chamber had no social status differences — participated as the "lower classes" of society ("the people" in the terminology of the time), who formed the bulk of the members of the People, and the "best men."
"Just as in the era of tribal system public meetings did not do without the tribal nobility, and in the Kievan Rus indispensable parties to them were senior person: princes, church hierarchs, nobles, wealthy merchants. Often they led veche meetings. But to lead and rule — not the same thing. :. Ancient know did not have the necessary means to subdue Chamber. Sabotage his decision, it was also unable to "(Froyanov Ya op. Cit.)
"The powers of the Chambers:
— conclusion and termination of the contract with the prince;
— election and dismissal Posadnik, tysyatskih, lords;
— appointment of the governor of Novgorod, Posadnik and the governor in the province;
— control over the activities of the prince, Posadnik, tysyatskih, lords and other officers;
— Legislation, exemplified by the Novgorod Judicial Charter;
— external relations, issues of war and peace, trade relations with the West;
— disposal of land ownership Novgorod in economic and legal terms, the award of land;
— establishment of public service obligations, monitoring their be served;
— control over the timing and execution of court decisions, cases, worried the whole city, the immediate trial of, provision of legal benefits. "(OV Martyshin op. Cit.)
How did modern humans represent Chamber?
It is worth mentioning historical films, the scripts are written by people with a good artistic abilities, but poor knowledge of history. And so we see in the movies, the depiction of the national Chamber: a crowd of people gathered at the elevation, is a matter of choosing candidates, screaming, and more screaming people whom — that and chose.
Or another option to solve a question, again the same scenery — Prince, the porch, something people shouted, and the prince decided.
Paradox, but what is shown in the movies — a kind of democracy, has nothing to do with narodopraviem Russia. But this film is replicated installation — from episodes with Veche in Novgorod, Kiev, so when displaying other historical events, such as choosing a chieftain of Zaporizhzhya Cossacks.
Historical records read only very curious, so in films in modern society has been fixed this image Chamber — democracy.
Just part of the image support is facilitated by many modern scholars.
Despite the significant number of published books — on the markets is largely narrative: that the Chamber could — rights council, which was a historic event, on the Prince, and that there were nobles who they are, what they did, other historical consequences of decisions made at the Chamber — that was removed, placed in order, missing the whole point of assembly, their varieties — and the scheme of decision-making.
Paradox, but written many candidate, term papers and essays. It seems to be a lot of information, but in fact they are all perepovtoryayut each other in some way.
There is a pattern — a scientist with regalia wrote some thoughts (theorized), many others have repeated it. Then it went back to normal.
Control scheme itself narodopravii in modern historical works not described. Open the book and see the modern historian standard description: was narodopravie, met people, could remove the prince, could address other important issues. All. Partner code management scheme itself.
In the ordinary view veche collection are as peculiar meetings at which the decision is determined by the power of the question screaming involved.
In fact, as shown by the sources, the council, was quite disorganized.
About veche assembly 1147 at St.. Sophia mentioned in the Laurentian Chronicle: "We have not chaotic crowd, screaming for a different way, a well-ordered meeting, taking place in compliance with the rules developed veche practice."
Let's reveal the essence of the method of management.
Management took place in four stages: formulation of the question, the problem, the choice of the artist and implementation.
The sources described that the nomination pressing issue converged all people — no matter the social or any other status. Chamber consisted of those who could not come to him, that is, in general, people of the city, since the convening of the Chambers were not reported previously. In fact, they did wording of the question that must be addressed.
At the same time, the council, who are dealing with (!), These issues could be present not everyone. At this Chamber attended only by men who have reached in my life well-being — from the family to the domestic sphere.
The root of this method Chamber (why men and was considered well-being) — to be found in doknyazhesky period, but about it later.
About Novgorod Veche:
"It is quite an interesting detail is the fact that the participants were in the Chamber. Many researchers have suggested in this connection that the veche area had to stand bench. Carefully position the place in Novgorod veche meeting place, a modern historian VL Yanin had, so to speak, the investigative experiment on veche area were put benches on which sat Novgorod archaeological expedition members and students of local universities. It was found that under these conditions the area could accommodate up to 300 — 400 .. '
Note that 300-400 people — the number of people involved in the Chamber for the entire large city. How, then, people took part in the decision-making in the Chamber of the village? Likely figure was much lower.
Quote from "The History of Taverns in Russia in connection with the history of the Russian people" (Ivan Prizhok, 1868) describes the old life of the Russian people, "Russian Land has long had its own dress, live according to the customs of their own and by the law of their fathers. Neither muzhikov nor peasants did not yet exist, and there were people — the name of which to this day still lives Bb southern Russia (Luda — the people) — were the people who owned the land. "
Notice under whose laws the people lived. No women, no husband present, and it is their fathers.
"The best men were holding the ground, decided matters obscheyu FOLK dumoyu: Chapter zemskago cases were deliberative assembly of the people, rural and plemennyya, worlds, Chambers and Parliament:. Having settled on the land and water, all the people camping adjoining foreigners, were one land, one who lived the same zemstvo ustroemya, but in accordance with local characteristics. Force that pulled together some general Chlenova Russian family was brotherhood, said especially in Novgorod, BL narodopravnom bratchiny nature, in the South Russian fashion fraternity, and later BL brastvah southwestern Russia. Brotherhood, community, business mundane Gromadskaya, formed the basis of life, Skopje was a matter of state, to protect the earth … and the worlds communities, towns and villages converged on merrymaking, sbiralis on bratchiny, feasts and conversations for old, previously referred to another the people honored and Chesney. "
Note that according to the testimony of the historian of the XIX century — there are several forms of the People — the worlds Chambers and Parliament to regulate the social life, the osprey is going for military purposes.
We should also mention the word "unanimity", which some historians mention next to the words "make decisions" in circumscribing veche assembly.
In their interpretation of the word means: "In setting up a simple majority was not enough, unanimity is required (" one voice "or" consensus ").
Under unanimity hidden majority that could silence all raznomyslyaschih. "
So, according to some researchers, the decision was taken unanimously, ie an overwhelming majority.
We briefly discussed the issues in narodopraviya princely period.
But this time a little curious to learn, the more interesting forms in narodopraviya doknyazhesky period.
Narodopravie during childbirth communal system
The most important period of time, due to the fact that from it there narodopraviya origins.
He also is the most difficult to learn, if the prince of meetings veche period can be found in many books and chronicles 17hh-18hh's, that information on the Chamber doknyazheskogo period is going to literally bit by bit.
Describing the life of glades, the chronicler writes: "Paul is a special and lived volodeyuschem his birth, Who EEC brother byahu clearing and zhivyahu kozhdo with his race and in their mesteh owning kozhdo hails his" ("Chronicle") Approx. glade — the people who lived in the Middle Dnieper in Kiev.
So. Let us at the time when people lived in the land of their ancestral homes — united in the village, and there was then still no large towns, no cities, no state as such.
Slavs were united by a common culture and lived in tradition.
Everyone lived in truth and conscience. Social same questions all villages — solve veche assembly.
At this time, we find two names veche assembly — a council of elders and Skopje. In fact, both called common word Chamber.
Another characteristic detail — the story of veche assembly are inextricably with the mention "best men", "elders."
How was veche assembly
The village in Imagine consisting of ancestral homes — each family had a plot of land with a house, a garden, other buildings and trees.
One of the agreed days people gathered on the common meadow.
Exchanged greetings and talked, and so the burning question is formulated together for solutions.
For example, met and discussed the folk that's a good idea to build a spacious house on the common meadow — we have many women in the village craftswomen and winter evenings, when they gather together for embroidery and knitting — all will not fit in the house. So it is necessary to build another house, more than before.
Formulate questions for solutions together, so, everyone is willing to put their contribution to this necessary work.
Formulated to address the question of the scribe wrote: "There is another house on the same lawn the size to accommodate all the masters, the three upper room was large, comfortable benches, a form similar to a house in the neighboring villages, only the light that was in the upper room a little more."
Then people disagreed on estates — their business.
Next on the cop (SCOPE) in one day converge best men — those that are experts in their field, and they know how to do their job, and in the welfare of his family to hold, makes them stand apart from the words, the result is visible to all, and time is and to the general case.
Osprey on the basis to formulate the question did the problem for performance and picked up her executor.
So gathered Osprey:
"So, you need to build a common house, more than before. We in the villages of 217 estates, mostly in the evening go to the masters 25-30 girls, maximum 35. Three upper room to accommodate 10-12 people each. House of wood to shape and arrangement was similar to the house in the nearby village, just a little wider than the window — that was more light.
Who's the best in the villages of the organizer-builder? Lyubodar.
Who organizes the supply of firewood and other necessities for the house? Danilo Vernidub good organizer, but they are busy, that's also the organizer Vseslav nice, it just free. Instruct him. "
They called and Lyubodara Vseslav.
Lyubodaru say that's necessary to build a house, as in the neighboring villages, the parameters are (read out the problem). Term — for the fall, starting in one month to finish at 3. To help yourself choose 12 fellows materials you provide. The result of this — was fully prepared to house and everything in it to the end Veresnya (dnevnerusk. September).
Do you have the desire, time and opportunities to do business sim?
— "Yes, there is, happy to undertake for these things to work", — he says.
— On forces you to accomplish this within the specified time? I agree to the terms?
— "Yes" — holds the answer Lyubodar.
After Lyubodar agreed with the terms and conditions of performance — he was handed full responsibility for the business entrusted to him.
Similarly going conversation with Vseslav.
"Will you have to organize the supply of timber and other necessary for three weeks. Tree to take the fact of the forest, 20 fellows-such assistants to the village. On forces you to accomplish this within the specified time? I agree to the terms? "
"Yes" — holds the answer Vseslav. He was given full responsibility for the business entrusted to him.
So, to summarize: What to do, what time, what has the resources — Osprey developed the problem and referred for performance artists.
All, parliamentary assembly is completed, the osprey is divergent.
Stage performance problems
Next Lyubodar Vseslav and perform works entrusted to them, taking all the necessary solutions for business, according to the statement of the problem, and entrusted them with material and human resources.
Until the moment of a specified period (the report on the results), or osprey or other people from the village — no one has the right to tell the artist as it is necessary to execute business entrusted to him.
Artist chooses methods, forms of execution, supervises the entire process.
Lyubodar went to the nearby village, looked at the house, obmeryal, talked with the builders of the house. Then he meets Vseslav and report parameters necessary wood and other items used in the construction of houses.
Vseslav passes from house to house, and from each household who has how much is necessary size, etc. — Collects chopped dried wood. He went on with his custody assistant arranges: delivery process in place of a house, the process of cutting the right amount of wood for the return of the villagers, finding and delivery of other things needed for the construction.
Lyubodar meanwhile finds helpers — from carpenters to farriers. Draws the layout and assign duties — entrusting important area of work.
An important detail — in one part of the work was appointed responsible man. There was never such that for the same thing had been responsible at least two.
For example, Lyubodar performing tasks obtesyvaniyu wood to the size you found Ratibor performer.
Lyubodara task — to articulate the problem, deadlines — and pass Ratibor material and human resources to fulfill (tools for cutting and obteski yes three fellows in assistants — Yasnogora, Tsvitana, Vysheslav).
Ratibor responsible for performing tasks according to specification and on the schedule.
Next, if necessary Ratibor distributes responsibility for the direction of the — you'll Yasnogor hew wood with an ax, you Tsvitan — bring a plane to Gorny was Vysheslav sawing wood for benches, I (Ratibor) loans obtesyvaniem them.
If someone is bad to do the job — that it zhurili in the circle other workers. Particularly sloppy, lazy, and so on — were carried away in the general overview, when about all the folk villages.
This way an execution process.
When does the time stipulated term report on the organization of materials — going osprey came Vseslav and held telescope response on assignments. Similarly Lyubodar.
If the person has reached the desired result (all the necessary delivered, all within the parameters in time to fulfill) — praised him may have made some remarks on future work.
If the perpetrator could not cope — either poorly done, whether in terms did not, either generally failed for work entrusted plot — for the future such a person did not commit the case of this size.
On execution of the fruit and then spoke at the general meeting of villages.
Talked about the contribution of everyone involved in the process, "Lyubodar good organizer, all made, as necessary, with high quality and on time." Lyubodar: "Thank you for the confidence entrusted to me that this area of work. Our common cause did twelve fellows. Tells the story of of participants. Ratibor coped well with the task obtesyvanie wood to the size you want … ".
Ratibor tells of great contribution to the process Yasnogora, Tsvitana, Vysheslav and how well they perform each trick.
And so people telling us about the valuable and necessary contribution of each member to the cause.
Those people that have worked well — praised.
If a person cope with the job, but a bit sloppy or not quality as we would like, it is only mentioned in the general report — not to either good or bad. Because of its contribution, too, have tried it. The man himself gave their estimations and next time try to do better.
Blamed a lazy and idle talk.
If there were people who slack attitude to their part of the work, thus summed others — that the general meeting mentioned it. But such cases were rare, as every cherished opinion of the people, and sought to have his name sounded positive reviews.
Svyatoslav STETSENKO, email@example.com
The newspaper "ancestral home", 7 (25) 2008 г.