Rank insignia of the Russian Army. XIX-XX century

Epaulettes XIX-XX century
(1854-1917 gg.)
Officers and Generals

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryThe emergence of gold lace shoulder straps with different characters names on the uniforms of the officers and generals of the Russian Army is associated with the introduction of 29 April 1854 marching soldiers overcoats standard (only difference was that on the newest officer's greatcoat unlike soldiers were side welt pockets with flaps).

Shown at left: Officer marching overcoat standard 1854.

This coat has been introduced only for war and lasted just over a year.

Immediately the same decree of coats for this input-laced straps (Order of the War Department number 53 of 1854.)

From the creator. Previously, the only course of time charter prototype odezhki top officers and generals were so called "Nicholas coat," which were not put any insignia in general.
By studying numerous pictures, pictures of the XIX century, come to the conclusion that the war was not suitable coat of Nicholas and her hiking criteria are not enough who wore.

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryApparently, as a camp overcoat officers often used a coat with epaulets. In general, then, the coat was intended for everyday use is down, but not as a top odezhka for winter.
But in the books of that time are often found references to the frock with a warm lining, frock "padded" and even coats "on the fur." Such a warm coat and completely suited as a substitute Nicholas uniforms.
But for coats used the same precious cloth, as for the uniforms. And by the middle of the XIX century, the army is becoming more of a mass that pulls are not just increasing the number of the officer corps, and a growing verbovanie in the officer corps of people without any income, not counting officer salaries, which in those days was very affluent. There is an urgent need for reducing the cost of uniforms. This was partly solved by the introduction of officers marching coats of rough, but sturdy and warm soldier cloth, and the substitution of a very expensive relative to a cheap gold braid epaulettes epaulets.

By the way, "Nicholas" that the relevant type coat with a cape and often pristezhnym with a fur collar, it is in general, that is not true. She appeared in the era of Alexander I.
The right figure officer Butyrskiy Infantry Regiment in 1812.

Of course it became known as Nicholas after the occurrence of a marching coat with epaulets. It is possible that wanting to highlight the backwardness in the military or of another general, used to say in the last quarter of the XIX century: "Well, he is still wearing his overcoat Nicholas." In general, it's more my speculation.
In fact, in 1910 this Nikolaev coat with fur lining and fur collar remained as the top odezhka is building together with the coat (in fact, this is also an overcoat, but of a different breed if hiking arr. 1854). Although Nicholas's coat is rarely who was wearing.

Initially, I beg to direct attention to this, officers and generals had to wear a soldier's shoulder straps (pentagonal shape), color assigned to the regiment, but the width of 1 1/2 inches (67mm.). And this soldier's shoulder straps standard purl.
Let me remind you that a soldier's shoulder boards in those days was Myagenko, width 1.25 inches (56mm.). Shoulder length (from shoulder seam to collar).

Shoulder straps 1854

Generals 1854

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryAt 1.5 inches wide shoulder straps (67mm.) to denote the general's rank sewn braid width of 2 inches (51 mm). So Makar, remained open field overhead by 8 mm. from the side and top edges. Type braid — "… from the braid assigned collars generals hussar Hungarians …".
Note that the later draft of the general's braid on the shoulder straps noticeable change, although the overall picture remains temper ..
Color braid color instrumental metal shelf, ie gold or silver. Asterisks indicate the rank, reverse colors, ie on a silver-laced gold, silver on gold. Forged iron. The diameter of the circle, with which the asterisk quarter inches (11 mm.).
Number of stars:
* 2 — Maj.-Gen.
* 3 — Lieutenant General.
* Without the asterisks — General (infantry, cavalry, General feldtsehmeyster, general engineer).
* Crossed Wands — Field Marshal.

From the creator. It is often asked why Major-General on the shoulder straps and epaulettes were not one but two stars. I believe that the number of stars in the royal Russian Federation defines no name rank, and his class on the Table of Ranks. Generals reasons attributed to 5 classes (c V for I). Hence — the fifth class 1 star, 4th class-2 stars, third class 3 stars, the second class without stars, first class — crossed batons. In civilian service to 1827 V class existed (State Advisor), and in the armies of this class was not. Subsequent to the rank of colonel (VI class) was immediately promoted to major general (IV class). Why Major-General is not one but two stars.

By the way, when in 1943 the Red Army already introduced new insignia (shoulder straps and stars), the Major-General was given one star, leaving no room for those likely to return to the rank of brigade commander (Brigadier General or something like that). Although already been in demand. After all, in the armored corps 43rd year were not armored divisions and armored brigades. Panzer divisions were not. There were also separate infantry brigades, a Marine brigade, airborne brigade.

However, after the war are deserting to the divisions. Brigade as a military formation, in general, that the nomenclature of units of our army for a very few exceptions were gone, and the need in the crotch between the rank of colonel and major general as it disappeared.
But today, when the army crosses the general system for the brigade, the need for a rank between Colonel (regimental commander) and Major General (Division Commander) is greater than ever. For the brigade commander Colonel rank a little, and the rank of Major-lot. And if you enter the rank of brigadier general, what to give him the insignia? General's epaulets without stars? But now it will look awkward already.

Staff officers in 1854

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryOn the shoulder straps to indicate the seat of the officer ranks were sewn along the overhead of three bands "of braid that is assigned to a cavalry sword belt, sewed (deviate somewhat from the edges of the ring in three
rows, with 2 lumens at 1/8 inches."
However, this braid was 1.025 inch wide (26 mm.). Clear width of 1/8 of an inch (5.6mm).. So Makar, if you follow the "historical description" width seat swab should be 2 to 26 mm. 2 by 5.6mm and 89mm only.
And along with that in the illustrations to the same edition we litsezreem headquarters swab uniform width with the generals, ie 67mm. The center runs portupeyny braid width 26mm., And the left and right of him, retreated to 5.5 — 5.6 mm. two narrow braid (11mm.) special drawing that later in the Description of the officers uniforms 1861 edition will be described as … "in the midst of oblique stripes, flanked towns." Later on this type of braid will get the title of "staff-officer braid."
Remain free edge overhead by 3.9-4.1mm.

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryHere I purposely show bigger photo types, braids, which were used for uniform staff officers of the Russian Army.

From the creator. Please pay attention to the fact that the outer braid epaulettes pattern similarity of the Russian Army until 1917. and reddish (Russian) Army since 1943. still vary significantly. Upon this, and caught the person, embroidered on Russian officer epaulets monogram of Nicholas II and sell them under the guise of genuine royal shoulder straps, which are today the most fashion. If a trader honestly states that it is a remake, then it can only criticize the mistakes, but if he is foaming at the mouth proves that it chases his great-grandfather, which he has found in the attic of the case, such a person does not have the best of cases.

Color braid color instrumental metal shelf, ie gold or silver. Asterisks indicate the rank of the reverse colors, ie on a silver-laced gold, silver on gold. Forged iron. The diameter of the circle, with which the asterisk quarter inches (11 mm.).
Number of stars:
* Major — 2 stars,
* Lieutenant Colonel — 3 stars,
* Colonel-without the asterisks.

From the creator. Again, again, is often asked, why not have one major (like today), and two stars on their epaulettes. In general, it's hard to explain, especially because if you go to the bottom, then all of Major is reasonable. The youngest officer Ensign has 1 star, then on the ranks 2, 3 and 4 stars. And the most senior chief officer rank — captain, has shoulder straps without the asterisks.
It is true it would be the youngest staff officers also give one star. But given two.
Personally, I find this is only one explanation (though not particularly convincing) — up to 1798 in the Army had two rank in class VIII — Second-Major and Prime Major.
But by the time of the introduction of stars on his epaulets (in 1827) the rank of major's only one remains. Of course, in memory of the 2-major's rank last, Major gave not one but two stars. It may be that one star seems to be reserved. At that time, still controversy lasted advisable to have only one major's rank.

Senior officers in 1854
Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryOn the shoulder straps to indicate the chief officer ranks were sewn along the overhead of two strips of the same braid as the average braid (26mm.) on the seat of the officer's pursuit. Clearance between the braid and 1.8 inches (5.6 mm.).

Color braid color instrumental metal shelf, ie gold or silver. Asterisks indicate the rank of the reverse colors, ie on a silver-laced gold, silver on gold. Forged iron. The diameter of the circle, with which the asterisk quarter inches (11 mm.).
Number of stars:
* Ensign — 1 asterisk
* Lieutenant — 2 stars,
* Lieutenant — 3 stars,
* Captain — 4 stars,
* Captain-without the asterisks.

Shoulder straps 1855
Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryFirst experience of wearing epaulets was a success, and their practicality was undeniable. And in March 12, 1855 came to the throne, Alexander II ordered the governor to change for everyday wear epaulettes on the shoulder straps of the newly introduced vic-polukaftanah.

So evenly start to leave with the officers' epaulettes form. By 1883, they will remain only on the dress uniform.

May 20, 1855 marching soldier's overcoat is replaced by a reference to the Cloth-breasted coat (coat). However, in common parlance it also became known as an overcoat on a brand new coat worn in all cases, only the shoulder straps. The asterisks on the shoulder straps have ordered embroidered in silver thread on the golden epaulets and gold thread on the silver uniform.

From the creator. From now and until the end of the existence of the Russian Army on the epaulettes star had to be forged metal, and embroidered on the shoulder straps. In any case, the Rules of wearing form odezhki officers edition in 1910 this rate persisted.
In general, as required officers to follow those rules, it is hard to say. The discipline of military uniforms in those days was significantly lower if the time in Russian.

In November 1855, changing the form shoulder straps. Order of the Minister of War of 30 November 1855. Liberties in the width of shoulder straps so commonplace before, now is not allowed. Strictly 67 mm. (1 1/2 inches). Shoulder strap is sewn into the bottom edge of the shoulder seam and the top button fastened on the diameter of 19mm. Color buttons is the same color as the braid. The top edge of a cut overhead on the epaulettes. With still reference straps officer differ from soldiers that are hexagonal instead of a pentagonal.
Together with those yourself straps and remain Myagenko.

Generals 1855

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX century

Lace changed the rank of general in the figure and in width. Former braid had a width of 2 inches (51 mm), has received a new width of 1 1/4 inches (56 mm). So Makar, cloth overhead field extend beyond the braid 1/8 inches (5.6 mm).

The figure to the left shows a braid that was worn on the shoulder straps generals from May 1854 to November 1855, to the right, which was led in 1855 and which has been preserved until the present time.

From the creator. Please pay attention to the width and frequency of the huge zigzags, as the outline of small zigzags, reaching between bolshennymi. At first glance it inconspicuously, but in fact is very significant and can assist fans uniformistiki reenactors and military uniforms to avoid mistakes and bad remakes distinguish genuine products from those times. And from time to time and can assist dated photograph, picture.

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX century

The upper end of the braid is now bent over the upper edge of the shoulder strap. The number of stars on their epaulettes on the reasons remain constant.

It is seen that the space and stars on the epaulets of generals and officers have not been determined aggressively at the place it is today. They were to be placed at the edges of the ciphers (room shelf or monogram high chief), third higher. So, that ends with an asterisk were equilateral triangle. If this was impossible because of the size of encryption, the asterisk is placed above encryption.

Staff officers in 1855

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryAs the generals braid on the seat of the officers' uniforms were skirting the upper edge. Average braid (portupeyny) received a maximum width 1.025 inch (26mm) as the uniform standard for 1854, and 1/2 in. (22 mm.) The gaps between the middle and the side braid 1/8 inches (5.6 mm). Side braid as before, a width 1/4 inches (11 mm).
Asterisks embroidered color reversible color braid diameter of 11 mm. That is, on a gold-laced star embroidered with silver thread, and a silver-laced with gold thread.

Note. Since 1814 Coloring shoulder straps of the lower ranks, and of course since 1854 and swab determined the ranking of the regiment in the division. So in the first division of the regiment insignia reddish, 2nd — white, in the 3rd light blue. For the fourth regiment insignia green with reddish edging. In Grenadier regiments yellow straps. In all the artillery and engineering troops straps reddish. It's in the army.
Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryIn the Guard insignia in all the shelves are reddish.
In cavalry units had their own particular colors shoulder strap.
In addition, there were also numerous retreats in colorings shoulder straps from the general rules dictated that the historically accepted colors for this regiment, the wishes of the governor. Well and these rules have not been established once and for all. They changed from time to time.
It should also be noted that all the generals and officers serving in the regiments not, attributed to certain shelves and accordingly wore regimental insignia colors.

Senior officers in 1855

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryOn the chief officer epaulets sewn two portupeynyh braid width 1/2 inches (22 mm.) From the edges of the overhead they retreated, as in the past, on the eighth inches (5.6 mm.), And the clearance between themselves had in the fourth inches (11 mm).

From the creator. Please send note that clearance on the shoulder straps senior officers in 1855, is very broad. In the two times wider than the staff officers.

Asterisks embroidered color reversible color braid diameter of 11 mm. That is, on a gold-laced star embroidered with silver thread, and a silver-laced with gold thread.

Shoulder straps shown above for illustrative purposes only shows signs of distinction ranks. But it is worth keeping in mind that described the chase had a dual function — external determinant of rank and determinant of military supplies to a particular shelf. Second function in some measure made by the strap colors, but entirely by the mounting straps monograms, letters and numbers indicating the number of the regiment.

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryAlso located on the shoulder straps Monogram. Monograms system so complex that it will be a separate article. While details are limited to short.
Monogram on the shoulder straps and encryption are the same as on the epaulettes. Star sewn on the shoulder straps in the shape of a triangle and then placed properly — the bottom two stars on both sides of encryption (or, in the absence of space above it), and on the shoulder straps without encryption — at a distance of 7/8 inches (38.9mm.) From the bottom of their edge. The height of letters and numbers, encryption is generally equal to 1 inch of (4.4 cm.)

On the shoulder straps with lace edging on the top edge of the shoulder strap goes only to the edging.

But, in 1860, and on the shoulder straps, no edging, lace trim, too, were not reaching the top of the overhead of approximately 1/16 of an inch (2.8mm).

The figure shown on the left shoulder strap Major 4th Regiment in the division, the right shoulder strap captain in the third regiment of the division (in the pursuit of high monogram chief Regiment Prince of Orange).

Since the shoulder straps sewn into the shoulder seam, then remove it from the uniform (coat, vic-polukaftana) was unreal. Because epaulettes in cases when they should wear, strengthened right over the shoulder strap.

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryEpaulet attachment feature was that he was lying on the shoulder is all free. Only the upper end was fastened with a button. From the offset forward or reverse its so-called delayed kontropogonchik (also referred to as kontrepoletom, epaulettes), is a loop of a narrow braid sewn on the shoulder. Epaulette is palmed off under kontrpogonchik.

If you wear the shoulder strap kontrpogonchik lying under epaulet. In order to wear epaulettes, shoulder strap unfasten, passed under kontrpogonchikom and re-fastened. Then, under kontrpogonchikom passed epaulettes, which also then to wear a button.

But such "sandwich" looked very unsuccessfully and 12 March 1859 was followed by Decree that allowed the straps to shoot when you should wear shoulder pads. This led to a redesign of the chase.
In the main catch on the technique of shoulder straps fastened by the straps sewn to the lower edge of the shoulder strap from the inside out. This strap is held under kontrpogonchikom, and its upper end to wear a seat on the same button as the strap itself.
This mount was almost all seem to mount epaulet with the only difference being that under kontropogonchikom took no shoulder straps, and its strap.

In the coming this method remains the only (except for the full sequin stripes on the shoulder). Inserting the lower edge of the ring in the shoulder seam is only coats (coats), as wearing epaulets on their first, and was not provided.

On the uniforms, which were used as the front and conventional, ie worn with epaulettes and shoulder straps with this kontrpogonchik persisted in the early XX century. For all other types of forms used instead kontrpogonchi
ka inconspicuous under epaulet loops.


In that year he published "Description of the officers uniforms," in which states:

1. Width of shoulder straps for all the officers and generals of the 1 1/2 inches (67mm.).

2. Width clearances for staff and senior-officer epaulets quarter inches (5.6mm)..

3. The distance between the edge and the edge of overhead braid quarter inches (5.6mm)..

However, using standard portupeyny braid so far: (a narrow 1/2 inches (22mm) wide or 5/8 inches (27.8mm.)) To reach the edges of the break and regulated by the regulated width overhead unrealistic. Because manufacturers strap or going to a certain change of the width of the braid, or to change the width of the shoulder straps ..
This situation lasted until the end of the Russian Army.

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryFrom the creator. On a stunningly performed by Alexey Khudyakov (forgive me for it is so unbending borrowing) Figure overhead warrant officer of the 200th Infantry Regiment Kronshlotskogo clearly visible outline specifically portupeynogo wide braid. Also noticeable is obvious that the free side edges of overhead if the width of a narrow lumen, although according to the rules they should be equal.
An asterisk (silver embroidered) is located above the coded message. Accordingly, the star lieutenant, lieutenant and captain will be posted on the coded message, not on the edges of it, so as to place them there because of the three-digit regiment has no place.

Sergei Popov in the magazine article, "an old armory," wrote that in the sixties of the XIX century private spread the ready braid for staff and senior-officer shoulder boards, which are comprised of a single braid woven into it in one or 2-color pages prescribed width (5.6 m). And the whole width of the braid itself was equal to the width of the general's braid (1 1/4 inches (56 mm)). Perhaps this is the case (shoulder strap surviving countless photos confirm this), but even during the war majestically met straps made according to the rules (Rules nosheniya form odezhki officers vsh rodov oruzhiya.S.-Peterburg. 1910.).

Certainly in the course were those and other types of shoulder straps.

From the creator. That's how evenly began to disappear awareness of "gaps." At first it was really the gaps between the rows of braids. Well, when it became simply colored stripes and braided, the premature recognition of their lost, although the term is preserved even in Russian times.

Circulars issued by the General Staff of the number 23 in 1880 and number 132 in 1881 was allowed to be worn on the shoulder straps instead of braid iron plate on which is stamped with gold braid sketch.

Significant configurations in size shoulder straps and their parts in the next few years did not happen. Is that in 1884 the rank of Major General was abolished and headquarters officers' epaulettes with 2 asterisks are history. From now on the shoulder straps with 2 stars or lumen was not at all (Col.), and there were three (lieutenant colonel). Note that the rank of lieutenant colonel in the Guard was not.

It should also be noted that from the very inception of the officer-braided epaulets not including ciphers, stars in a special labor guns (artillery, engineer troops) were located on the shoulder straps so-called special signs pointing to an officer belonging to the special nature of the gun. For the Gunners it was crossed trunks of ancient cannons for sapper battalion crossed ax and shovel. With the development of the number of Special Forces spetsnznakov (today they are called emblems of the armed forces), and by the middle of stateliness War there were more than 2-10-s. Not having the opportunity to show them all, limited by the available creator. Color by certain exceptions for special characters match the color braid. They are usually manufactured from brass. For the silver field overhead they usually ludilis or silver.

At the outbreak of the First World War officer's insignia looked then as follows:

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryFrom left to right top row:

* The Captain Training auto company. Motorists put special characters instead of encryption. Since it was set up when implementing different characters for this company.

* Captain Caucasian majestically Prince Misha N. Grenadier Artillery Brigade. Braid, like all the artillery gold, gold monogram brigade chief, as well as special characters Grenadier artillery. Special signs placed above the monogram. The general rule was put up special signs ciphers or monograms. Third and fourth sprockets placed above encryption. And if the officer had been laid and special characters, the special characters asterisk above.

* Lieutenant Colonel of the 11th Hussars Izyumske. Two asterisks, as befits the edges of encryption, and the third over the coded message.

* Adjutant. Rank equal to the Colonel. Outside, it is distinguished from the colonel snow-white edging around the field overhead regimental colors (reddish here). Monogram of Emperor Nicholas II as befits adjutant reverse color color braid.

* Major-General of the 50th Division. Most likely, it's the commander of a brigade of the division, as the divisional commander is on the uniform case number (in Roman numerals), which comes to the division.

* Field-Marshal. The last Russian general-field marshal was DA Milutin, who died in 1912. There was, however, during the First World War, another man who had the rank of Field Marshal of the Russian Army — the master of Montenegro Nicholas I Negosh. But it was what is called "wedding general." No relation to the Russian Army, he had not. Granting him the title of this was of a purely political nature.

* 1 special signs anti-aircraft artillery automotive spare parts, 2 special characters motochasti anti-aircraft machine gun, 3 special characters motopontonnogo Battalion 4 — special characters railway parts, 5 special characters Grenadier artillery.

Encryption and digital literal (Order of the military establishment number 100 1909. & Circular of the General Staff number 7 — 1909.)
* Encryption in a row is placed at a distance of half an inch (22mm.) from the bottom of the overhead at the height of the letters and numbers 7/8 inches (39mm.).
* Encryption is placed in two rows — the bottom row at a distance of half an inch (22mm.) from the lower overhead at the height of the letters and the letters of the bottom row 3/8 inches (16.7 mm.). The top row is divided by the lower row of spaced 1/8 inches (5.6mm).. The height of the top row of letters and numbers 7/8 inches (39mm.).

The question concerning the softness or hardness of the strap is still open. In the regulatory requirements anything about it does not say. Of course everything is dependent on the submission of an officer. On numerous photos of the late XIX — early XX century, we litsezreem officers and Myagenko and rigid straps.

It should be noted that the shoulder straps Myagenko very quickly starts to look quite messy. He lies down on the arm contour, ie gets twists, kinks. And if we add to this the frequent donning and taking off his coat, then crumpled overhead only increases. Besides fabric overhead, soaking and drying in rainy weather sets (decreases in size), while the braid ow
n size does not change. Smarschivaetsya shoulder straps. To a large extent as to avoid bending smarschivaniya and overhead can be achieved by placing the inside of a rigid substrate. But the hard shoulder straps, especially on his uniform under his greatcoat presses on the shoulder.
It seems that every time the officers regardless of personal preference and convenience decide for themselves what suits them better strap.

Remark. On the shoulder straps in the alpha and numeric ciphers certainly was a point after the number and after each letter combinations. And at the same time point was not posed with monograms.

From the creator. From the creator. In the pros and shortcomings hard shoulder straps and Myagenko creator made sure to have personal experience with admission to the school in 1966. Following the cadet fashion, I stuck to their new straps plastic plate. Shoulder straps immediately got hold of a certain elegance that I really liked. They are smooth and well laid on his shoulders. But the first lesson as a drill sergeant with a gun led me to bitterly regret manufactured. These solid shoulder straps shoulders hurt so much that on the same evening I made the reverse function, and more in all the years cadet life is not dandy.
Officer's insignia of the sixties and the eighties of the XX century were tough. But they were sewn on the shoulders of coats and overcoats, which on account of crinoline and wool did not change shape. And at the same time, do not put pressure on the shoulders of the officer. So managed to achieve what no myalis shoulder straps, and not to cause inconveniences to the officer.

Epaulettes Officer of Hussars

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryWe have described above shoulder straps in their historical development since 1854. However, these straps were prescribed for all sorts guns, not counting the hussar regiments. It is worth recalling that the hussar officers except Dolomanov widely recognized and Mentik had, like other military branches coats, vic-coats, coats, etc., which differed only by some decorative elements.
Epaulettes same hussar officers have 7 May 1855 received braid, which had the title 'hussar zigzag. " Generals same number on Hussars, received no special braid. They wore obschegeneralsky braid on the shoulder straps.

For simplicity of presentation we show only the standards hussar officer shoulder boards of the late period (1913).

To the left shoulder strap of Lieutenant Mitavsky the 14th Hussars, the right shoulder strap colonel of the 11th Hussars Izyumske. Clearly placing asterisks — the bottom two on the edges of encryption, third higher. Color field overhead (gaps, edges) have the same color as the color of the lower ranks of the shoulder straps regiments.

But braids "hussar zigzag" on the shoulder straps were not only officers hussar regiments.

Already in 1855, the same lace was given the officers' Own Pravitelskogo His Majesty's Convoy "(according to the magazine" an old armory "in March 1856).

And June 29, 1906 gold braid "hussar zigzag" were officers of the Life Guards 4th Rifle Battalion of the Imperial Family. Color epaulettes in this battalion — crimson.

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryAnd, in the end, July 14, 1916 Hussar zigzag was assigned officers George Battalion of the General Headquarters.

There is self-explanatory. This battalion was formed from among fighter awarded crosses of St. George. Officers of the Order sv.Zhoru all 4 items. Both are usually one of those who, because of injury, illness, age is no longer able to wage war in the ranks.
We can say that this battalion became a kind of repetition of Rota palace grenadier (made in 1827, the number of veterans of past wars), except for the front.

Curious and kind of strap that battalion. In the lower ranks of field overhead orange with black stripes in the center and on the sides.
Swab was different battalions that had black edging, and was visible in the lumen of the central narrow dark band. The figure of this overhead, which is taken from the approved Minister of War, General of Infantry Shuvaeva description, one can see the orange field, dark edging.

Departing from the topic. General of Infantry Shuvaev Dmitry Savelievich. The Minister of War from 15 March 1916 to 3 January 1917. On the origin of noble people. That is, not a gentleman, and the son of a man who was only a personal nobility. According to some reports, Dmitry Savelievich was the son fighter, rising to the rank of junior officer ranks.
Of course, becoming a full general, Shuvaev received the hereditary nobility.

This I mean that many of even the highest of the Russian Army generals were not necessarily counts, princes, landlords, the word "snow-white bone" as our long years trying to convince the Russian propaganda. And to become a general peasant son could just as well as the prince. Naturally, the commoner it was necessary to do more work and effort. So after all, at all different times and circumstances, the situation was the same way today. The sons of huge bosses and Russian times had much more likely to become generals, if sons or combine miners.

And in the civilian war aristocrats Ignatiev, Brusilov, Potapov were on the side of the Bolsheviks, but the soldiers' kids Denikin, Kornilov led Snow-white movement.

It can be concluded that the political views a person determined not his class origin, and other than that.

The end of the retreat.

Shoulder straps of officers and generals of supplies and retired

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryEverything described above applies only to officers who are on actual military service.
The officers and generals are in the supplies or retired before 1883 (according S.Popov) the right to wear epaulettes or shoulder straps were not, even though the right to wear military odezhki as such, usually had.
According to the same V.M.Glinki officers and generals who have been dismissed from service "with the uniform," had no right to wear epaulettes (and with the introduction of shoulder straps and them) from 1815 to 1896.

Officers and generals in supplies.

In 1883 (according to S.Popov) generals and officers are in the supplies and have the right to wear military uniform, had to have a lateral stripe on the shoulder straps of braid color working width 3/8 inches (17mm.).

The figure to the left shoulder strap of captain in the stores right shoulder boards of major general in the supplies.

Pay attention that the draft general's stripes is slightly different from the officer.

I dare to imagine that because the officers and generals of the supplies were not considered in certain regiments, the encryption and monograms they were not. In any case, according to the book Schenk, monogram on the shoulder straps and epaulettes are not discharged in store in the Adjutant General, adjutant and promoted to major general of His Majesty's suites, as well as a
ll the others who dropped out of the suites for at least the reasons why.

Officers and generals dismissed resign "from his uniform" worn straps with a special pattern.

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centurySince the general's zigzag stripe on the pursuit covered 17-mm. braid back color having to turn a sketch of the general's zigzag.

At the seat of retired officers place portupeynogo braid braid was used "hussar zigzag" but by working zigzag color.

Remark. "Textbook for the average" edition of 1916 shows that the average braid on the pursuit of a retired staff officer was one hundred percent working color, not only the zigzag.

Senior officers, retired (according to the "Primer Series" edition of 1916.) Were not long rectangular shaped shoulder straps placed across the shoulder.

Very special braid officers were laid off down to injury and retired officers of the Cavaliers of St. George. Their part of the braid, adjacent to the lumens had the opposite color.

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centuryThe figure shows the insignia of a retired major general, a retired lieutenant colonel, retired lieutenant and captain, who was dismissed in resignation to injury or Knights of St. George, retired.

By the way, the creator not convinced that retired officers could wear their own encryption regiments or monogram, as shown in the figure.

The figure on the right shoulder straps on the officers' coats on the eve of the First World War. Then the chief officer of the Grenadier Sapper Battalion.

In October 1914 (Order of VV number 698 of 10/31/1914) in connection with the war for the army in the army, that is, for the parts that are on the front and sustainer of parts (ie parts, next to the front) were introduced hiking straps. I quote:

"1) The Generals headquarters and company-grade officers, doctors and military bureaucracy of the army, in accordance with safety straps lower ranks — to establish cloth straps, protective, without vypushek, oxidised with buttons for all the parts, with embroidered temnooranzhevymi (light brown) stripes (tracks) to denote rank and oxidised with an asterisk to denote the rank of …

3) coats of protective shoulder straps instead of the officers, bureaucrats and military ensign allowed to have shoulder straps of cloth greatcoat (where the lower ranks have any yet).

4) Embroidery strips allow a substitute stripe narrow ribbons temnooranzhevogo or light brown color.

5) the suite monogram images at designated straps have light brown or temnooranzhevym embroidered silk, and the rest were coded and special characters (if any) — have oxidized (burned), cost. ….

Rank insignia of the Russian Army.  XIX-XX centurya) to denote the rank of the band should be: at the general's ranks — twisting, at the seat of the officer ranks — double, in the chief officer ranks — single, overall width of about 1/8 inches;
b) The width of the shoulder strap: at the officers' ranks — 1 3/8 — 1 1/2 inches, the doctors and military officials — 1 — 1 1/16 inches …. "

So Makar, gold braid epaulettes in 1914 have given way to a camp and a cheap form of regular marching shoulder straps.

But, for the troops in the rear area, and in the two capitals preserved gold braid epaulets. Though, it must be emphasized that in February 1916 the commander of the Metropolitan District, General of the Ordnance Mrozovskii II issued an order (№ 160 of 10.02.1916), in which the officers claimed to wear in Moscow and in general throughout the country neighborhood only gold braid epaulets, not hiking that are prescribed only for the army. Of course, wearing hiking strap in the rear by then assumed a mass character. Everyone seems to look like an experienced front-line soldiers.
At the same time, on the contrary, in the front-line units in 1916 "in vogue" gold braid epaulets. In particular, these different ripening officers, warrant issued by a school of war that did not have the ability to have time to show off a beautiful campuses in the form of the front and gold epaulets.

With the arrival in Russia of the Bolsheviks December 16, 1917 published by the Central Executive Committee and SNK decree abolishing the army in all ranks and titles, and "external and titles of distinction."

-Braided epaulets disappeared from the shoulders of the Russian officers for many years on May 20. In the Red Army, made in February 1918, the pursuit was not until January 1943.
During the war, civilian clothes in the armies of snow-white movement observed complete lack of coordination — from wearing epaulettes destroyed by the Russian Army, a complete rejection shoulder straps and general public or character differences. It's all dependent on the views of local warlords, rather peremptory within its own borders. Some of them, such as, for example, Ataman Annenkov, in general began to invent and its shape and decals. But this is a topic for another article.

Sources and Literature
1. Magazine, "an old armory" № 2-3 (40-41)-2011.
2. Historical opisanie odezhki and vooruzheniya rossiyskih voysk. Part of the nineteenth. Izdanie Glavnago Intendantskago Upravleniya. St. Peterburg. 1902.
3. V.K.Shenk. Terms nosheniya form odezhki officers vsh rodov oruzhiya.S.-Peterburg. 1910.
4. V.K.Shenk. Table form obmundirovaniya Russian Armii.S.-Peterburg. 1910.
5. V.K.Shenk. Table form obmundirovaniya Russian Armii.S.-Peterburg. 1911.
6. V.V.Zvegintsov. Forms Russian Armii. Parizh.1959g.
7. Poster "Naruzhnyya otlichiya chinov and zvaniy voennago vedomstv and sea." 1914.
8. M.M.Hrenov and other military odezhka Russian Army. Military Press. Moscow. 1994.
9. Website "Badges of the Imperial Russian Army in 1913" (semiryak.my1.ru).
10.V.M. Glinka. Russian Private military suit XVIII-beginning of XX century. Painter of the RSFSR. Leningrad.1988g.
11.Voennaya entsiklopediya. Volume 7. T in I.D.Sytina. Peterburg.1912g.
12.Phota. Manual of the ordinary for the first unto god sluzhby.Izdanie XXVI. Jus.1916g.

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