Riddles Cimmerian civilization

Cimmerian people is one of the oldest nations in Eastern Europe and the first tribe of the region title, which remained in the earliest written sources. Mysteries of the Cimmerian civilization still not solved and leave a lot of difficult questions for historians and archaeologists associated with their origin and history.

The ancestral home of the Cimmerian tribe is the basic version of the Lower Volga region, from which the 1000 years before our era began promotion in the northern Black Sea. Kimry city, located in the Tver region of modern Russia, to this day keeps the name Cimmerian people.

Cimmerians — nomadic tribes, one of the first settled in the 8th century BC, in the south area of the steppes of Eastern Europe from the Dniester to the Don. Historians have not come to a consensus as to the origin of this ancient people. Perhaps they are the descendants of the tribes belonging to the "carcass culture", and can — the collective name for a number of nomads. Some historians in anthropological terms refer to the peoples of the Cimmerians Caspian region (that is, the Iranian type). Others suggest that the Cimmerians have similar features with the Circassians. Third, that they belong to an ethnic group of the Thracians. Another interesting fact is that some of the kings of Bosporus were Thracian names. But, perhaps, the most incredible version Cimmerians are the progenitors of the Celts.

In his "Odyssey," Homer tells about the country Cimmerians which prostilaetsya on the ocean. In the polar night Odysseus sailed to this country and visited one of its cities. Odysseus describes him in the darkness without a ray of sun. It should be noted that the ancient Greeks imagined vaguely Nordic countries on Greece.

It is believed that the most reliable information about the Cimmerians recorded in the Assyrian texts of the late 8th century BC, where they are referred to as "Ghimire." In Assyrian sources indicated their invasion of Assyria, Egypt, the Near East and Asia Minor, and the conquest of Lydia, who later they could not keep. The image of the Cimmerian warrior tribe, was immortalized in the text and in the fine arts, such as vase painting. On Etruscan vases Cimmerians depicted as riders with tall hats that symbolize Upper Egypt, expelling the Hyksos. Although it is likely Hyksos Cimmerians do not expelled, and their reputation for strong warriors forced the masters of ancient times to portray the image of the "enemy" in this way.

It should also mention the king Sargon II, referred to in the Bible. He conquered Israel, Syria, a number of territories east, Asia Minor, and even in the year 710 BC, captured most of Babylon — the throne, which the king Sargon II held for four years. His victories were multiplied: the capture of Carchemish, the attack on Cyprus. However, his victory broke the world order of the day. A threat trading post on the banks of the Black Sea: Tahir, Olbia, Feodosia, Pantikopii both. It is from this opposition came in the form of Sargon army Cimmerians. They came from the western shores of the Black Sea and in the battle in 704 BC by King Sargon II was killed. Chronicles preserved until today the names of the kings Cimmerian people: Lingdamid, Teushpa, Shanda, Kshatriyas. First name Lingdamid has Greek roots, the second Teushpa tune called Hittite god of thunder, and the third-Shanda ksatra in the language of the Aryans of India means warrior. These names leave us with a riddle: "Who are these Cimmerians?"

Apparently, for some time the Cimmerian tribes controlled the entire northern coast of the Black Sea, and extending from the Dniester to the Kerch Strait. Under their control to the middle eight millennium BC were large territories: Crimea, Azov and the Kuban region. Cimmerians further extended its influence and the Trans-Caucasian region, attacked the kingdom of Van (Urartu).

In the second half of the 7th century BC, the Cimmerians conquered Phrygia in Asia Minor, and then Lydia. The penetration of the Cimmerians into Asia Minor speak archaeological finds — ancient arrowheads found during the excavations carried out in the present territory of Turkey.

The ancient Greek historian Herodotus wrote in his writings that in the 7th century BC, the Cimmerians of the Northern Black Sea drove the Scythians and they moved to the southern shore of the Black Sea. Herodotus also states that he had seen in the Dniester burial Cimmerian kings.

He talks about that special moment, the path of the Cimmerian tribes, "Cimmerians always ran along the sea, and the Scythian war pursued, with the right hand of the Caucasus itself." In other words, the Scythians were moving along the coast of the Caspian Sea, and the tribes on the Black Sea coast Cimmerians Caucasus. Under pressure from the Scythians Cimmerians were divided into two groups. One part remained in the Crimea and in the North Caucasus region, where mixed lived in the area tribes — "Cindy". Another part of the Cimmerians went to Western Europe, as embodied in its "Germany", the Roman historian Tacitus.

Archaeologists Balkan and Black Sea countries associated with the age of the Cimmerians transition from bronze to iron. With the "Cimmerian culture" connected by many crouched burial, dating back to the Bronze Age and ending with the first centuries of our era. These burials were found in the lower part of the Scythian burial mounds, and sometimes together with Scythian graves, so in the necropolis of the city-colonies of Greece: Olbia, Panntikopeya, Hersonissos. During the excavation of the graves in archeology are: stone weapons, pottery, part of red ocher. By Cimmerian identities can be attributed found on the Dnieper to the Kuban stone boxes in the form of burial structures are best preserved in the mountain area.

In mound Solokha found Scythian quiver, which depicts a scene Scythian-Cimmerian battle: two Cimmerian fighting foot skiff with a rider. The first of these fights battle ax, and the second — a dagger. It should be noted that in this image looks Cimmerian warriors closer to the Aryan type, and the features are more similar to the Scythian Altaic type.

About beliefs Cimmerian people know little, only that, like the Scythians, central place belonged to the god of war, and they worshiped the sword. A special place in this nation occupied culture burial. In grave pinned gifts sacrifices, though there are simple burial. At the burial of men put weapons, tools, and equipment and food. In the women — the dishes, ornaments and pins.

At present, it is possible to lift a little riddle Cimmerian civilization through the burials, which is sure to be associated with these ancient people and to clarify some details of their stories.

In the summer of 2005 conducted excavations of the mound Uashhitu (Adygeya Republic). In the valley of the river near the village of Fars Kabehabl researchers examined previously unknown mound Uashhitu-2. Here were found buried forty-two and seven horses ritual burials dated from III century BC to the I century AD. These graves were discovered: the grave Maikop leader with four horses harnessed to a wooden chariot tomb of great significance aristocracy of the time and a number of unusual fresh grave. The rest were buried in the mound Uashhitu-2-Sarmatian warrior, a woman with a baby and children. But the huge interest of scientists led by feasts place Cimmerian chieftain and his very grave, as well as the remains of a wooden chariot-quadriga. Over many years of archaeological research conducted in the Caucasus such chariots were found only two. Among the large number of artifacts, such as bronze needles, ceramic jewelry for women (rings, glass beads), a rare ritual knife of flint, fighting tip from arrows and other artifacts, one of the most vivid impressions produces bronze cheek-pieces are a pair of rods attached fished the ends, and of course the ring and plaques Cimmerian chariot. Depicted on the badge sun sign. According to ancient beliefs, drawn chariot death was to deliver a noble world of the living from the dead to the world of the dead. Mound Uashhit talked about a lot of different funeral rites, based on which you can learn about the culture of the ancient tribes over 3 centuries.

The recent sensational archaeological discovery in Kabardino-Balkaria has been called the discovery of world importance and even Caucasian Stonehenge. On the edge of a cliff near the village Zayukovana installed large boulders above human growth, one of them has a seat. Presumably this is a solar observatory (like Stonehenge and Arkaim). There is an ancient cave and found a necropolis. According to experts, this plain was a ritual place.

Necropolis discovered layered, with an area about four hundred square meters. Caucasian people buried here different eras are buried at the bottom of the Cimmerians (found artifacts dated to 7.8 century BC), in the middle of the top row of the Scythians and Alans. But there is no doubt that this is exactly the necropolis Cimmerian period. Helmets found that people are identical depicted on Etruscan vases.

Archaeological finds in the mountains of the North Caucasus will become "historical gem" that is able to attract to the region, thousands of people from around the world.

Cimmerians to our times are naizagadochneyshim tribe of ancient Eurasia. This is due to the fact that the archaeological finds, unlocking the secrets of their stories, found very little. At present, any finding artifacts that belonged to the people of the ever mysterious people, is the real sensation for historians and archaeologists.

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