Contrary to the famous dictum of Karamzin significant admixture of Tartar blood "pure Russian" scientists find traces failed. The results of a large study showed that the largest ethnic group in Europe is composed of two small mixed groups among themselves, and the Poles and Ukrainians genetically closer Russian central Russia than their fellow-northerners.
For a long time the main method of distinguishing the different ethnic groups of human civilization is the comparison of languages, dialects and dialects used by whether other populations. A fundamentally different approach in defining relationship of certain people demonstrate genetic genealogy. It uses the information hidden in the Y-chromosome is passed from father to son virtually unchanged.
This allows for the male chromosome team of Russian scientists from the Medical Genetic Research Center, in cooperation with Estonian and British geneticists were able to identify a significant discontinuity traditional Russian population in our country and to trace the history of the formation of the laws of development of Russia from prehistoric times to the era of the reign of Ivan the Terrible.
The results of a large-scale experiment, published in the latest issue of The American Journal of Human Genetics.
Generally speaking, the history of the haploid (single, not having the genome by homologous Me) Y-chromosome, as well as its geography, is dedicated to increasing scientific papers. Their goal — to establish patterns of change it in accordance with the historical period of time and geography, and to compare the obtained picture of similar to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), inherited only through the maternal line.
So far, there is a rather limited number of publications on the subject of inter-ethnic variations in genetic structure of the Y-chromosome. Nevertheless, it is the first research on the genetic variations of the structure passed from generation to generation through the male line by a number of European experts in the early twenty-first century, it showed significant geographic differentiation.
One of the main findings of the pioneering work is the paramount importance of the geographical and linguistic factors do not explain the observed variability in the Y-chromosomes of various ethnic groups in Europe.
The term "ethnicity" in such work is defined strictly enough and represents a population that speaks the same language and having a long history, which includes a specific habitat and general biogeographical origins.
In Eastern Europe for many centuries has been the crossroads of migration routes of populations inhabiting the vast territory of Central Europe to the borders of modern China. Despite the fact that this area was inhabited even before the last glaciation of the planet around 20,000 years ago, the evidence points directly to the existence of any "native" peoples who lived in this area, no.
Genetic structure of these populations to date remains a mystery.
For example, the analysis of skeletal remains indicates that the main area of people to people contacts Caucasoid Mongoloid type located in Western Siberia, and to Eastern Europe dokatyvalis only the echoes of Mongoloid wave.
Traditional territories forming Slavic peoples also still face quite a stormy discussion, but surely found that the mass migration of the Slavs from Central Europe to the East took place in VII-IX centuries. Resettlement occurred in two directions — the north-east and south-east. Apparently, the migration to the northeast accompanied by extensive assimilation of the local ethnic groups — the Baltic and Finno-Ugric.
In the last published research team focused on the study of Y-chromosome variation in the Russian ethnos. Currently, Russian — the most numerous ethnic group, living in about one third of the European subcontinent. Russian identity is finally formed roughly between XIV and XVI centuries of our era in the central and northern regions of Eastern Europe. Center of Russian territory was the Grand Duchy of Moscow, while the south and west of the Eastern European territories went to the linguistically close to the Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples.
The author analyzed the work transmitted through the male line of the genetic structure of our contemporaries in 1228, living on the territory of ancient Muscovy. Data were collected in 14 regions of Russia. Volunteers provide their genetic material, can say with certainty that their ancestors up to the 4th tribe are ethnic Russian. During the analysis, preference was given to villages and towns in order to minimize the probability of a test migration of people in the recent past. In addition, the study participants did not have to consist of a relative up to the third generation.
The goal was to establish the history of the formation of the Russian gene pool, as well as identification of patterns of variation of the male chromosome, not exposed to recombination (non-recombining Y, NRY), on a wider area of western part of the Eurasian continent on the basis of data of others — within and between different populations of people .
Genetic data obtained were classified in 32 informative genetic markers. Next, the scientists had to assess the frequency of occurrence of certain haplogroups (large groups of similar types of Y-chromosome) among men, and to compare them with geographic data.
As a result, the researchers found significant intra variations of these frequencies, and in many cases loomed clear gradient of these changes, from the north-eastern territories to the south-west.
Combining the distribution maps of different frequencies of haplogroups, scientists were able to make the first comprehensive map of the genetic diversity of the regions of Russia. As in the case of individual frequencies, the combined map showed a gradual change in the structure of the male Y-chromosome Russians moving from north to south.
Application of the methods of multidimensional scaling allowed to divide the modern Russian into two large groups.
One inhabits modern central and southern regions of the ancient Duchy of Moscow, and the second is based in the northern lands.
In addition, the scientists were able to show that differences in the genetic structure of the Y-chromosome of northerners and southerners can not be explained only by the gradual genetic drift due to isolation of small populations due to geographical conditions. Comparison of male chromosome variability Russian data neighboring nations showed a great similarity with the northern Finnish-speaking ethnic groups, while the inhabitants of the center and the south of Russia, were genetically more similar to other nationalities, we communicate in Slavic dialects. If the former is often found "Varangian" haplogroup N3, widespread in Finland and northern Sweden (however, as in Siberia), to a second characteristic haplogroup R1a, typical of the Slavs in Central Europe.
Thus, another factor in determining, according to scientists, the differences between Russian northerners and our southern population is assimilation tribes lived on this land long before it our ancestors. Not excluded version of their cultural and linguistic "Russification" no significant genetic mixing. This theory is confirmed by the data of linguistic research, describing the Finno-Ugric component of the northern Russian dialects, almost common in Southerners.
Genetic assimilation has resulted in the presence of Y-chromosome of the northern regions of the family of N-haplogroups. The same haplogroup is also common for the majority of the peoples of Asia, but the Russian northerners than this haplogroup is almost never show other genetic markers that are common in Asians, such as C and Q.
This suggests that any significant migration of people from the Asian regions in prehistoric times of the Proto-Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe were not.
Was not surprising to scientists is another fact: the genetic variation of Y-chromosomes of residents in the central and southern regions of ancient Russia were not only virtually identical to those of the "Slav brothers" — Ukrainians and Belarusians, but also very similar in structure to the variations of the Poles.
Scientists believe that this observation can be interpreted in two ways. First, the genetic structure of this proximity may mean that the process of Russian advance eastward was not accompanied by assimilation of local peoples — at least those that had strong differences in the structure of male genetic line. Second, it may mean that the Slavic tribes have already mastered these lands long before the mass migration to them in VII-IX centuries the main part of the old Russian (or rather, of the East Slavic peoples, not further divided into Russian and other peoples). Such a view is consistent with the fact that the Eastern and Western Slavs show greater similarity and smooth natural changes in the structure of male genetic line.
It is worth noting that in all cases of genetically identified subpopulations fell within ethnic groups, with certain linguistic items. However, this rule is one very interesting exception: the four large groups of Slavic nations — Ukrainians, Polish and Russian, and is not shown in the diagram Belarusians — show greater intimacy as in the genetic structure of hereditary male line, and in the language. At the same time Russian northerners are far removed from the group in the chart of multidimensional scaling.
It would seem that this must be in conflict with the notion that geographical factors have a greater impact on the variation of Y-chromosome, rather than linguistic, as the territory occupied Poland, Ukraine and central Russia extends almost to the center of Europe to its eastern border . The authors, commenting on this fact, note that the genetic variations appear to have much in common, even for geographically remote ethnic groups, provided that their languages are similar.
To sum up the article, the authors conclude that, despite the conventional wisdom strong Tatar and Mongol admixture in Russian blood, inherited by their ancestors in the days of the Mongol-Tatar invasion, haplogroup Turkic peoples and other Asian ethnic groups left little trace on the population in the current north-west , central and southern regions.
Instead, the genetic structure of the paternal population of European Russia shows a smooth change when moving from north to south, indicating that the two centers of formation of ancient Russia. The motion of the ancient Slavs in the northern areas was accompanied by assimilation of local Finno-Ugric tribes, while some areas in the southern Slavic tribes and peoples have existed long before the Slavic "Great Migration."