SAM "Bomark" was designed to provide air defense vast areas of the U.S. and Canada. This is a stationary anti-aircraft complex.
Feature of the building units of the complex is that system detection and targeting, as a means of regulation serve multiple rockets launchers placed on the significant distance from each other.
The contract for the development of the complex U.S. Air Force contracted with the company "Boeing" and subcontractor "Michigan Aeronautical Research Center" in 1951
The development was accompanied by disputes between SAM South American spices on a good defense structure of the United States and Canada. Experts at the Air Force believed that this defense should be built on the basis of complexes with intercept range of about 400 km and more than ensuring that cover significant areas and zones. Specialists army defended the concept of "point" object air defense, which provides for the use of medium-range air defense system acts around individual defended disposable objects.
SAM "Bomark" on the launch pad, 1956
Conducted in the U.S. military and economic studies have shown an advantage in terms of professionals in the Air Force: the price of these complexes is approximately twice lower and they require staff almost seven times less; occupy space combat means almost 2.5 times less. But the judgments of the software "defense in depth" the U.S. military command has approved the two concepts.
A distinctive feature of the SAM "Bomark" is that he does not own part of the system of detection and targeting, as a significant part of the controls SAM. The functions of these tools and systems makes automatic control system of a single defense in the U.S. and Canada, "Sage," which directly drives the fighting interceptors and other air defense system.
With this construction SAM "Bomark" is actually only needed a missile that interacts with the "Sage" and the launcher for it.
Flight tests missiles "Bomark," August 1958
Initially, the complex was designated XF-99, IM-99 later and then CIM-10A.
Tests propulsion system for missiles' Bomark "began in 1951. Flight tests began in late June 1952, but due to the lack of equipment tests were postponed until 10 September 1952. Second tests were passed January 23, 1953 at the site "Cape Canaveral", and others — June 10, 1953. In 1954 was held on 3 launch. At the end of the test, in 1958, 25 rockets were fired and the example program was transferred to the tests on the ground "Santa Rosa Island". During the tests, 1952-1958 gg. at the site "Cape Canaveral" was released approx. 70 missiles. By December 1, 1957 "Air Proving Ground Command" and "Air Force Armament Center" have been combined into a single test center defense "Air Proving Ground Center", where the coming and tested "Bomark."
Two modifications of known SAM "Bomark" — A and B, taken at the air defense of U.S. territories and Canada in 1960 and 1961, respectively. They are characterized by the highest military range and altitude (which is achieved at the expense of the main propulsion engine power), the type of booster and a view of the radiation active radar homing. Martial most their range of 420 and 700 km, respectively. The transition to the GOS with pulsed light (option A) to a continuous (option B) increased the ability of missiles to intercept low-flying targets.
SAM "Bomark" at the Museum of the U.S. Air Force
Team for putting missiles "Bomark" produced by a digital computer center guidance sector defense system, "Sage" and transmitted through underground cables to transmit radio control station, from where they came aboard the rocket. This computer data is entered on the order received from numerous radar detection and recognition system, "Sage."
SAM launcher for both modifications single. It is stationary, designed for one missile and provides its vertical launch. Built next 30-60 launchers form the basis missiles, launch pad. Any such base is connected by underground cables to a suitable point within the "Sage", which is located at a distance from it from 80 to 480 km.
There are several types of hangars for SAM launchers "Bomark": with sun roof, with sliding walls, etc. In the first case a block of reinforced concrete shelter (length 18.3, width 12.8, height 3.9 m) for starting installation consists of a 2-parts: starter compartment in which is mounted in fact launcher, and cover with a number of rooms, where the monitoring devices and control equipment start-Zour. To bring the launcher into the firing position hydraulic actuators, operating from the compressor station, the roof flaps apart (two panel width 0.56 m and weighing 15 tons each). The rocket rises arrow from horizontal to vertical position. For these operations, also the inclusion of on-board equipment SAM spent up to 2 minutes.
SAM consists of a base assembly and repair shop, in fact launchers and compressor station.
In assembly and repair shop is assembled missile entering the base exploded individual transport containers. In the same workshop repairs required SAM.
The layout of the missiles "Bomark A" (a) and "Bomark B" (b):
1 — homing head, 2 — electric equipment 3 — fighting compartment, 4 — fighting compartment, electric equipment, elektrobatareya 5 — ramjet
Anti-aircraft guided missile "Bomark" forms A and B sup
ersonic (the largest flying speed 850 and 1300 m / s, respectively) and has airplane procedures (like Russian flying bomb "Tu-131"). At the height of the highest range and it flies in the running 2-ramjet propulsion in the watery fuel (stage powered flight). As a booster rocket used A rocket engine, rocket and B — solid propellant rocket motors.
In appearance modifications rockets A and B are not sufficiently different from each other. Their starting weight is 6860 and 7272 kg, length 14.3 and 13.7 m, respectively. They have similar bodies of widths — 0.89m, wingspan — 5.54 m and 3.2 m stabilizers
The head radome housing missiles made of fiberglass, covers seeker. The cylindrical portion of the main body is metal bearing watery tank of fuel ramjet.
Rotary wings are swept front edge 50 degrees. They do not turn completely, and are at the ends of the triangular ailerons — the console each about 1 m, which provide flight control the rate, pitch, and tilt.
Start SAM "Bomark"
The active radar homing missiles used for the modernized aircraft radar intercept and aiming. A homing missiles have impulse operating in the three-centimeter range radio waves. In the missile has a head with a continuous emission, which uses the principle of selection moves the goal of Doppler velocity. This allows you to direct missiles at low-flying targets, goals — Staging active interference. Range acts GOS — 20 km.
The warhead weighing about 150 kg can be ordinary or nuclear. TNT equivalent of nuclear warheads — 0.1 — 0.5 Mt, which is said to ensure destruction of aircraft at a miss to 800 m Undermining the target warhead is uncooperative or radar on the missile detonation device A or team-seeker on the missile B.
To power onboard equipment SAMs are used silver-zinc batteries.
Boosters to rocket A rocket engine is running on kerosene laced with unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and nitric acid. This engine is running for 45 seconds, driving the missile to the speed at which cut one ramjet, at about 10 km.
In the rocket in a solid propellant boosters, whose body is separated after fuel exhaustion. The use of solid propellant rocket engines instead allowed to reduce the dispersal of missiles, simplified operation and improved the reliability of the rocket.
In both versions of SAM as a sustainer engines used by two ramjet on the watery fuel, fortified by a pylon under the hull missile. The diameter of each of these engines 0.75, and the length of 4.4 m The fuel is gasoline with an octane number of 80.
Ramjet missiles are more efficient at cruising altitude. And it is for the rocket is 18.3 km, and for a rocket to the — 20 km.
The scheme acts SAM "Bomark"Command System" Sage ":
1 — launchers (Commercial) 2 — start of the line of traffic, 3 — sustainer of the line of traffic, 4 — terminal portion traetorii 5 — battalion command post interceptors, 6 — band data transmission 7 — reports on the state of combat assets, 8 — pre-start Dunn, 9 — Operations Centre of "Sage", 10 — station command aboard the SAM, 11 — Radar detection of distant defense sector, 12 — radar information on the purpose and missiles, 13 — team guidance.
Controlled flight line motion SAM "Bomark" the goal is divided into three sections.
First, vertical — a site altitude. In A rocket to the merits of supersonic gas-dynamic control software is done at the expense of turning on a cardan launch rocket engine, and on reaching this speed — aerodynamic aileron control. At launch due to the more saturated ramp starting RDTT effective aerodynamic control becomes possible even earlier. Vertical missiles flying up to cruising altitude, then turns to the target. By this time the tracking radar detects it and crosses on the tracking of using the on-board transponder beacon.
Second, horizontal — plot cruising at cruising altitude in the target area. Teams telenavedeniya on this site are received from the transfer station radio control systems "Sage." Regardless of the type of maneuvers to shell targets the trajectory of flight Zour on this site is subject to change.
The third section — the section of a particular attack targets when the ground by radio active radar homing missiles searches goal. After the "capture" of the head purpose communication with ground-based telenavedeniya stops and rocket flies, which cause independently.
In 1961 he was adopted into service improved version SAM "Bomark" — "Super Bomark" IM-99v.
SAM "Bomark" at the Museum of the U.S. Air Force
Missiles of this complex were protected 6 objects in the field of strategic U.S. and two — on the terrain of Canada.
Both types of missiles retired in 1972.