In December 2010, in Moscow, in its report on the scientific and practical conference "Historical and cultural heritage and contemporary ethnology", held at the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, I spoke about the depth of Russian mythological memory. The most respected scientists for his research indicates that Russian fairy tales were composed when our ancestors were still hunted mammoths, that is, in the Paleolithic. This is in the range of 50 to 15 thousand years ago.
Based on the study of archaeological data sets academician BA Fishermen discovered the deity that he attributed to the Paleolithic — "snake story appeared in the Paleolithic, but it is difficult to unravel its meaning" [Rybakov, 1981]. In Russian fairy tales often found a snake (or Miracle-Yuda), the description of which is "often refers tale trunks, and most snake calls" hobotistym. " Wonder Yudo their opponents no biting, no claws, and "driven into the ground," or has a trunk ("zhognul his trunk") "[Rybakov, 1981]. The product features of the Snake can see that they are mixed: on the one hand shows through unconditional mythology, and with another — unconditional reality. Especially in subjects with a trunk. In our view, there was a mixture of representations over time. First, the real picture is fighting with someone or something bigger, stronger, and later it became overgrown with myths and fairy tale.
Real side considered a possible monster BA Fishermen: "Most of his kill (besides the standard fairy sword) arrows, spears, and hot stones, which aides hero throwing his mouth … I do not think that would be a stretch to recognize in these fabulous monsters delineation of ancient superstitions mammoth (or mammoth), driven fire chain beaters in trapping a hole in the cave "[Rybakov, 1981]. The presence of mammoth itself is a mark of the Paleolithic, and "a deepening of one of the most striking scenes of Russian fairy tale in the Paleolithic, of course, will cause an objection: how could the Eastern Slavs (ancient Rus — AT), who have never seen a mammoth preserved like vestigial memories? "
BA Rybakov himself explains: "Note that the fight with a mammoth place for at least 500 of these generations, and the eyes of a narrator in his life they were repeated hundreds of times. To all the heroic and tragic aspects of the vital battles etched in the memory of people, time was more than enough. Of course, for the 240 generations, when the story was carried on the past is not supported by fresh impressions and turned into a wonderful story with fantastic (for trainees) characters, much has been forgotten, confused, mixed up with the other, the new images, but the fact that, despite the very natural confusion in fairy tales can still identify several stable elements, leading us to the Paleolithic hunting is a very interesting "[Rybakov, 1981].
Analyzing the occurrence of the plot with the serpent, BA Fishermen notes that "very important general observations on life folklore and place in a fantastic plot fund" winner snake "," and concludes: "Thus, we can assume that date back to the Paleolithic in the tales of three elements: the relationship with the initiation of the image of women hunting deity (Mokosh) and strongly transformed description terrible struggles with a mammoth "[Rybakov, 1981]. Academician with the myth proved that ancient Rus come from the same area, known as the Central Russia. Explain. Mammoth lived in Europe, northern Asia and North America in the 2nd half of the Pleistocene. Became extinct about 10,000 years ago. As to the 10th century BC northern part of Europe was under the ice, then the mammoth ancient Rus could meet only in the territory of the Russian plain, or Siberia, but in the latter there are no archaeological evidence.
So in this case proves mythology autochthony Russian population on the territory of Russia and the depth of mythological memory, running since the Upper Paleolithic (50 — 20 th century BC). Both of these conclusions are fully supported by genetic studies [Klesov, Tyunyaev, 2010]. Archaeological findings prove the same, and, above all, the Paleolithic figurines of the goddess Mokosh.
In the next period — old Russian man in the Mesolithic concentrated in areas of greatest density of forests. This Tver and Yaroslavl [Tyunyaev, 2010]. "Slow pace of life in the forest area, spread over time many cultural and historical events is not that prevent the origins of the" forest "of fairy tales to a narrow era, but, apparently, the beginning of the formation of the cycle can be considered Mesolithic or Neolithic hunting, while significant single movement of hunters in the desert, deserted places, where there is "no stezhechki nor dorozhechki." Recovered VJ Propp initiation complex, hunting men's houses, witches and wizards, living fence hung with skulls, "Forest Science" and "Forest of religion" can not be reliably associated with the archaeological material, but the general spirit of this complex framework can be traced back to the Meso- Neolithic … gathered patchwork of archaeological materials, in a sense revealing the religious ideas of the time, which can be held in conjunction with Svarog Dazhbog "[Rybakov, 1981].
The whole mythological-historical chronology associated with Svarog, gets connected and slender look. Originating in the early Mesolithic, Svarog naturally at the end of the Mesolithic was able to teach all of the same knowledge already possessed the ancient Rus, and the newly emerging population of ancient settlement called "Egypt." It is this picture is confirmed by the texts of ancient records, as well as numerous archaeological finds. Reconstructed it from trade routes of the time, the earliest of which — "Jade" — linked in the Neolithic southern land of the future of Russia, through the Caucasus [Narimanishvili, 2009] with the lands of Ancient Egypt [Tyunyaev, 2010a].
Further communication disclosed BA Rybakov, also can be confirmed just in the final phase of the Mesolithic, and then pass into the Neolithic. "The era of Svarog Dazhbog begins with the fact that in the eyes of the Slavic farmers is a kind of" humanization "netherworld. If you previously imagined that the deceased person has not left Earth space, but only transformed, reborn in some other creature, for which the dead and gave the fetal position, ready to be born again, but now the idea about a home of souls. Previously thought that the dead people in some form were among the living, and do live, if logically imagine that the entire system is necessarily the descendants of creatures that were once the animals, people, birds or fish "[Rybakov, 1981 ].
Prey species, which are in the main farm, could not be the basis of mythology the people of Central Russia. From archaeological data [Zhilin, 2001] in each sector — hunting for animals (or livestock), bird hunting, fishing, gathering (and agriculture), and others — can be identified archaeologically-leading one mind:
* In the hunt for animals and livestock — is a moose.
* The hunt for birds — a duck (different species of ducks).
* In fisheries — is pike.
* The gathering — a nut.
* In the home affairs — spinning.
* The frequency of temporal processes — calendar laws.
Mesolithic man depicted objects of their prey, from which it is entirely dependent, in articles, the name of which can be related to the mythological beliefs. This is primarily represented by the above sculptures elk. According to archeological data [Zhilin, 2001], the image of an elk, as the object of fantasy, mythological system, known from early Mesolithic Russian Plain (8 BC), and the embroideries and other types of Russian folk art reached to date . Moose is a traditional and major participant in the astral myths, and, typologically the earliest. The study of such myths help define primarily cosmological role elk. Relationship with the sun elk (moose antlers — sun) confirms mythological image of the cosmic moose, which is identified with the constellation Ursa Major (the Russian folk tradition, this constellation is called "Moose"). In ancient astronomical folklore is extremely widespread image of the Big Dipper as a chariot or wagon (the Russian name of the constellation "Woz" — the Big Dipper). Moose also appears as a character demythologize animal tales, often as the image of the universe and the spirit — Assistant wizard, his mount.
Duck (and egg) is also one of the main characters in old myth of the Tree of Life — in the tales of Kaschee Immortal, "the sea, the ocean is an island, on the island of oak, buried under a tree trunk, in the trunk — a hare, a Hare — a duck, a duck — egg and the egg — my death. " According to one of the ancient myths, there was a huge body of water floated two ducks. One of them decided to create the earth out of the mud. The second and dived to the bottom of the silt brought in its beak. The first duck began to scatter it on the water, and there was land. The second duck, coming ashore, was to cast away stones, and there were mountains.
In the mythology of the Neolithic time has its amazing wealth of diverse material. This "immense material neoeneolitichesky extremely heterogeneous, diverse. And, at the suggestion of BA Rybakov, "not to begin consideration of what distinguishes a new era of farming from the previous, and from what binds them, which continues the tradition of thousands of years of hunting society." This is confirmed by an archaeologist D. Krainov systematically studied Neolithic ancient Russia. He noted that the beliefs of the ancient Rus Stone Age — is the cult of the heavenly deer-elk [Krainov, 1977]. These beliefs were the logical development of the Mesolithic phase. And in bronze were continued, in particular, in the beliefs of the Scythians.
Hence, Russian mythology and astronomy entered the ancient Russian name "Moose" constellation "Ursa Major," Trick "," Pleiades ", etc. Other ancient Russian name elk — Wolin [Dahl, 1866] leads to the etymology of the name of the largest Russian river Volga. According to ancient Russian mythology, it was formed from the milk flowing from the breasts of Heaven elk (cows Zemun) Mokos (from her Moscow). Most archaic image of Heavenly Mokos elk cows and subsequent Mokos came to us in a variety of embroideries. Such identification is conducted more academician BA Fishermen [Rybakov, 1981].
Furthermore, the Neolithic figurines Mokosh signed — many of them displayed her monogram: "At an early Neolithic we find a peculiar kind of pottery, which consistently kept up to Hallstatt, vessels in the shape of animals. The early stages of blood vessels known as a bear or a large deer of the 6th millennium BC, and they are covered with a symbolic ornament "[Rybakov, 1981]. The whole existence of the cult known Mokosh marked Paleolithic female figurines. The earliest finds of them are related to the Kostenki culture of the Upper Paleolithic in Central Russia (50 BC), in Orinyake came to Europe (from the 40th century BC), and in the early Neolithic cultures spread from the painted pottery throughout the Mediterranean and Asia.
Figures of women in masks (mask type bears; Porodin, Yugoslavia) refer to the 6th century BC For example, "a schematic figure of a woman in a skirt topped by a head with a long nose and big eyes. No wings, bird legs here. Is it worth it so hard to declare a lady in a bird mask, and on this basis to talk about the Goddess of birds? "[Rybakov, 1981]. In this context, talking about the time and the area of distribution of beliefs in the Lada, BA Fishermen welcomed remarks that "for Lada so the question is not worth it. Lada known folklore of all Slavic peoples. Her name is known from the Adriatic Sea to the Kama River and from the Balkans to the Baltic Sea. There are no obstacles to the recognition of the ancient Slavonic Frets not "[Rybakov, 1981].
In the Mesolithic ancient Russia were distributed sculptures with moose head and body of a snake. In the Neolithic, they were joined by a snake pattern. "Snake snakes and snake coils are found on a variety of subjects: twin snakes or coils covered the walls of housing models, which brings to mind the ethnographic material on snakes," Gospodarikov '"[Rybakov, 1981]. Etymological connection Gospodarikov snake and one of the epithets of the modern God — God — is obvious. In addition, Russia native Aspidova note two days: in the spring and in the fall [Dahl, 1866]. In Russia, the "Lord" — one of the names of Svarog [Klimov, 2007].
Conclusion. To date, archaeological, ethnological and ethnographic materials, and systems already published in this section of scientific papers can confidently correlate numerous archeological artifacts of time of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze with images of mythological heroes of Russian fairy tales. Excellent work done in the context of BA Fishermen. There are numerous reconstruction and other researchers. It is remarkable that they are not in conflict, and harmonious system fit into the overall reservoir data.
This suggests that such correlations and reconstruction are more loyal, and, on the other hand, that the mythological memory of the Russian people really has its roots in the time of the Mesolithic and Upper Paleolithic, during a battle with a mammoth, during the first learning about the world first slim stories about him.