READY ADVENTURE IN SIBERIA
Modern fairy tale in the scientific and popular style
And you quarrel with honest old days,
And, for the ancestors of the great litter,
Not listening to the voice of blood native,
You say, "Let us stand to Varangians back
Turn to the person obdoram! "
History — is a genre of literature, which should be followed once and for all the rules. They were created in the XVII century by two monks, an Italian and a Frenchman, Joseph Scaliger Petavius Dionysius. They put that first there was Antiquity, the Middle Ages and then, and then the Renaissance. They have identified, from which the people came from. Everyone enjoyed it. But archeology was not there, so all subsequent discoveries in the field of history does not fully coincide with the theory of the founding fathers of the historical genre. That's why professional art historian from the start was to be the ability to interpret the new data so that they fit into the canon, given Scaliger-Petiaviem. And the further in time from the XVII century, the greater the effort required to build out the new historical data. Otherwise, the extracted knowledge is recognized and non-business out of business.
For three centuries of world historical science has accumulated a lot of these illiquid assets. Especially in Russia, which is involved in the process and later was forced to shamelessly align its own history, so as not to fall out of the world. Sacrifice reached the point that entire regions found themselves without their own past. That is why the feature of national historiography are "tails" that sometimes look richer than the official texts.
Take, for example, Western Siberia. Who will answer why Novosibirsk, Kemerovo region, the Altai Territory were the most recent territory of Siberia, which went under the Russian scepter? Since the days of Yermak trip took almost a half century. Moscow during this time to assert his authority "to the suburbs," including Sakhalin and the Far East, and the fertile land, located on the border of Muscovy, even in the beginning of Peter's reign remained inaccessible.
What should be the country more than a century was causing terrible Moscow wrap around its borders?
Even more surprising is that somewhere between 1711 and 1718, the year the "iron curtain" has suddenly asleep. Protected gave opened the face stunned moskvitov — come in, grow roots! Historians claim that the Russian colonization of these places were remarkably peaceful and very little conflict with the local population.
Can you imagine?
First century guarded neighborhood that repeatedly flashed fierce war. And then — if you please, to have the neighbors dear, make yourself at home!
Mysterious territorial acquisition in the Russian State has caused no less mysterious processes. When in St. Petersburg, at last, believed that the Upper Ob was Russian territory, Peter suddenly decides to convert Muscovy … an empire.
It was in 1721. Historians of this year is known as a very eventful. Not only the declaration of the Russian Empire, and the country's withdrawal royal decree banning melted found "in the water and earth," gold and silver jewelry. Death was preceded by similar rescripts: the willingness of the state to buy old gold jewelry and silver (1716), a ban on the private ownership of the ancient and "kurioznymi" objects (1718) …
Today, this body of law are examined as the world's first archaeological law, but in 1721 no one about what "archeology" is not known. And the words that this was not. But there were events that are answered by royal decrees — the evil and hard. Just how was the red-hot atmosphere, shows a corpse Matthew Gagarin, the first Siberian governor, who in the same months in 1721 was hanging on one of the St. Petersburg area. By the way, Prince, Rurik, and a personal friend of Peter the Great, was hanged just for violation of these "archeological" laws …
I do not know about you, but personally, I have a feeling that we are all "missed something." Especially if we bear in mind the fever "Scythian gold", which is precisely in these years swept Europe. After all, there aristocrats started boasting to one another collection of breathtaking beauty of silver and gold, which are smuggled into Europe from the New Siberian penal colony of Moscow. These rarities were not like other objects of antiquity, thus blowing the public opinion, as until that time, all were convinced that the other "old" does not exist. It is on the basis of an unfamiliar world of aesthetics "Scythian gold" in Europe for the first time to exhibit fashion was born old and rare books in secular art salons — the museum started going!
It has been 12 years. In the reign of Anna Ivanovna powerful charm unknown culture has led to the fact that in 1733 the government equips Biron in Siberia are very expensive at the time a scientific expedition, which should answer the questions of the then excited the imagination of the public. Moreover, a group of scientists led by Professor Miller receives from the chief chamberlain Empire task: to write a history of Siberia!
The world has not been such a State, having its own historiography, provide for a stranger. It is understandable — but his history is written. The mission of Miller interpreted otherwise than, preparing materials for writing his own history of Russia, can not. It is another matter that the origins of the Russian fatherland in St. Petersburg the first half of the XVIII century somehow seen on Siberian soil.
What we need today is not easy to imagine a situation where the concept of Ancient Russia does not exist. And "historical thinking" not yet, because there is no national historiography. But that's how it was on the verge of Elizabethan government. And opened the Southern Siberia, passers-by, was seen as a place where well have to go "is to be the Russian land."
But Petersburg Scientific landing in Siberia was not completed as expected. Generally, it was a very strange trip. Judge: Miller dutifully falls to the Urals, which starts to work, after which he asks to go home. But it should be an order on the spot. Miller refers several times to St. Petersburg, and each time was refused. Poor guy only after 10 years returned to the embrace of the Empress Elizabeth of civilization, which ended the reign of "Biron."
So, Gerhard Miller better part of his life in overgrown with legends and tales of the country … But in the department of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, it has nothing to say. Anticipated story about Lukomorye and fabulous cat no. Although Miller does not deny something curious that he had ever seen, but it seems to interfere with deep dislike, if not more, to the places that make the recall of its decade-link. In any case, his lines about the Upper Ob shine through unconcealed irritation, "How not to be seen traces on different locations in the steppes of the towns? What a lot of the memory set stone lighthouse, boobs, ancient tombs and other things belonging to the ground at all is not it? Any expensive items, gold and silver, from the graves are not dug? Where could it happen. Once from the previous Tatars Inasmuch know that all their treasures of China, Persia, Russia, Poland, Bohemia, Hungary, they got? "*
Alas, the above quote, in fact, is the very foundation upon which today are based on our understanding that all dorusskoe past Western Siberia belongs to the "Tatar history," that is the history of modern Mongolia. Although about "old Tatar," Miller said, looking at the faces of countless stone curled up with a mustache. These sculptures in the XVII century was studded with all of Western Siberia, and the problem was that the stone statues were sepulchral statues buried appearance. And if "pokoynichki" every now and had a long nose and "Chapaevskoe" mustache, this information, from the point of view of history, could not be used because it does not fit into the already painted in great detail the history of the world. That is the law of the genre! Indeed, in the history of the world there is no evidence for the existence of the state of Western Siberia Caucasians?
How would it not sound strange, but the history of Western Siberia have to start with the history of Novgorod. Archaeological excavations have confirmed annalistic data that Novgorod was founded obodritami — mighty Slavic peoples who inhabited in ancient times the territory of modern Pomerania and Mecklenburg (1). Why the Baltic coast dwellers decided to create a colony on the mainland Volkhov — is a separate conversation. What is important is the local colonists called "Slovenia". Starting Chronicle, written, as it is known, in Kiev, said: "ti are the kind of lyude nougorodtsi varyazhska (2), bo prezhe Besch Slovenia." Translated into modern Russian, "is derived from the population of Novgorod Wagram, which previously was called Slovenia."
But Vahram (Vikings kivskih chronicles) — is well-known people in obodritskom kingdom, which is nowhere and never to the Slavs are not relevant. Conversely, German historiography refers to the family of Wagram Frisians and the Franks, from which, as you know, went to the modern Danish and French. True, and this view is not flawless. Her supporters turn a blind eye to the fact that in medieval Europe had never existed tribe or people who would wear the ethnonym "Slavs". (3) Not many people know that the word comes to us from "grammar" Milentiya Smotritsky, published in 1592. And there it fell out of the papal chronicles, which figured as Sslavonia Sslavia or — as the Holy See called Northern Europe, which held sway in the Gentile nations, and later educated Germany.
In the X century Christian writer Adam of Bremen subtracted from Roman chronicles that the Latin word sclavi (office) is derived from the common name of the barbarians who inhabited the north of Europe. Since the time of the Emperor Trajan they constituted the bulk of the slaves of Rome, so the word sclavi gradually become a household name, a foothold in Latin as the concept of "slave." Adam of Bremen had the idea to combine the area of Roman settlement «sclavi» (probably, it was about the cleaved, which is described by Herodotus) the territory in which it has a modern pagan state in the Baltic. Thus was born the word Sslavonia (at that time to read and write only in Latin) — a major political success of the medieval Vatican. Indeed, thanks to this term the vast lands that belonged to pagan States obdoritov, Wiltz (Volintsev), Coll, became «Sclavonia» — «country of slaves." The effect of the Vatican pr-campaign was so great that there is still in the textbooks, telling of "Drang nach Osten" (4), military events in the Baltic Sea are described as the suppression of the revolt of the Slavic, although kichivshiesya its antiquity and wealth of the kingdom in the Baltic emphasis not seen their poor Christian neighbors. Read the same Adam of Bremen! Even conquered almost all Charlemagne on the banks of the Oder (now Oder) and Labe (now Elba) could only afford to participate in local internecine war on the right of a party ally …
But the word is mightier than the sword — busy strife Obodrity rency Wiltz and did not notice that the Vatican together lost the information war. In any case, in the XI century, Christian Europe has been inspired by the idea that the Baltic Sea is a rich "country of slaves," which should simply return to its original state. It was a strong ideological foundation on which to erect buildings of the "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" (5). It is not by chance, in "the Germans" were mingled young people, united by the idea of a simple and clear: to become the new masters of «sclavi»?
One of these "Germans" after Gelmold (incidentally, born Wagram), made history that wrote a book summed up the crusade against the Baltic heathens. It was in 1156. The book was called «Chronica Slavorum» («Slavonic Chronicles"), and therefore we are interested in — its name suggests that the book word «Sclavinia» this time simpler to «Slavia». In any case, it is applied Gelmold colloquial version, without the sound "K". So, in the first half of the XII century book Latinism become a place name?
Due to the active dissemination of the Latin alphabet, the word «Slavia» became top seller designation conquered Baltic civilization moved from the papal bulls in Arab manuscripts. In Europe it was in the course of the XV century, having a lot of one-root words, including the concept of "Slav", ie "Living in the glory" or "pertaining to Slavonia."
Therefore, we have every reason to assume that the "Slavs" of "grammar" and M.Smotritskogo "slovni" from Laurentian Chronicle — is not the same thing. Moreover, these words can not even be related to each other, as in 859, when the lake obodrity habitable Ilmen, neither of which «Sclavinia» nobody never heard of. Before the crusade to destroy, including obodritov, there were still three centuries! Thus, the author of rows in the Laurentian Chronicle that Varangian Verin-Wagram "prezhe bo Besch Slovenia," could not have in mind the events of the XII century.
Whence, then, did these "slovni"?
The answer is given the aforementioned scholar and canon Adam of Bremen. In his book «Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum» (1075-1076) became the first in the world calls the North Sea in a new way: «Mare Balticum» («The Baltic Sea"), resulting in another of his work is the rationale: "The people of the gulf coast called Baltic, because it extends … in Scythian region to Greece. The sea, which had been around, these tribes called Barbarian or Scythian sea. " (6) As you can see, Adam of Bremen clearly indicates the name of the sea link with the tribes living on its shores. Basis «bait», of which interprets Christian writer — is the Latin spelling of the word, means the total of the self "Scythians", who then lived on the banks of the modern Gulf of Finland. We do not leave any other purpose than to assume that «bait» — is a Latin transcription of "Scythian", the words "Bayati", which comes from the verb "bayat" (talk, talk) and the translation of "Scythian" just means " Slovenian "," word ", ie "Uttering (our) words, able to speak (our way)." Proof of this is still keeping the Lithuanian language — one of the two surviving Baltic languages with more primitive, "Scythian" basis (7). In Lithuanian "talk" and today is «bilti». As for the odd-shaped "Slovenia" (Kashubian in the Baltic or Adriatic Veneti used a different form — "Slovenes slovintsy"), then it is likely the whole thing in the language of ants-Paul, who wrote the Laurentian Chronicle. They were from the mainland of the Danube and were different in the dialect of the coastal peoples. So it was that the Vikings-Wagram, posing glades "Bayati" The reply was, "Yeah — Slovenia, then?" The then chronicler in Kiev did not bother to writing foreign words, saying only the descendants of its meaning. Although this is only a guess, but it may look convincing, if you know what balticum Adam of Bremen and Lithuanian bilti his company have another witness. Pointed to by the historian Jordan, who lived much earlier and Bremen, and Gelmolda — in the VI century. Referring to an even earlier sources, Jordan said that the leaders of the Visigoths, including the famous Alaric, who first took Rome, was of a noble Gothic kind Balts. This fact makes us a different way to look at the history of colonization Obodritami places of their traditional habitat. After all, we know that they came to this area of Oldenburg and Mecklenburg immediately after the victorious campaign of Alaric. I suppose, did not come alone, but together with other martial tribes also fought under the banner of the Baltic States. So it is not surprising that the distant descendants of these soldiers continued to call themselves by that name, perhaps even unaware of its origin.
Where does the NEXT States?
Thus, the historical Balts — this is not a myth but a trace of one of the clans of combat ready. And the trail leads us not just anywhere, but in the depths of Scythia, in the kingdom of Magog, the island is surrounded by the Arctic waters of the ocean, where the ancient mariners is the island of eternal happiness Thule (Ultima Tule). In any case, as described ancestral ready ancient writers, the most famous of which, the aforementioned Jordan added relish definition: «vagina nationum». This means that it should be a huge island ground conditions allow developing the mingled civilization.
Of course, no Scandinavia, let alone the island of Gotland, have never had these symptoms. But someone had to "assign" is ready to be the ancestral home, and it was done because the other candidates do not.
Actually — no. All of the great island, which tradition associates the "golden age of humanity", including Thule Arctida, Hyperborea, etc. Alatyr disappeared somewhere. Disappeared! Although there have been many times described and documented on paper and papyrus. Characteristically, the drafters of the ancient maps and atlases invariably put these missing islands and archipelagos in the arctic waters that are slightly opened his secret only with regard to the latest "disappearance."
It's about all known Sannikov Land, which, in fact, was duly opened and marked by 78 degrees north latitude and 130 degrees east longitude on the official state map "Asian Russia" (revised 1894), and then ceased to exist as seemed to evaporate. Already in the 70's of last century, the Soviet scientists found the island a giant banks north of the New Siberian Islands, and proved that this is all that remains of the once open hunter Yakov Sannikov land.
Sannikov Land back into the water! In connection with such discouraging discovery itself begs the question: can not only this, but also other, quite historic island, sank to the bottom of the Kara Sea? Maybe we have a stretched out on the Millennium powerful tectonic process? The more so because only this scale disasters can explain the radical change of the landscape bottom of the Kara Sea, which resulted in the displacement of the ancient riverbed of the Gulf Stream in the direction where it is now. In any case, the data of archaeological research on the Yamal Peninsula and the Kola Peninsula leave no room for doubt that once reigned here paradisiacal climate, which means that the warm Gulf Stream was simply must take place somewhere near the mouth of the Ob!
At this point, we had better escape to look once the whole picture of current scientific knowledge about the ancient Ob. Recent discoveries of archaeologists and geneticists allowed scientists to come to a sensational conclusion: Western Siberia inhabited whites Caucasians! In any case, the appearance of all the mummies that archaeologists Novosibirsk in this new century found in the Altai, no doubt in their race. But an even greater revelation were the results of genetic analysis of the remains of people who lived in the Novosibirsk region in the Bronze and Iron (which was conducted in 2008, the Strasbourg Institute of Forensic Medicine) — they found the bones of Caucasians!
In ancient times, blond and blue-eyed natives Ob moved to warmer climes. We can only guess who they pushed in the future Europe (there is evidence that Negroids, though), but there is no doubt that the "invasion ready," as well as "the invasion of the Huns," were just waves in a giant stream of people who to the early Middle Ages to the Urals brought the bulk of the titular population of Western Siberia.
Left their homeland future Europeans, of course, not a good life. Characteristic, which makes the climate of Jordan is on the eve of the outcome Skandsa ready ("because of the terrible cold was not to be found anywhere by honey bees"), leaves no room for doubt: in places "Vagina nations" are formed. In any case, we do not know at least one fact, that at least one cradle of humanity was on Sakhalin or calcined chilly cold weather Taimyr. On the contrary, his childhood, human civilization preferred to spend in places like Africa, Asia Minor, the Adriatic … Thus, this Jordan on Skandsa climatic situation can have only one explanation — it was the result of climatic disaster. And, so long and powerful that people began to think about the search for a new homeland. Presumably, continuous (as the Gulf Stream displacement?) Lowering the average temperature over vast areas of fertile region before, which predetermined the great exodus.
The memory of the Siberian ancestral Europeans find ourselves, at times, paradoxical. Imagine 1526. In Muscovy Grand Prince Vasily III shocked everyone by shaves his beard in order to win the love of his future wife — a beautiful Litvinkov Galina Glinsky, and Prussia had just ceased to be the Church of the Papal States, transformed into a normal dukedom. Perhaps for this reason, in neighboring Mecklenburg Schwerin and publish genealogy gyustrovskih Dukes, according to which they are descended from ancient obodritskih Kings, who are from … Ob! So it is written, saying that kind obodritov originates from Sarmatia (Sarmatien), Prussia (Preussen), Russia (Reussen) and … Samoyed (Samojeden), «where to this day there is a river Ob." Samoyed — a contemporary of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District with capital Salekhard (before 1933 — Obdorsk).
We must assume that meklenburgtsy, Record Oral tradition, are not very ignorant of its meaning. After all, in the beginning of XVI century Europe (and if you specifically, for 55 years prior to the Siberian Yermak trip) is unlikely to be aware of the river called the Ob. Nevertheless, Mecklenburg's genealogical tradition seems significant: it turns out, had settled in the Baltic obodrity "of Samoyeds" initially called themselves a little differently: "obdority" (8), and it makes a difference. After obdority, obdory — are residents of dreamland Obdora, described by the time of Vladimir the Red Sun. Obdora located at the confluence of the Ob in the Kara Sea and existed as a principality until 1607.
The memory of the Siberian homeland in Mecklenburg and Pomerania is interesting to us, because there lived near Ruga and wounds, who owned the island of Rügen, which is still visible from the shore. A Rugova and wounds Jordan mentioned just among tribes — the original inhabitants of the legendary Skandsa. Now the question is whether the neighborhood is ready and the Baltic obdorov accident? After all, the two nations came here about the same time. They could be neighbors in a former life, and taken from their usual way of life.
We do know that Ruga and wounds on homeland were islanders and obodrity — Coast residents. The place where lived the ancient obodrity, installed. In all the ancient maps Obdora is listed on the left bank of the mouth of the Ob River. But the place of the former habitat of Rugova and wounds, that is obodritov island neighbors, is still not known. The result is something like an equation with one unknown. If we know that Rügen is located in the sea front from the ground obodritov, the historical Skandsa too, is far from the mainland to seek Obdory — in the sea area.
But it's Yamal!
This peninsula today separates the Kara Sea from the Gulf of Ob and is one of the most ancient places of human settlement. Here archaeologists have to overcome enormous difficulties to just a little deeper into the stone from the cold ground. Perhaps that is why the Yamal historical research when no one was engaged — the first archaeological research on the Yamal only began in the Soviet era. More surprising result. Despite the relatively modest scale of operations, are found almost thousands of arrowheads that were in the ground at an angle of 45 degrees, as well as objects, not astringent with the idea of a life of ancient marine trappers and reindeer herders. Soviet historians called them "a surprise for the Arctic Circle" (VI Ravdonikas, 1935). The most recent of these findings relate to 2001, when it was found on the Yamal mummified warrior burial VI-VII centuries. A man in armor with a battle ax of iron and bronze buckle, depicting the head of a bear. Caucasian. As, indeed, all the mummies in the tombs of the era, which, it turns out, is full of earth on the Yamal.
What, then, did this, dressed in goth man in the arctic tundra? Yes, even with a fantastically expensive at the time weapons? (In 1066, at the Battle of Hastings, the Saxons, who opposed the Conqueror, fought with stone axes). On this question, we will answer the name of the peninsula.
Nenets word "Yamal" means "End of the World", so make skeptical of the existing versions of its native origin. Is there any people in the world who could be called a place of its own habitat "edge of the earth"? This is probably the name of the Ural Samoyeds (from Samodin, samodiets) heard when I first came here. It was the name of the last of the continental land in the icy waters of the ocean, so it became for them the symbol "end of the earth" — in this sense the word came into modern Nenets. (9) A true and original meaning of the word Jamal gives us all the same encyclopedic Jordan, who casually said that Amal — is the name of the royal dynasty is ready, which autocratically rules legendary Skandsa before the great exodus. So there is nothing surprising in the fact that we find the Gothic warrior on earth Yamal. Another thing is that the situation in question is indeed a "surprise to the Arctic Circle," but this is a matter of the human psyche, and not facts.
We certainly do not know whether the Yamal island until a catastrophic disaster, or is the name just accidentally caught on the edge of the continent, leaving his present owner somewhere in the depths of the Arctic Ocean. But we know that the probability of coincidence is about the same as the probability that a man found in the closet of your wife, in fact, waiting for a bus.
WHAT HAS NOT JORDAN
Referring to the map! We see the lightning cuts through the greatest of Obi plains of our planet, as its blue discharge originates in icy darkness of the Arctic Ocean, and its endings trident shakes Central Asia, drive to the top of the mysterious Katun Altai, Tobol — in ancient highland steppes of Kazakhstan, the Irtysh — in the desert ranges Chinese Tien Shan.
How much information should bring water to your mighty Arctic finish, if the length of the coast, along with Obi Irtysh is 5410 kilometers?
Of course, it is impossible to let the inhabitants of islands and coastal Obdory no idea of distant worlds that reaches the upper reaches of the Ob River. It would be strange if the idea is to look for new lands beyond the sea did not fight with the offer to do the same for the continent — a river like a guiding thread called inland. Probably, opinions were divided. It is even possible that this was the beginning of the division, which eventually divided the ready on the "Yamal" (Ostrogoths) and "Bayati" (the Visigoths). In any case, the famous "ships Beriga" bore not all ready — some of them remained, determined to find their promised land, driving up the Ob. This is according to the Siberian governor presented to Tsar Boris, when he first came to the headwaters of the Ob River.
TELE and Goths
Here it is necessary to make another retreat. In the forties, during the XVIII century, Anna Ivanovna archive Tomsk city was drowned in the river Tom (now Tom) local warlord. (10) It happened under mysterious participation of Academician Gerhard Miller, the future author of "History of Siberia." Identified is that in September 1733, 28, came to the capital scientist Tomsk city, where he was sent from St. Petersburg to collect information on the history of Siberia. Because in Tomsk was one of the oldest at the time of public repositories. (11) But for some reason Miller did not study the material, and after making sure that they exist, and — drove off further into the depths of Siberia. Returned in March 1740 (7 years) to hear the report that the archive was lost in a fire.
How to write biographies G.F.Millera, "discovered the theft of Ancient Documents," but personal correspondence of the period, which led the Academy in their native language, did not refer to this event. So, reacted coolly … But Miller was a man of a very emotional and hardly unique archive of death did not give grounds for appeal to the Emperor. The more that the future historian of the court regularly resorted to this measure and the less significant reasons. However, the complaint was not there. It seems, Gerhard Miller knew that awaited him in Tomsk, and therefore was not surprised. And to know he could only in one case: if he and the Tomsk governor gave an executive order. In any case, it's really strange to explain the ferocity of his hatred for the German University Germanophile Miller.
Now we can already say with confidence that the relationship in Russia truly is interrupted with the death of this remote from the world repository of ancient documents. At the beginning of the mission of Miller there still could be waiting in the wings last original documents reflect real events in Muscovy and Western Siberia, which took place in Boris Godunov, with Vasily Shuya, during the Troubles, when changing the dynasty to the throne of Moscow and follow directions in the Kremlin, up to Anna Ivanovna. Among other things, there are documentaries that reflect local affairs, and above all a relationship with power, ownership of which is covered with the Altai region adjoining parts of Novosibirsk, Tomsk and Kemerovo regions … We have heard only fragments of data and anecdotal evidence. But even these crumbs indicate moskvity after robbed of Bukhara Prince Kuchum his Siberian kingdom (extended territory of modern Tyumen Region), found on the southern edge of their new possessions something amazing. This was a state populated by Turks and Mongols (Oirats), which controls the white Caucasian. Chief among these was "Kaan" (a title found only in the Volga Bulgar kings), and representatives of the military aristocracy of self sounded like "Bayati" (in Turkish vocalism "payaty"), although the Siberian governor preferred to call them "white Kalmyks" for a specific European appearance. Even the owners of the Upper Ob Telenget called themselves, which in Russian sounds like "Telenguts" and often as "Teleuts." Therefore, the country of the Siberian governor in unsubscribing the king called "Teleut bit of land."
The name "Body-n-geta", presumably reflecting a mixed racial composition of the military aristocracy Khaganate: Turks (known since ancient times, a tribe of the "body") and Caucasians ("geta" — so ready to Jordan). Anyway, moskvity distinguished "Teleuts" in general and "White Kalmyks" in particular. There is, for example, an entry that tells us that in 1700 "Teleuts" attacked "White Kalmyks' living Obi," burned their ulus, stole cattle and captured. " (12) But the fact of the historical literature of ethnic heterogeneity of the ruling elite historical Telenget not commented. Detailed descriptions of the representatives of all Caucasians have survived, except that the standard wording such as: "They truly white person" (Miller).
But before we reached the names "White Kalmyks." According I.S.Tengerekova (13), they were: Matai Tabyn, fat Iurganov Bataille Kokin, Mogulan Bacon Kumekov Entugaev, Torgai Basbeykov, Read Terev etc. (14) Is not it the music? On the face of Gothic imenoslov — we know that members of the Gothic Rugova and wounds from the island of Ruegen, had names on the "s" and "s." In any case, the Oirat completely different names (compare Orus Cagan, Basanga Baatr, Bembyan inju …), and the Tatar imenoslova end to "ai" is not characteristic. Closest to the names of white Kalmyks be considered pagan, that is, "talking", nicknames Zaleski, ie Suzdal Slavs. Judge: Matai — from the "dangle" fat — from the "fat", Bataille — from "Dad" Mogulan — from "muguchy" Kumekov — right from the "savvy" about Torgai, so read on — that's obvious.
In the historical literature has repeatedly noted the Slav ready dialects which differ from traditional Slavic languages at most of the modern Russian Ukrainian. Here are some of the surviving Gothic words "dawr" (the door), "Dyle" (share), "On" (the eye), "tvadzhe" (twice), "hlayb" (bread), "Gast" (guest) "mein" (me), "mets" (sword), "Satzhan" (plant), etc. In this regard, known by the Russian annals Drevlyansky Prince Mal suspected of belonging to the aforementioned Amal dynasty, and his drevlyans — that they actually trevingi well known in Western historical literature. Because trevingi, etymologists believe — is nothing more than a "t (e) rhubarb (b) r (k), and" that is drevenki or drevlyans.
However, the language spoken by the white Kalmyks, strictly speaking, remains unknown, since his study began only in the middle of the XIX century — after a half century after the convergence of the people from the historical arena. Of course, Miller is the same message that they "speak the Tartar," but the meager text provincial correlations XVII century shows that moskvity sometimes resorted to the help of interpreters, which means white Kalmyks said even in some language. In any case, "Tatar" language for the Cossacks Tsar Fedor was not a problem.
Not many people know that before the time of Alexis quietest, the father of Peter the Great on the Moskva was quite common and was virtually a second language (if not the first), a Turkic language, which was called "Tatar", which then meant literally "military, the military." The fact that the word "Tatar" in Muscovy called strike corps — light steppe cavalry. So the message "in the Tatar" would not have caused difficulty in the king of the Cossacks, who called it another "home." Another thing — the Russian language.
A letter from one Teleut Hagan, which refers to Kuznetsk B.Sinyavinu governor. Here's a quote: "Attention will become live — hair zabeleyut for iron admixture — zabeleyut bones …" (archive A.P.Umanskogo). Pisano was "on the boards" in summer 1716 — exactly one year when Moscow failed miserably the first attempt to translate the Bible into Russian, because Russian language as such in the late XVII century Muscovy was so primitive that it was used only for technical goals — to write anything meaningful was impossible. To express thoughts and feelings in Muscovy used Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian) language, which, as well as Latin in Catholic Europe, and the book was, and prayer. As for the Russian language in this sense is not Slavic, because I was not writing. On paper, it was recorded in much the same today as we sometimes write the sound of English words in Russian letters. Perhaps the residents of Muscovy by ear liturgical Slavic alphabet used to write Russian (spoken) words — from togo-to Russian grammar even in the letters of Peter the Great remains in flux. Although, I must say, the king tried his best to develop the Russian alphabet and even ordered to write the first "book to read", but it was only the efforts, often useless because of Russian literature and Russian literary language as such did not exist. Only in 1726 will be the first poetic experiments V.Trediakovskogo in Russian. Here is an example of how to look at the time, "the great and powerful":
And it is a leaf from the tree of noise.
Tail waving and chanterelles.
There inevitably wonder: who is better at that time owned the Russian language — the Moscow governor or white Kalmyks? After all, we still can not understand why the language and literature, which gave the world the "Lay" to the era of Peter the Great were in a state of degradation? The answer gives the recently introduced into scientific drevnebulgarsky set of "Nariman tarikhy." These sections provide information according to which the Grand Duke of Moscow citizens were called "Russian" directly on the orders of the son of Dmitry Donskoy — Grand Duke Basil the Great. Whether this is true or not, but found that even after a hundred years after the event, during the reign of Ivan III, the Great (grandfather Ivan the Terrible), Muscovy in neighboring states just did not think Russia or Rus. In any case, the very first of the aliens, who described Muscovy Matthew Miechów (early XV century) called its inhabitants "Mosquito", clearly separated from the "Ruthenia" (Russian), which, according to him, lived in the area of present Lviv region of Ukraine ( "Treatise on two Sarmatians"). But its story about the "non-Russian" Muscovy Cracow canon, however, thought it necessary to inform you that "it there throughout Russian or Slavic." Presumably, this was news to his contemporaries, otherwise the author would not single out this detail. The fact that the land is the area of old Muscovy dwelling ancestors of modern Mordovians — tribes Erzya, measured, as well as Moksha (which, most likely, is a form of words Mosca).
With regard to the chronicle of Kievan Rus, it was replaced by the capital and much reduced in size, but continued to exist, remaining only for Europe Rus. This was stated at the beginning of the Miechów XVI century. The same was said at the end of that XVI century Jesuit missionary Antonio Passevin when reported to Pope Gregory XIII on the possible treatment "Mosquito" to Catholicism: "Muscovy traditionally highly dependent in religion from Russia, under the authority of the Polish people. Therefore it will be very important for the treatment of Muscovy, if bishops or royal ruler of Russia to join the Catholic Church »(Possevini A. Moscovia. Vilnae, 1586).
As you can see, Muscovy existed mainly in Soviet history books, it is not surprising that in a real Muscovite, along with the "Russian or Slavic" speech must have sounded, and other dialects. And, more mass, because they were local, folk. If we start from the language in which it was written, for example, "Journey Beyond Three Seas" (Athanasius Nikitin), then to the XV century, it could be a mixture of Turkish and Mordovia (Finnish) dialects. Is confirmed by the extant vocabulary that foreigners were caught in Moscow XVII century — these dictionaries are almost entirely composed of Mordovia and Turkic words. Even the term "Russian", as it turns out, contains the Turkic word "Yazygs." (15) In general, we will not be far wrong if we assume that a large part of the population of Muscovy, at least until the XVIII century, actively use alternative communication tool, otherwise the Russian language would not be in such obvious decline. Not by chance, already mentioned here the father of Russian literature V.Trediakovsky hinted narrow elite of the Russian language, stating that "they will teach us to skillfully write and speak wise En (Empress Anna — auth.) Ministers and svyaschennonachalniki." Perhaps the same thing meant the German philologist G.Ludolf when he wrote about the Muscovites: "The more scientists anyone wants to appear, the more it mixes Slavic expressions to his speech or in his writings, although some people make fun of those who abuse the Slavic language in everyday speech. " (16)
So on the eve of the XVIII century Russian language Ob ready well have been more advanced than the Russian language "moskvitov" whose "common speech" was not like today. In this situation, the king invited the Cossacks had interpreters to better understand Teleuts. The only option to Russian translators at the time, would be the eastern Poles — Poles. There were many in the Siberian border fortresses, as Moscow has developed the practice of war exile gentry to the border with Teleut bit of land. (17) The fact that the inhabitants of Krakow Lyahii (historical Galicia) spoke the same language, on which were written on birch bark of ancient Novgorod, that is, the language of ancient obodritov, Rugova and wounds. "Zdekat" and "pshekat" they started later, under the influence of language Mazur, who was the Western Balts.
We, unfortunately, can not say that, for example, the village Tolmachevo ("interpreter" in Turkic — translator) near Novosibirsk — is toponymic next stay here natives of Poland. As already stated, the information on the Upper Ob died with Tomsk archive. But we do know that at the site of the modern Novosibirsk Eve XVII century there was a center of Russian-Teleut trade and, therefore, there could be a meeting "without ties". Imagine the scene: a haughty aristocrat bayat listens, which is almost at the modern Russian retells "Tatar" speech has settled immediately (on the carpet) Moscow dashing leader. Talk of hostages (slaves) of salt in exchange for iron stirrups (Teleuts blacksmithing was delivered better — more on that below), the prices of cattle, the weather …
Russian-speaking feudal elite dorusskoy Western Siberia was not reduced to Teleut bit of land. It is known that in the provincial runaround king featured another "bit of land." She belonged to the Hyrgyz he held in numerous tributaries Turkic tribes Kyzyl basagarov, achintsev, Argun, Shustov sagaytsyv, Beltirs, Arina, etc. "The Kyrgyz bit of land" located mainly along the Yenisei River, but the structure, way of life and way of life was a complete analog Teleut. Moreover, the scraps of information about Hyrgyzah as the ruling dynasty leaves no doubt that the latter, too, had expressed Caucasoid appearance, and also knew the Russian language and writing.
Neighboring states are identical in social and economic systems, with the same-ethnic elites, who share a common language … If there are — bytes, others — Amalia, obdority? …
The Goths STEEL Askiz
It turns out, this question is quite valid. Archaeologists claim that up to the time of Batu predecessors Telenget and Kyrgyz were in Western Siberia single civilization. In any case, the excavations have shown that at least up to the XII century on the Yenisei and the Ob there was a single culture. Great culture. Her influence was so powerful that stretched to the Volga and the Don. Archaeologists obtained data indicate that in the Volga Bulgaria, as in Don Sarmatia closely followed Altai fashion: once there appeared a new ornament or piece of clothing, so the novelty immediately spread over a huge area of the Kama to the Don.
Of course in those days there were no televisions, telephones aircraft. Even the railway was not. But Arab and Persian geographers of the X century report that between the Volga and Ob-established trading post there. From a country which is "among the Khazars and Bulgars" (Al-Istarkhi) arrived at the Volga markets mysterious merchants with black sables, with lead, with blades that are bent in half and stretch. The state, which produces the famous damask, ancient authors called Artoy Arsoy or starting a branch of Russia, and has even been called the "third Rus" (under the first two, probably had in mind the Kievan Rus and Russia Baltic). (18) In other words, in the eyes of foreigners artaytsy looked and talked like the Baltic Vikings or as Dnipro Kiev. It is true that modern historians call these Siberians "Askiz", preferring to use the technical term (at the location of the archaeological discoveries — Askiz river), though it's the same blond, blue-eyed warriors and merchants. In the X century, they were called artaytsami, Rus, and in the XVII century — Kyrgyz and white Kalmyks. This news is confirmed by modern archaeological research, which revealed that between the Middle Volga and Upper Ob existed not only trade, but also social contacts. The ancestors of white Kalmyks regularly sent three thousand kilometers recruited for military service in the Volga Bulgars. There they formed the basis of the garrisons in the border fortresses. (19) Today, researchers compared these "artaytsev" with the Vikings who came to serve in the Kievan Rus to the Baltic. And they both were warriors and merchants. And they both chose not to mingle with the locals. On the territory of the ancient Bulgars known Arsk village (46 km from modern Kazan), probably, a former colony of ancient Telenget and in Kazan before XVI there ar gate.
The excavations of the ancient Bulgar border fortress besieged and destroyed, presumably in 1237 (it is a settlement near Penza on the river Sura) was found cast iron mace. Very rare and expensive at the time weapons because cast iron around the world will begin only after many centuries. Now, this unique mace found in the hands of one of the defenders, ownership of which scientists have no doubt — it was one of the Altai mercenaries, which in this defensive structures made up the core of the military contingent. We have already given details of ancient writers, who argued that the Arta did best in the world Blades — two centuries later we see a warrior of the Altai-Artaya (20), armed with mace cast. And three centuries, in 1622, witnessing how the governor of Moscow, arriving at the place of service in Southern Siberia, preach the king: "… about the Kuznetsk fort on condoms and Bras are great mountains of stone, and in the mountains emlyut Kuznetsk esachnye People of the Stone to the stone on rozzhigayut droveh namelko hammer and break, and smash, sow a sieve and sift, pour into the hearth, and in the slivaettsa iron, and in the iron makes pansyri, behtertsy, helmets, kopi, spears and swords, and all the iron, OPRICH arquebuses. "
To understand the significance of this information, it is necessary to know the same data on the then Moscow. It is no accident the king as a detailed description of the process of forging — for it is exotic. It turns out, in 1638, that is 16 years after the writing of this letter was carried out a census of all masters of the capital of our country. According to the extant "hand-painted fairy tale", then the whole of Moscow had only one blacksmith, who was able to forge knives. Another was able to forge a horseshoe, and three — made bracket. All. The rest were "iron smiths," that is simple farriers who were engaged in the smelting ingots. By the way, the population of Moscow was about 200 thousand people, sitting on the throne, Michael Romanov and no Troubles — which means that there are five blacksmiths to the big city was the norm.
To say that in the XVII century Muscovy lagged Teleut piece of land in respect of blacksmithing — to say nothing. Siberian smiths (seems like it was not a nickname, a tribal name, totem) had excellent raw materials and were able to make the entire range of household and military purposes, except for firearms. Their patriarchal subordination Telenget and tribal way of organizing production showed that the state in which the Moscow governor caught Siberian metallurgy was echoed far and a great past. Perhaps there was a time that gave birth to this tribal industry and, therefore, was and is a huge demand for weapons — that's when the tribe Blacksmiths, really, is at its zenith! And this era, of course, could not escape the tables of world history …
ORDA, ORDTSA — ARTA, ARSA
Novosibirsk region — an area which may well claim the highest density in the presence of the local toponymy word "horde". Why — no one knows. Yet around the Horde Ordynka Ordynets, Horde, Ust-Orda, etc. But if you make the modern Turk, an Arab or Iraqi Priobskaya say these names, you will hear: Artynka, Artanets … Most of all, the word Art (Horde) and Ars (Ordtsa) went from the typical softening of hard consonants in the East, and especially in the Turkic languages, where "b" is easily transformed into a "p" and "d" — a "T". In that sound Arabian travelers heard the word of the Volga Bulgars, Turks, but at home, in the steppes of the Ob, "horde" remained a "horde". The sound of "d" is not turned into a "T" because it is not pronounced the Turks. The fact remains: Ob steppe has long been the home of the people, whose representatives say the word "horde" hard "g", which it is engraved in the local toponymy. Another fact is the existence of the phenomenon in southern Siberia "industrial" tribe, which owes its birth to the army, which requires a lot of weapons. By a strange coincidence, the word "horde" in Russian means "battle strands", "army". Moreover, the chronicle Horde awarded excellent weapons. Suffice it to say that many historians have attributed her victory to the presence of the landmark invention — a bow-saadak that address the outcome of any battle before the battle. This super-powerful bow had to create the most skilled gunsmiths, and those were the ones who knew how to do at the time of the mace-cast iron or forged the world's best swords.
L.Gumilev historian believed that the XII century on the territory of the future of the Novosibirsk region wandered parent Blue Horde, that fueled his Tumen those same invading army, which then struck terror throughout Europe. What was the role of the Altai Visigoths in this historical process? All we know is that they are always specialized in war and in ancient times was known as fans of the cult of Mars, the ancient god of war (Jordan). They possessed at Obi tribal metallurgy and lived on the lands of the Blue Horde. And we know that in the XVI century on the arts and the Horde moskvity found two dying of old age relic Khaganate alike as twins. Both of Turkic nomads patriarchal dominion smallest tribal aristocracy of white Russian Caucasians. Boris Godunov, when told that the south of the land attached to the Muscovy Siberian kingdom found contiguous state, which by all accounts is a descendant of the ancient Arta-Orda, the king of Moscow is so interested in the fact that shortly before him was a tribal leader Eushtov, land which is adjacent to possessions mysterious state. Thus was born the idea to build a fort on the river Tom. Originally it was the residence of the embassy mission, where the envoys of King regularly went to the river Charysh where the residence qaan Telenget to continue talks on Moscow's citizenship.
The talks went on for four years! Moscow has already ruled on SHUISKI when 2 February 1609 Ivan Kolomna negotiator with the leader eushtov states in the thousandth time, went to the headquarters of Teleut Kaan, and he was the first fortunate. Lord Telenget agreed to take over the union commitment: "And Obak and nobleman with his men on your sovereign king and Grand Prince Vasily Ivanovich vsea shertvovali Russa."
Of course, about the "yoke" (21) and about the "Mongol-Tatars" (22) in Muscovy those years did not know, but remember why the first years of its existence, the city of Moscow was Horde, acted as tax collectors. Perhaps, therefore, March 31, 1609 between the state Telenget and Muscovy was made absolutely equal military-political alliance. Prior to that, like an interstate agreement on Siberian territory Moscow is just once a Kodskim principality (1484), whose hands have won all the lower Ob. But Telenget bent its policies, not intending to implement the territorial ambitions of Moscow. Because of this community was unstable, often broken, but always recovered, because moskvity and Telenget were interested at least pretend that they want to make friends, to get a break from the fighting. As a result, a century white Kalmyks made powerful Muscovy wrap around its borders in its movement to the east. During this time, the king's Cossacks went through Siberia, came to the banks of the Amur, Sakhalin reached (there is information that has already been drawn outlines of Alaska), and the most intimate and the most tempting part of Siberia remained a sovereign territory of a foreign state. True, and a bit of land owners Teleut had hard. On the one hand — Moscow Cossacks with mattresses and musket, the other — the militant djungars State which were then booming power and glory. Telenget veering between both, but the room for maneuver is getting smaller. For security purposes, the residence qaan transferred from place to place: from the river to the river Charysh Meret (Moszkowski district of the Novosibirsk region), then the place where now stands, the Kamen-na-Obi (Altai region) … But everyone knew that This was agony, as the forces were not equal, and sooner or later Teleut bit of land should be part of either Moscow or Dzungaria.
Turned out differently. Otyurechennye descendants are ready to take citizenship Djungarian Khan, and he went and boarded all telengetskie birth to her Dzungaria. For several years, the cart (by the way, the invention of the ancient body) were taken Teleut Land owners in neighboring Mongolia. At a meeting with the Russian ambassador I.Cheredovym lord Jungars Ts.Rabdan explained that the Russian authorities' Telenguts repaired many insults … and Telenguts life became impossible. " Eventually, by 1718 Russian border crossing, moving along the famous Teleut boundaries, found that on the other side of the gates are empty — Russian page stories began future Novosibirsk region and the Altai Territory. (23)
As for the fate Telenget themselves, they like the best fighters in the world at once personal guards were Djungarian Khan. And almost all were killed "in the performance." There are reports that 75 white Kalmyks did take Russian citizenship, but where they go is not known. In any case, modern Bayati Altai are not familiar with imenoslovom their historical predecessors.
Of course, this is only the first and the lightest touch of the topic. Therefore there are more questions than answers. I hope it is clear that this is not the Goths and generally not in the names and definitions — we are all a continuation of the great creative process, the stories that tell us about our near future. Therefore, they need to know. As for the theory of the origin of the Gothic defunct civilization Artaya-Altai, the sedition is only found in bironovskoy position that continues to waste their precious lives bosses Russian historical science.
But the situation is not hopeless. The main thing is not to forget that the historiography — a genre of literature, like all other conventional genres, so limited in their capabilities. It is not used without a legend, which in turn create the minstrels, storytellers, bards, skalds and other non-scientific people. Initially, therefore, need a legend …
Legend has it that in the late XVII century conquerors Siberian kingdom (now Tyumen Oblast) came across the border attached to the land of Muscovy unusual country. This world is full of strange things and relations, attracts the attention of the Kremlin, because on top of it were white-skinned Caucasians, who spoke in Russian Moscow's best governor. They were masters of the vast and fertile country, inhabited by the mingled people. Besides breeding and cultivation of millet, metallurgy flourished here and weaponry. Stunned the Kremlin, despite its usual policy against "infidels" for years sought relations with the lords of the magic kingdom. And then it was one hundred years of international relations, where Russia and its neighbors separated only by the boundary line, it is called: "Teleut boundary." Out of all the fact that this part of Siberia was conquered, and voluntarily entered into Russia, and turned to its own devices. Hosts Teleut zemlitsy left off, leaving Moscow on his subjects and the graves of their ancestors.
As part of the new territory Russian Web site, that will repeat the fate of looted Constantinople by the Crusaders, on the gold which is known to have created the first state bank in Europe. Because based on the stunning beauty of things and objects looted in Southern Siberia, created Europe's first art museum exhibitions. Here, in the steppes of the Ob, was born a new kind of human activity, which was first bugrovschichestvom, bugrovaniem, and then became an archaeologist.
Still we inherited an interesting fact: the inclusion of a giant across the country in the Moscow state had no effect in the text of the imperial title of Peter the Great. Conquest of the Northern War (Estonia, Livonia, Korelia) were mentioned, but about South Siberia, which became the property of Moscow in those years — not a word. This was possible only in two cases: either it is a wilderness, or a new territorial acquisition is seen as a return of ancestral lands and for this reason can not be inserted into the list of forced or voluntary inclusion of states. The fact that the words "all the Great and small and White Russian czar" in the imperial title was first written "Czar and Samoderzhets Vserossiyskiy", suggests that the authors of the text sought to escape from a specific list of "Russia." It seems that at that time they were not sure what the final list. (24).
1) According to the «Descriptio civitatum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii» (Praha, 1956. P. 2 per. V.K.Ronina), the country obodritov consisted of 53-minute principalities, whose capital was the city.
2) In. I, Chap. 12. "Slavonic Chronicles" Gelmolda (XII century), are evidence that one of the tribes were obodritskih Wagram, who "had neighbors Danes and Saxons, and all military conflicts or were first starting out, or, if you attack one, took the hit." The capital Vahram called in slavanski "Starigrad" (modern Oldenburg). Thus, Gelmold gives a clue to why Continental obodritov colony was called "Novegrad." Apparently, the name she was given obodrity those who were among the Wagram, also known in Europe as Varin, or veriny veringi, and in Kiev — as the Vikings or Waranga.
3) Modern history knows only "sloventsev" — this is sometimes called Kashubian (lived in what is now Pomerania Province in Poland) and the Adriatic Veneti (lived in what is now the province of Veneto in Italy). Even in Central Europe was a group of tribes who srenevekovye geographers called "Slovakia", which meant "the same as the Slovenes", and the name has gradually turned into an ethnonym. Other names that are similar to the word "Slavs" on the map of medieval Europe was not. As for the names of modern states, such as Slovakia, Slovenia, Slavia, Slavonia, their stories include the appearance of a later period.
4) «Drang nach Osten» — «The movement to the East", a crusade was proclaimed by Pope Eugene April 11, 1147.
5) Under the "German nation" then meant something quite different from that now. The fact that the all-German literary language appeared only in the XVII century, and the ethnic name "Deutsche" Germans were and did in 1871 — 36 years before the February Revolution in Russia. So in the first millennium AD, "Germany" could only exist as a country, which is owned by "the Germans" — mingled feudal lords, who were united by one prayer and the administrative language — Latin. Status of "the Germans" was introduced, probably Charlemagne — a famous fan of the Roman. In any case, the tribe or clan called "Germans" in medieval Europe is not fixed — the word comes from the "dead" language. Perhaps Charles I. ordered the monks to find a Latin term that would respectfully referred to barbarians (He himself, speak, read, could not write.) This word was the name of "the Germans", which, according to some historians, was coined by Julius Caesar, the words captured barbarians calling themselves "yaromany." And maybe he was right Greek Strabo, who early in the century I wrote that the Romans called barbarians some «germani», because it is the word and to Julius Caesar had in Latin, meaning "real, true, native." Not in this case — when the Roman consul Druze broke on Main Marcomanni tribe, and he later died in an accident, the Roman Senate posthumously awarded him the first among the Romans, the honorary title of Germanicus. For a victory over the "Germans." It was in the year 9 AD Since that time, the word has become part of the title of Germanicus many Roman consuls and emperors. Thus, when the Carolingians took the term, proving the right to "nerimlyan" to the Roman heritage, there was the concept of "German nation", meaning quite literally "nerimskoe birth" (the word natio then meant not the people, but the birth), and at the same time clearly corresponded with titles of the great emperors. It was, of course, not ethnicity, not a people, but in modern terms, a political project, which had the aim of "nerimsky" renaissance of the Great Empire. Thus, the "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" literally today would be something like "Imperishable Nerimskogo Roman state was born."
6) «Sinus ille ab incolis appellatur Balticus, eo quod in modum baltei longo tractu per Scithicas regions tendatur usque in Greciam, idemque mare Barbarum seu pelagus Scitium vocatur a gentibus, quas alluit, barbaris».
7) The rest of the Baltic languages (Prussian, Curonian, Zemgale and selonsky) have disappeared, mainly between 1400 m and 1600 years.
"Gyustrovskaya ode" F.Tomas. Gustrow, 1716.
9) The word "Nenets" is also very controversial origin. Clearly Slavic suffix indicates that the language of the Nenets tribe Nao as it entered the Russian name of the former inhabitants of the Yamal Peninsula, which, I think, was very similar to the historic "Germans" just got a nickname from Novgorod. In general, it is possible that "Nenets" — a corruption of "the Germans."
10) "Russian Gazette", 1881
11) In the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich (1645) began the destruction of discharge book, reflecting the real story of Russian families and organized massacre "conservatives" because they still retain the old books.
12) LP Potapov Ethnic composition and origin of the Altai. Historical and ethnographic essay. / Ed. Ed. AP Okladnikov. — Leningrad: Nauka, 1969. — 196 p.).
13) "Telenget" I.S.Tengerekov
14) In the runaround to Moscow "White Kalmyks" magnified by name and last name (the father), while the rest of the local nobility, such as the head of the tribe eushtov Toyan or head of the tribe chat (tsattyr) Tarlava were referred by their first names. At the time, relied on a patronymic name only boyars, nobles, and even the Cossacks, if they are to state service.
15) Muscovy Dictionary, published in the XVII century by an English traveler Richard James, includes a total of 16 Slavic words, a similar phrase, "Muscovite language" German philologist Henry Ludolf (1696) — 41 Slavic word. Other contents of both dictionaries entirely of Mordovian-Turkic language.
16) "The grammar of the language of the Muscovites," Heinrich Wilhelm Ludolf, 1696
17) For example, Alex Kruglikov, founder Umrevinskogo Fortress (1703), the first citadel of Moscow power in what is now the Novosibirsk region, was the son of Steti Kruglik — Mstislav county gentry of Poland, which in 1655, was captured, and the rank of the "son of seigniorial "sent to serve on the border Teleut Tomsk prison.
18) Al-Balkhi, al-Marvazi, Al Istarkhi, Ibn Khordabex, Ibn Rust, Ibn Haukal etc.
19) G.Belorybkin archaeologist, journal "Homeland" was 11-2003
20) The name of the Altai preserved, for example, in the Chinese geography. Perhaps the word art comes from the eponymous drevnegotskogo deity, which is known in the Gaelic pantheon, and which is related to the origin, in particular, the name of the legendary King Arthur's Britons.
21) The term "Tatar yoke" in Russian chronicles is encountered. Was first coined in the Polish literature at the beginning of the XV century. Literally translated, this expression then meant "the military yoke of the tax." In the modern Russian language is similar in meaning to the expression in the military, "pull the strap."
22) The term "Mongol-Tatar yoke" came out of the German textbook "Atlas and tables for viewing the history of all European lands, and from the first of their population to the present time" (1817, Kruse, H., F. Kruse). In the middle of the XIX century, this book was first translated into Russian and published in St. Petersburg.
23) Joining Russia Teleut zemlitsy (modern Novosibirsk and Kemerovo regions with Altai Territory) was not accompanied by the transfer of power or other legal act, and carried upon a free entry to the territory of the Moscow State subjects, the first signs of which were recorded around 1713. But in 1721, was proclaimed the Russian Empire (the second in the world after the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation). Thus, the date of the official accession of the Upper Ob to Russia should be considered a legal act, the Russian Empire October 22, 1721, which according to the European legislation legitimizes the right of Russia to include the territory of other countries and peoples. It is no accident the same day Peter the Great took over from the Senate and the Synod of several honorary titles, including Father of the Fatherland, and the All-Russian Emperor Peter the Great.
24) That sounded like the full title of Peter:
"Grace of God we Reigning Most Lucent and sire and grand
Prince Peter A. All Great and small and White Russian autocrat:
Moscow, Kiev, Vladimersky, Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Astrakhan, and the king of the king Siberian, sire of Pskov, Grand Duke of Smolensk, Tver, Yugra, Perm, Vyattsky, Bulgarian and other, sire and grand duke Novagoroda Nizovskaya lands of Chernigov, Ryazan, Rostov, Yaroslavsky, White Lake,
Udorsky, Obdorsky, Kondiysky and all Nordic countries lord and sovereign Iverskiye land Kartli and Georgian kings, and Kabardian lands Cherkassky and Mountain Princes and other many countries and lands of Eastern and Western and Northern Otchich and Dedic and successor, and the emperor and the owner " . («Titles of European hereditary rulers»).
And so — Peter the Great:
Bozhieyu pospђshestvuyuscheyu milostiyu We Petr First, Czar and Samoderzhets Vserossiyskiy, Moskovskiy, Kievskiy, Vladimirskiy, Novgorodskiy, King Kazanskiy, King Astrahanskiy, King Sibirskiy, Sovereign Pskovskiy and Velikiy Smolenskiy Prince, Prince Estlyandskiy, Liflyandskiy, Korelskiy, Tverskiy, Yugorskiy, Permskiy, Vyatskiy , and Bolgarskiy inyh,
The Emperor and the Prince of Velikiy Novagoroda Nizovskiya land Chernigovskiy, Ryazanskiy, Rostovskiy, Yaroslavskiy, Bђloozerskiy, Udorskiy, Obdorskiy, Kondiyskiy and All Severnyya country and sovereign lord Iverskiya land Kartalinskih Gruzinskih and Kings, and Kabardinskiya land Cherkasskih and Gorskih Princes inyh naslђdny Emperor and owner. " (Peter I «the Great» Romanov (+1725), Czar (Emperor 1721) of Russia 1682)