By being in Russia appeared constant army, officials attached to the difference is not enough value. The difference between the older and younger was visible only in the cut odezhki and weaponry. Even after the reforms of Peter the tradition lasted, but there were also the first differences. Officer was put gorget — a special chest symbol tricolor scarf with silver and gold tassels and a gilded sword hilt. He had a crescent shape with the municipal coat of arms in the center, was put on his collar was attached to the laces epaulettes and buttons.
A radical change in uniforms of the Russian army began in 1802, when his uniform was replaced by a caftan-type uniform frachnyh type. One means of distinction of ranks was the emergence in 1803 of a new type of head covering — a cylindrical cap, and an element of distinction non-commissioned officers of the fighter gets so called "Repeek", which is a convex rounded wood detail. He was attached to the top of the cap under the brush and the color of his fighter was dependent on the number of battalions in the regiment, and all non-commissioned officers was divided into four parts and painted in pure white and orange (later in a snow-white and gray colors). Later, with the rise in 1807 quiver, which instead had a brush sultan in hiking NCOs upper third of the sultan was snow-white (in the cavalry dark) with a vertical orange stripe. But the Sultan put on his boots, usually only parades and reviews.
Also in the early XIX century appeared on the form, or more precisely, back straps, though at first they were repetitive and were the only decorative element. Only with the introduction of the 1803 portfolio, worn behind the back, they have become multi-functional. However, the officers did not have to wear them, and in 1809 they came to replace epaulettes, earned his first recognition in cavalry units. Epaulettes officers had the color of the field is the same as the color cut soldier of the regiment, and color braid, fringe — the colors assigned to the regiment instrumental metal. In the Guard, and the generals were entirely of gold. Epaulet on the field, as well as on the soldier's shoulder strap, has rooms division chief of the regiment or monogram. According epaulettes to distinguish it from the chief officer or staff officer of the general.
The main disadvantage of epaulette was the fact that certain ranks of officers and generals for him was not to be found. This changed only in 1827, when for the first time introduced an asterisk to denote military ranks. One — ensign, cornet, cornet, two — second lieutenant, major, major-general, three — lieutenant, captain, a lieutenant colonel, an army sergeant, lieutenant-general, four — captain, Lieutenant-Captain, podesaul. Captain, captain, captain, colonel general of infantry, cavalry, artillery, engineer-general epaulettes worn without stars. With all this rank epaulettes of various ranks were distinguished by its design.
The subsequent step in the development of military ranks came in 1843 with the introduction of the character differences for non-commissioned officers. In their cross-stripes appear, denoting rank. In appearance they resembled the sergeant's stripes of Russian army.
In the form we are used to create them, the stars and the shoulder straps were a function of the determinant of officers and generals' ranks only in 1854. Almost all of this is due to the introduction of the newest troops marching uniforms. It has been sewn strap soldier benchmark, which for senior officers were sewn along the two-lane braid special pattern so that the clearance between the stripes remained 4-5 mm. On the shoulder straps staff officers were sewn one lane wide and two bands over a narrow braid also gleams between them. Lace could be silver or gold, depending on the color assigned to the instrument metal shelf. At the general's shoulder straps sewn wide band of gold braid with a winding pattern. The size of stars in all the officers and generals was monotonous.
After year shoulder straps with stars and moved to other forms of marching. As with epaulettes at the time, they also quickly took root in the army. The latter still over half a century and remained in service just disappeared only after the revolution of 1917. Brand new power give up everything that was made earlier.
In the Red Army form odezhki initially had no character differences. But their enemies of white guard it with small changes resembled the one that was under royal authority. Stars and straps were the main forces of resistance. Although the coloring cut were the most different, their essence remains constant — to allocate rank officer. In general, with the final victory of the Bolsheviks stars and straps are gone for the next 20 years.
In the Red Army star appeared on the left sleeve commanders in 1919 and ran it until 1924. In 1935, the star again arise on the lapels and shoulder patches commanders 1 rank (or other similar military ranks) and the Russian Marshals Union as part of the insignia of the military rank. Additional signs of difference to the top military and political personnel were reddish cloth star with a diameter 55 mm, sewn on both sleeves. Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on May 7, 1940 in the Red Army entered the general's rank. Since their introduction on the lapels of generals appear asterisk to denote rank. Additionally sewn star on the sleeves.
Arm-star has no role to denote rank. Team and the leader of the Navy until 1943, as symbols differences had shoulder patches as a braid of various widths and quantities over the data had sewn stripes star gold (for officers) or silver (for officers of) color, while the admirals — contour star with hammer and sickle of the strands of golden or silver color. Military-political structure until 1942 wore on their sleeves reddish star.
January 6, 1943 in the army, and then January 15, 1943 at Navy vorachivayutsya straps as symbols of distinction, and with them the whole star officers (including generals). For Navy officers survived shoulder patches with the Stars. The system of military ranks of differences in 1943 with insignificant changes in Russia remained to this day.
Star (stars) introduced for carrying on the shoulder straps in 1943, were flat, serrated, later appeared convex ribbed stars with ribs. The diameter of the flat stars — 20 mm, sprockets — 13 mm, for lawyers, doctors and commissaries were provided Star with a diameter of 18 mm. Convex stars had the diameters of 20 and 13 mm. Stars were made of brass, and then — aluminum. The color of the star
s was golden (for doctors, lawyers and commissaries) or silver (for all others), in 1980 all the stars and starlets began to make gold. Field stars were iron and painted in dark green color.
With small changes in the external form in comparison with the previous periodically stars and straps used in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, and other power ministries. Designation system of military ranks is identical to the system in 1943. Used gold star, the army also used asterisks greenish khaki. Only now, the iron stars have smooth edges. Regardless of rank or seniority rank stars differ in size and material production. Some changes have touched only a field form. With the emergence of a new camouflage many of the officers were wearing so called falshpogony on which the stars were marked with a special paint. Officially, they were banned by the Charter and the relevant directives, but get success because of the convenience. Stars on the shoulder straps often clung to discharge vest, backpack or other, were also more noticeable for enemy snipers.
At the current time as a result of the ongoing military reform decided to strap on the substitution of the field form. Previously, both the overhead placed on the shoulders, now on the camouflage is only one shoulder strap, located in the center of the field jacket. This is explained by the same factors as the almost two hundred years ago: the convenience of wearing the outfit. Part of this hard to disagree. Get accustomed to it's own place, time will tell. We, in turn, will add that a similar method was applied in the U.S. Army, England, and even some European countries a couple of years back. In general, the stars so far no one is going to cancel, and taking into account the huge cuts of officers conducted over the past couple of years, their value has only increased.