Now that history in Ukraine is in a rather difficult position when she pressed simultaneously on the one hand the lack of financial capacity to conduct serious research, and on the other the need to consider a rather tough political konyukturu is trying to put all the history at a convenient channel for historical scene for all sorts of anti-scientific theory.
One of these theories is the so-called Finno-Ugric origin of modern Russian. In short, this theory states that in the period of the Old Russian state small group drevneukraintsev infiltrated the North-eastern (modern center of the European part of the Russian Federation). And no, it is not something Russify Ukrainised local Finno-Ugric peoples (tribes Mereschi, Chud, whole, etc.) which then become arrogant, assumed the name of the Russian, and those who had previously called the Russian began to call themselves Ukrainians spite of the fact that up to Russian it did not call themselves Russian. Is such a concentrated nonsense. Actually among Ukrainian nationalists walks are many versions of the origin of Russian, I have heard about the origin of the Russian Jews and the Tatars and the Mongols, and from some of the Byzantines, and one young Canadian of Ukrainian origin (by the way has never second- Ukraine, especially in Russia) on the Internet is seriously argued that the Russian came from some Central Asian tribes, and that Russian still wear skullcaps and bred camels. But these versions so obviously stupid that they are few and those who support and those who voiced their usually obvious need for mental health care and care of loved ones. But the Finno-Ugric theory of supporters among Ukrainian nationalists is large enough, they even try to bring some kind of "scientific basis" for her. In academic circles, these "theorists" is jokingly called "svidomi ugrofintsy." However, let us critically examine the main arguments "ugrofintsiv." .
1) "Ugrofintsy" make the emphasis on geography, they say look in the ninth-tenth century in what is now central and northern European Russia lived Finno-Ugric tribes, and now they are not there, and live there now are Russian. Conclusion: The Russian and have those same Finno-Ugric tribes. The argument for bad knowing the geography and history. First: "svidomye ugrofintsy" forget the simple fact that in the ages 9-14 held massive Slavic colonization of these lands. As Slavs were significantly more and they were more organized and united it Finno-Ugrian were forced to retreat further east and north. Small groups of Finno-Ugric peoples joined the Russian ethnic group, making a number of small sub-ethnic groups (tahtartsy, Meshcheryakov, etc.). This is akin to the remains of a small Thracian tribe merged with Ukrainian ethnos created subethnos Hutsul, and infusion of a small Celtic tribe led to the creation subetnosa strikers etc. But that is no reason to rank the Ukrainians to the Thracians and Celts, as well as Russian, a Finno-Ugric. Second: nowhere Finno-Ugric peoples have not disappeared, many of the Finno-Ugric ethnic groups live quietly in Russia for their ethnic territories, and are not going to "turn" in Russian. Here is a list of these people: Veps, Vod, Izhorians, Karelia, Komi, Komi-Perm, Mansi, Mari, Mordovians, Khanty, Udmurt, Sami. To this must be added the fact that Russia is bordered by two Finno-Ugric countries: Estonia and Finland. In addition, the Finno-Ugric state is Hungary, Latvia lives in Finno-Ugric peoples Liv. So it does not seem that the Finno-Ugric peoples "turned" in Russian. .
2) "Svidomi ugrofintsy" as well as make an impact on the extraordinary "similarity" of manners and the Finno-Ugric peoples and Russian. Russian supposedly borrowed from the Finno-Ugric: shoes, doll, log houses, bath, shirt, kokoshnik, dumplings. Let's understand: yes, Russian and many Finno-Ugric wore shoes, sandals but it is not a Muslim burqa or iron bracelet from Sikhs who wear anytime, anywhere. Bast shoes is the rural poor forest of Europe. Under different names they were worn in the Baltic, North Germany, and the Ukraine (see Fig. 1) of course only where dominated forest and woodland, respectively, in Russia. Ukrainian and Russian bast lynchak is the same. So that the Finno-Ugric nothing to do with. Matryoshka is not really Russian notion, let's say it creatively processed master Toy, turner Zvezdochkin Vasily Petrovich in 1898, with the statue of the Japanese island of Honshu. and quickly took root and became the favorite souvenir for foreigners coming to Russia. Again, where is the Finno-Ugric? Frame buildings were still the ancient Slavs, and in forest areas of Ukraine are also common (see Fig. 2). As for the bath would like to give only one piece of the "Tale of Bygone Years", "When drevlyans came Olga ordered to prepare a bath, telling them this:" Vymyvshis, come to me. " And built a bath, and came to her and began to wash drevlyans, and locked them a bath, and ordered Olga light it from the door, and burned it. "As you can see, the baths have existed in ancient Russia, and again of the Finno-Ugric peoples is not being . About kokoshniks issue too controversial. Kokoshniki mostly are traditionally representative northern Russian (okayuschih), which are numerically much inferior to the southern Russian (akayuschim). So to describe kokoshnik property of all the Russian people in any event wrong. Also, after a long search, I found only only two of the Finno-Ugric peoples representatives who had a hat remotely resembling kokoshnik it Estonians and their headgear "pottmyuts" and Udmurts their "ayshonom." Considering what a huge impact on the Udmurt had Russian, "ayshon" probably is a borrowed from Russian kokoshnik. So the attribute of the Finno-Ugric kokoshnik be a stretch. Just like the shirt though. This element of menswear Slavic name, number of Finno-Ugric peoples is not of a shirt, for example Mari (by the way they are very similar to the traditional shirt embroidered Ukrainian). So do not be so peremptorily declare that Russian Finno-Ugric something borrowed. Now for the dumplings, then we must admit that it is really borrowing from the Finno-Ugric (drops-nien in Udmurt this cereal ear), but this dish appeared in Russian cuisine in the 17th century, and besides dumplings were borrowed from the Finno-Ugric peoples is Tatar and Lithuanian dishes. So maybe "svidomym ugrofintsam" should think about how to display the origin and Tatars, Lithuanians from the Finno-Ugric?
3) the "language" of proof. If you have to argue with the "svidomym ugrofintsem" then you definitely will tell about that in the Russian literary language there are many borrowings from Finno-ugrskih languages, when you start to require specific words, in response to hearing only three words: the first type is the word nadergano from various Russian dialects, and here we must not forget that the dialect is not a literary language, and if you get in the position of "svidomyh ugrofintsev", then it is necessary to pay attention to Transcarpathian dialect of the Ukrainian language and there we also find a lot of the Finno-Ugric borrowings caught there under the influence of the neighboring Hungarian language. The second form of the words so-called "vulgar" type: Okolelov, hobble, etc. But here, the number of these wretched vulgarism. And the vulgar are not part of the standard language. It is unlikely that any doctor in a medical paper wrote: "The patient Okolelov" and so on. The third type are the words of criminal jargon so-called "Feni". But this fact "svidomye ugrofintsy" deny themselves, as slang for that and needed the conversation to the criminals did not understand all of the surrounding, which generally were Russian, and what is the "hair dryer" if Russian are the descendants of the Finno-Ugric and understands Fino -Ugric word. It is now in the late 20 — early 21 th century "Fenya" became the property of the broad masses of the population, whereas before it was only the language of professional criminals, because they have no relation to the literary language of course not. .
4) Place names are also trying to use in support of the "Finno-Ugric theory." Yes, names such as Moscow, Moore, Perm, etc. has Finno-Ugric origin, which fell in the "legacy" of Slavic settlers retreating under the pressure of Slavic colonization of the Finno-Ugric peoples. But this state of things in the world. The capital of Germany is Berlin-Slavic name, the capital of Canada is Ottawa Indian name. In the U.S., a number of states is called once lived there Indian tribes (Utah, North and South Dakota, etc.) But it does not mean that the Germans, the Slavs, and all Canadians, Americans and Indians. Yes, in Germany there is a group of Slavs (luzhichane), while in the U.S. and Canada of the Indians, but they are few in number, and are so to say so to the "side" of ethnic development of their countries and their position is identical to the situation of the Finno-Ugric peoples in Russia.
5) Baseless speculation on some anthropological differences between Russian and Ukrainian as intrinsic to the "Svidomym ugrofintsam." Should immediately be noted that the majority of Ukrainians and Russian physically indistinguishable or differed slightly, belonging to similar anthropological types, intermediate between northern and southern Europeans in the color of hair and eyes. Differences are mainly in the presence of peripheral types that do not match either of the Ukrainians and Russian, or expressed in varying degrees. Thus, in the Carpathian Mountains, Carpathians and Transcarpathian live high, with aquiline noses people reminding residents of northern Albania and Montenegro. In southern Ukraine, there are also tall, dark-haired people, but with a straight nose. This type is found on the south of Russia, although in a smaller proportion. On the other hand, in the north of Russia dominated by various versions of the blonde northern races relatively modestly represented among the Ukrainians.
In the Volga-Kama watershed in Russian, a considerable admixture of the Ural type, the transition between the Caucasoid and Mongoloid races. Ural type in pure form to the Finno-Ugric peoples of the Ural and is characterized by below-average growth, a wide bony face and a snub nose. Although this type of impurity is only a minority of Russian, though this fact was used for decades as proof that the Russian did not Europeans, and during the Second World War, the thesis of the racial inferiority of Russian has been further developed in the practice of the Nazis. At the same time in modern Western and Ukrainian publicist and literature is very unusual to find an underlined and exaggerated description of Mongoloid traits in Russian, and it is hard to give a different explanation than the presence of the authors of these publications are deeply ingrained hostility and bias against the Russian people. In this regard, I note that a small Mongoloid admixture observed for East and Central Europe, up to and including Bavaria. There is an admixture of blood from the Scandinavians Sami (Saami, or Lapp, close to the Ural race by type). As for the Ukrainians, they got their (in some places no small) share of Mongoloid blood from Turkic nomads Black Sea. Thus, the data of anthropological research is not possible to divide Ukrainian and Russian. Finno-Ugric influence on Russian ethnos certainly was, but it was small, and certainly not because of it so that it was possible to question the origin of the Eastern Slavic Russian.
Finno-Ugric theory has a number of "arguments" but they are so absurd that do not need special refutation. As seen from the above stated facts of the Finno-Ugric theory has no ethnographic or historical value, but for politicians who aim to achieve a complete alienation between closely related Slavic nations of Russia and Ukraine, it is the "gold mine" of new xenophobic theories prove various Russian origin and Ukrainian people.
Like to end this article with a quote from the book "Kievan Rus" prominent Ukrainian historian Pyotr Tolochko, which as anyone familiar with the issue of new konyukturnyh historical and ethnographic theories in Ukrainian historical science: "Once we (Ukrainian researchers) do not meet the provisions of the" younger " brother. We would like to be, if not a "senior" that, given the inheritance are Ukrainians territorial basis of Kievan Rus, would meet the historical truth, then at least "equal" brother. Now we do not seem to agree even be "big." In many recent works of ancient concept of a unified nation as "the cradle of the three fraternal peoples of East," declared the product of official Soviet historiography and on this basis is rejected. In addition to the "revolutionary expediency" and resentment for the past "ethnic humiliation", nor any other arguments about the impossibility of the concept of descent Eastern Slavic peoples are not given. However, in most cases, this problem permeated people who had not studied it professionally, and therefore do not own any source base or historiographic heritage of previous generations of historians. "