Drawing on ideas from the treasury of Greek literature, you can create a very clear picture of the origin of our world. Historians, however, believe that all these legends were not even invented by the Greeks themselves, but merely moved them from completely-forgotten Middle Eastern religions, and because the Greek writers quite often, in their well-balanced system of origin of the world, there are quite a radical contradiction to which They, however, do not seem to pay any attention. But nevertheless …
According to one version, extant only in fragments, the goddess of all things Eurynome lien with the world serpent Ophion and created the world. According to another version, narrated by Homer, the world came from the union of the Ocean and Tethys, who personified the primeval waters.
But the main Greek version says that in the beginning there was only the eternal, infinite and dark chaos, of which there were both the world and the immortal gods. In particular, the goddess of the Earth — Gaia. Very far below it appeared gloomy Tartarus — a terrible abyss, darkness. Just out of Chaos was born quickening Love — Eros and the world began to form. Chaos gave birth to eternal darkness — Erebus and the dark night — Nyuktu, which occurred from the eternal Light — Light Aether and joyful day — Hemera.
Earth gave birth to Heaven — Uranus, mountains and sea. She gave birth to their own, without any participation of the father. Uranus (her son) took to wife the Earth, and they had children, the Titans: six sons and six daughters. Son of ocean that surrounds the earth and the goddess Thetis gave birth to the river and sea goddesses Oceanides. Titan Hipperion and Theia produced Sun — Helios, the moon — and Selena Dawn — rosy Eos (Aurora). Of Astrea and Eos came all the stars and all the winds, north Boreas, EVR east, south and west of the Notes Zephyr.
Land has also created three giants, Cyclops with one eye in the forehead and three huge pyatidesyatigolovyh and Hecatonchires-hundred-handed ones. Even Uranus horrified force their children and imprisoned them in the bowels of the earth goddess, forbidding them to go out into the world. One can not keep such a burden, urged children to rebel against his father, but they were afraid. Only a junior, treacherous Kron (chronos — time consuming), cunning overthrew Uranus. Goddess of Night gave birth to a punishment Kron horrible creatures: Tanata — death, Eris — discord, apathy — deception, Kera — the destruction, Hypnos — a heavy nightmare and Nemesis — vengeance. These beings are made in the world like before paradise, strife, deceit, poverty and misery.
Kron, himself once overthrew his father, afraid of their children. He instructed his wife Rhea bring children born to him and mercilessly devoured them. Such a fate befell five: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades and Poseidon. But Ray, moved by a mother's love, on the advice of his parents, Uranus and Gaia, retired to the island of Crete, and there, in a cave, having given birth to Zeus, hid him from cruel father giving his son to swallow instead of stone wrapped in swaddling clothes.
Zeus grew up in Crete and nymphs Adrastea and fed him milk idea of the divine Amalfi goats, honey bees wore him down the slopes of the mountain dictates and guarding the entrance to the cave young demigods Kuret banged their swords, shields every time the baby cried, not to Krohn heard the baby and not to suffer the fate of brothers and sisters.
Zeus grew up, rebelled against his father and forced to return to the light swallowed them children. They began to fight for the crown and the Titans over the world. After a long struggle, they were able to establish itself on a high Olympus. Their side have taken some of the titans, and the first — Ocean, his daughter and the children Styx: The zeal and power of victory.
Zeus came to the rescue as Cyclops, forged the thunderbolts that Zeus in the metal titans. After ten years of struggle equal to Zeus decided to release from the bowels of the earth Hecatonchires-hundred-handed ones, and they rushed to the Titans, taking away from the whole mountain cliffs and throwing them at the enemy. The Titans, dodging flying giant stones in them, could not even approach the Olympus. Earth moaning roar filled the air, and even tartar shuddered. Zeus, one after the other metal zippers, all the earth caught fire, and it was so hot that even the sea began to boil.
Modern man sees in this description is not so much a battle as a geological disaster: whether the eruption of a volcano, or a huge meteorite fall. And maybe a war between two powerful civilizations. However, this topic we'll discuss a little later. In the meantime, continue the story of the ancient Greek legends.
The Titans were defeated. Olympians overthrew them in Tartarus, and his gates put Hecatonchires. Thus ended the power of the Titans on the ground.
But Gaia-Earth offended that Zeus so cruelly done to her children, and married to Tartarus, having given birth to a monster Typhon, the owner of hundreds of dragon heads. He climbed out of the ground, howled, and in this horrible scream mingled dogs barking, crying man, growling lion and other equally horrible or unpleasant sounds. Around him, blazing flames, and the earth trembled beneath him.
Well: another geographic disaster …
The gods were frightened, but Zeus began to shoot lightning, and the battle began. Again lit up the land, boil the sea, and even shook the firmament. Zeus was able to burn all the zippers hundred head of Typhon, and he fell to the ground. Even from his prostrate body came a fire that was burning all around. Zeus took the body of Typhon and threw it in Tartarus. But there Typhon bring trouble to the gods and all living things. He caused storms, earthquakes and eruptions, and with viper-snake, gave birth to two-headed dog, Orff, hell hound Cerberus, Lerna Hydra and Chimera. But the power of the gods is nothing threatened: Zeus took the sky, Poseidon — the sea, and Hades — The underground kingdom of the dead. Land the gods left in common ownership. Zeus became the gods of the first among equals.
Guarded the entrance to Olympus three lovely Orae by raising and lowering (when the gods descend to earth and back to his monastery) which closes the gates of a thick cloud abode of the gods.
In the abode of gods, no rain, no snow and the eternal summer reigns. Hence Zeus led the world, and good and evil are in his hands. Maintain order and ensure that laws are respected, it helps the goddess Themis. The daughter of Zeus, goddess Dike, also oversees the judiciary.
But the fate of the people determine the Fates — Moira, guided by the injunctions of Rock, which only they know. Moira Klotho determines the term of human life, spinning the thread of his destiny. Moira Lachesis determines not looking, lots, which falls in the life of a person. A third Moira, Atropos, enters into a long roll of all the things that a person appointed.
Under the ground dominates brother of Zeus Hades. There flows the sacred river Styx, which swear by the waters of the gods themselves. Here are the souls of the dead, who endlessly complain to each other on their joyless life without the sun and without desire.
Aida, who has ruled the kingdom of the dead along with his wife Persephone, the goddess of vengeance are the Furies. With whips and snakes they are chasing the criminal, leaving him alone for a minute, and the torment of his remorse. At the throne of the kingdom of Hades are the judges of the dead — Minos and Rhadamanthus, and the god of death, Thanatos, sword in hand. In a black cloak with a huge black wings, he flies to the bed and dying with his sword cuts a lock of hair from his head, and taketh the soul. With him are Kery that on the battlefield pripadaet lips to the wound soldiers guzzle hot blood and ripped from the bodies of the soul. Also seated at the throne of Hades and the beautiful young god of sleep Hypnos.
Greek gods, as are many of the gods of early mankind, which I will discuss later, not separated themselves from the people impregnable wall, and along with them, as far as, of course, this equality may have been involved in worldly matters.
God or gods become something unattainable, sublime object of prayer, much later, with the beginning of the era of Christianity or Islam. Even in the Biblical Old Testament, God often comes down from heaven to give orders to your favorites. Such dramatic changes in the behavior of the divine, or rather, the changing role of the gods in the myths can be attributed to many factors, but some researchers have come to the conclusion that the gods of our ancestors considered a kind of a more advanced civilization, with a view to colonize Earth. A little later in the book we'll discuss in greater detail this version, but for now back to the ancient Greek mythology.
The gods were involved in human affairs, not only "directing from Olympus." For example, in Delphi housed the temple of Apollo, where the priestess Pythia gave predictions. Predictions that, according to contemporaries, very often come true. As far as possible here to talk about the paranormal abilities — is unknown, but is probably to say about the wisdom of the priestess: the prediction given by King Croesus of Lydia in his war against Persia, sounded like: "If you cross the river Halys, then destroy a great kingdom." Croesus, delighted, went to destroy the kingdom. But a kingdom that was lost as a result of the war, was not Persian (Croesus was defeated, and his country — ruined). However, the prediction came true.
But, in addition to advice given by the priests, and were more specific intervention: just remember Prometheus, who stole fire for humans. The image of a supreme being who favored the people there in the myths of many peoples. A god, not only for the people stealing fire, but warns doomed to destruction of the human race conceived by other gods Flood.
But still go back to Apollo. Initially, he was considered the god guarding the herd. Soon he became the god of light and, later, the patron saint of migrants, the Greek colonies, as well as patron of the arts. According to legend, he was born on the island of Delos. His mother Latona pursued sent Hero dragon Pithon and pregnant by Zeus, wandered through the world until it came to Delos.
Asclepius, son of Apollo — the god of medicine and doctors, famous for the fact that even the dead back to life. Here's another divine intervention in human affairs. Or just wonders unknown to the Greeks highly medicine?
It is said that the gods of the ancient Greeks were interested in a lot more people and nature, and because the stories of their lives came to us a lot. Carry out various, sometimes very interesting parallels can perhaps indefinitely, but stop. Tell only a couple of things that we think are relevant to the topic of this book. One of them — the legend of Phaethon.
The son of Helios, the Sun-Klim, the daughter of the sea goddess Thetis, the Phaeton was talking one day with his son Zeus the Thunderer Epaf. Those mocking him, said:
— You — the son of a mortal. Your mother is cheating you! I do not believe that you are the son of God!
Phaeton first went to his mother and then his father, Helios, and asked him to dispel doubts. Helios and Phaeton embraced, vowing waters of the Styx, confirmed its origin and promised, seeing that he was upset to fulfill his every desire. Phaeton is asked to allow him to travel across the sky instead of the Helios in his chariot of gold. As he tried to dissuade any unreasonable young man, explaining that even Zeus himself can not handle the horses, harnessed to the chariot of this, but in the end, not daring to break the oath retreated.
— Does not rise too high — said Helios son — not to burn the sky, but do not fall low, not burn down the ground.
And again asked him to change the desire, which could bring him the death. But Shay already on his chariot, seized the reins and hit the road. Soon he was lost, the horses suffered, and when he looked at the ground, then got scared, and in his eyes darkened. The flames from about chariots swept the ground, and a large, rich cities began to die one by one. River boiled and dried sea.
Gaia appealed to Zeus, urging her not to give in order to die, and he broke the chariot of lightning. Kony fled in different directions, and Phaeton, with flaming curls on his head, fell into the waves of the river Eridanus. Where, today, unfortunately, is difficult to determine. These names were in Attica and the river in the north, perhaps it is the Western Dvina and the River Po. Helios was so upset by his son's death, which did not appear in the sky, and the earth was illuminated only by the light of fires.
Modern man immediately understands what is said in the legend of the fall of a large celestial body that caused such severe fires, which apparently went up a smoke and dust created such a veil that sunlight could not penetrate for a while to the ground.
To complete this beautiful story, is to say that the mother of Phaeton, Klima, found on the banks of the Eridanus no body of his son, and his tomb. Proponents of the theory advanced civilization immediately tell that it was not a tomb, and the spacecraft, the management of which the young man did not deliver. But still it is necessary to leave the place and the legends, especially since they are very beautiful: and his mother mourned the dead boy and her daughter Heliades. Their grief was so boundless that the gods turned them into poplar trees. And their tears of resin that fell into the water, he immediately turned to amber.
As in other religions of the world, the ancient Greeks believed that mankind has come into existence in paradise. Or rather, here it is called the Golden Age. But gradually deteriorated life on earth, and, for example, Hesiod believed that he lives in the worst period of history.
The human race was created by Kron, according to Greek mythology, happy.
People did not know no worries, no sorrow, no need to work. There was no sickness in humans, no old age. Even death itself contains nothing terrible, and looked like a mere sound sleep. Gardens and fields galore gave them food, and huge flocks of grazing meadows. Even the gods came to the people for advice. But the golden age, like all good things, is over, and all the people of the first generation died, becoming spirits, protectors and defenders of the new generations of people (angels?). This award was given to them by Zeus: shrouded in mist, they fly across the land, defending the truth and punishing evil.
The second human race, who lived in the Silver Age, was not so happy: neither the power nor the reason these people could not be compared with the previous generation. As many as one hundred years they have grown unreasonable in the homes of their mothers, and only matured, they left them, managing to survive into adulthood quite a bit. Since most of the life they were foolish, you've seen a lot of grief and unhappiness. They did not listen to the gods and refused to sacrifice to them, and Zeus destroyed their family, put them in the underworld, where there is neither joy nor sorrow.
After that Zeus created the third race and came third century — copper. People of this century started from the pole spears, were terrible and mighty. In addition to the tremendous growth they had an invincible force and a fearless heart. Most of all they loved war and battle. They do not sow, do not eat fruits that are abundant gardens bring, but only war. And their weapons, and their homes were forged from copper, they also worked copper implements.
This brings to mind the official science and its copper age? Greek storytellers also note that the iron found out only later generations. Soon the people of the Copper Age exterminated each other, Zeus created the fourth century, and a new race of men. These people were noble, fair and almost equal to the gods. But all of them were killed in various wars and battles: Who's semivratnyh Thebes, who at Troy, where they were for Elena, etc.
After the death of Zeus these people settled on the edge of the land on the islands in the ocean, away from the living, so they can enjoy a happy and carefree life. Land of fruits there three times a year, and its fruits are sweet as honey.
After this, the Thunderer were created last, the fifth century — the iron, and the human race that lives on to this day. The people of this generation haunted sadness and exhausting work. The gods send them grave concern, not forgetting, however, to give and good, but still evil and bad weather have more than their share. Children do not respect their parents, friends betray each other, there is no love between brothers and hospitality has become a rarity. Vows are broken, and the evil for good pay. The cycle of violence, and the goddess of justice and conscience of the people had left, flying to Olympus, and the people have no protection from evil.
One of the popular theories of the origin of humanity says that before the rise of our civilization on Earth existed some more, and, according to some assumptions, the more highly. Greek myths, as we see, it is confirmed.
All of us at least in general terms, it is known story of the Flood. It turns out that there was already a legend in ancient Babylon. Well, we no longer know the story from the Bible about who built the ark. The Greeks expounded the story so …
People of the Copper Age, not only disobeyed the gods, the Olympians, but also famous for their wickedness. Once Zeus decided to visit in human form Likosura king of Arcadia. Upon entering the palace, Zeus gave the sign, and everyone realized who it came and fell down. But the king Lycaon did not want to pay tribute to Zeus honors and became a mock those who greeted him. And even decided to test, whether the god Zeus. He killed a hostage and a part of his body cooked, some roasted and offered God of Thunder. The one scary angry, lightning destroyed the palace of Lycaon, and he himself turned into a wolf.
But even then, people do not become more pious, and Zeus decided to destroy the entire human race. He decided to make the Flood, and this brought upon the land of heavy downpour, and rebuked the winds blow, and only moist southerly wind Horn drove across the sky dark rain clouds. First, the river just overflowed, but soon the rough waters covered the house, then walls, and the water was only a two-headed summit of Parnassus.
Of all the human race, only two survived: Deucalion, son of Prometheus, and his wife Pyrrha. Deucalion by the advice of his father built a huge box, put it in enough food supplies, and nine days and nights box bore upon the waters until he came to Parnassus. Heavy rain has stopped, Deucalion and Pyrrha came out of the box, and brought peace offerings to Zeus. Water began to back away, and laid bare land, absolutely devastated. The water washed away with her not only all the buildings, but the gardens and fields. Zeus sent Hermes to Deucalion and promised to fulfill his every desire.
He also asked that the land was inhabited by humans again. Zeus ordered Deucalion and Pyrrha and collect stones to throw over his head without looking back. Those stones which Deucalion threw turned into men, and those who threw Pyrrhus — in women. A new race of people descended from a stone (although the next century, as you recall, was named an iron).
But not all Greeks were descended from the stones. Some tribes considered themselves to be autochthonous, that is to arise out of the ground. The Thebans, for example, thought that they had come from the teeth Phoenician Cadmus killed the dragon, which he planted in the ground.
See also: Mysterious ancient artifacts, mummification in ancient Egypt.