Pseudo armored cars
In the conditions of lack of armored militia altered personal vehicles in combat vehicles. The main transformation is the addition of a few sheets of iron doors and windows normal passenger cars also install a light machine gun on the roof. In a makeshift armor often could find out the details of radiators or just tin roof
"The final German victory over England is now only a matter of time. The enemy offensive operations on a large scale is no longer possible. " Chief of Staff of the operational management of the Wehrmacht General Jodl, who wrote these lines of June 30, 1940, was in a great mood. A week before France fell, and the first month of the Anglo-French and Belgian troops barely had time to get-away from the mainland, leaving the Germans to their technique.
Third Reich nothing prevented completely sanded and implement a plan "Operation Sea Lion" to capture Britain. English people, whose troops after fleeing from Dunkirk were virtually no tanks and artillery, the Germans could oppose a strong maritime and air force, as unutterable patriotism, the spirit of resistance. Churchill in the face of a deadly threat could unite people and civilization was ready to fight to the last drop of blood.
May 14, 1940 the Minister of War, Anthony Eden, speaking on the radio, called the guys between the ages of 16 and 65 to join the novoorganizovannye "Voluntary part of the local self-defense" (later — the "home guard», Home Guard). By the end of the month, these parts are numbered 300,000 men, and soon the number had risen to 1.5 million became the most acute problem of providing volunteers weapon, uniforms and equipment. First houmgvardovtsy served in their own daily clothes and armed with anything — hunting or sporting rifles, and even quite golf clubs and pitchforks. Realizing that agricultural implements German tanks did not stop, the War Department in a hurry to start to develop and mass-produce the simplest weapons.
In 1940, the company launched the Standard Motor Company in a batch creation of small-sized armored Standard Car 4 x 2, won the popular nickname Beaverette («Bobrik"). In just two years was done in 2400 armored car received as part of the English militia and the regular army. First modification of "beaver" had a body, open at the top and at the rear: it nullified virtually all the protective functions of the machine. The illustration — modification Mk III Beaverbug, wherein a shortened chassis, the presence of armored roof and turret
Smith Wesson without
The main challenge facing the houmgvardom was destruction of enemy tanks and armored vehicles. So as available in service 13.97-mm anti-tank gun Boys could no longer fully correspond to the rank anti, the militia began to receive various extravagant design.
One of them — a three-inch smoothbore launcher designed Trianco Engineering Company. Its chassis was a two-wheeled cart, once served as the calculation broneschitom: to bring guns into firing position had to be just only knock it on its side. To houmgvardovtsy in the heat of battle is not confused and did not put the gun upside down, the right wheel (it is also rotating pedestal) was performed with a concave bottom, second, on the contrary, with convex. Cannon simply moved the efforts of 2 persons, but long-distance hauling her everyday civilian passenger cars or even bikes. Was also developed and self-propelled version of the chassis armored transporter Universal Carrier. Shooting could be carried out both high-explosive and armor-piercing grenades. Range of fire armor-piercing ammunition was 180 m, explosive — 450 m, but the fire on the area could lead to a distance of 600 m, which allowed scattering grenades at such a distance.
Another exotic anti-tank weapons was "Blacker bombard." Make come true in 1930 the British Army Lieutenant Colonel Stewart Blacker, a 29-mm "bombard" could lead fire grenades, made on the basis of a two-inch mortar shell — high-explosive anti-tank weighing 9.1 kg and an antipersonnel fragmentation weight 6.35 kg. As the propellant was used black powder — clearly, it was not made from the best of life.
The gun went massive (50 kg weighed myself and bombard more 100 kg — saw to it), with vile accuracy of fire (an anti-grenade at the greatest distance could be reached only in a football field, but when shooting at point-blank debris threatened to hit calculation tools, in order to get into the tank, a consuming need to open with a 50 — 90 m), therefore it is logical that even houmgvarde to bombard treated badly. The situation was aptly described the commander of the 3rd Battalion Viltshirskogo militia, "I uttered that 50 of these guns are highlighted my battalion. But I do not see the ability to use them, so they just add to the piles of scrap metal lying around already Viltshirskih on the outskirts of the villages. " Despite all prepyadstviya, 22000 "bombards" with full ammunition houmgvarda were in service until 1944, and even supplied to the Allied — so, in the period 1941-1942 in the Red Army were 250 guns Colonel Blacker.
Hammer as antitank weapon
Manual of military training number 42 "Tank: hunting and destruction" for the militia to offer even more exotic methods of disabling armored vehicles. For example, it was proposed to use the ropes, like arresting gear, forcibly stopping aircraft on the deck of an aircraft carrier, the cable should strengthen itself to trees.
Another method of stopping the machine sought teamwork 4 of the crew "hunters tanks" houmgvarda. Hiding behind a wall at home or in the roadside bushes, the hunters expected lines up with them until the tank. After that, two members of the team ran out of the shelter with a rail at the ready (in general, as noted in the manual, instead of the rail can be used as crowbar, scrap, or just hook wood beams suitable thickness), and stuck it into the chassis, between the roller and the sloth. After running gear jammed, the third crew member doused a blanket, which was wrapped stuck the end of the rail, gasoline, and fourth houmgvardovets it all burned.
The guide addresses and plan "B" — in case you did not get to get the militia or rails, not gasoline. According to him, to remove the tank was damaged quite a hammer (it could be replaced with an ax, which came in a set of mandatory "hunters") and grenades. With a hammer in one hand and a grenade in the other fighter had to wait for the enemy's car on the hill (the second floor of the building, tree, hill), and, seizing the moment to jump on top of her. Then houmgvardovtsu should whack with a hammer on the tower, and, waiting for pop out of the hatch stunned fascist, throw a grenade inside …
ion English houmgvarda built for visual inspection, in November 1943. For lack of experience in warfare militia devoted unlimited time doctrines and dressage (it perfectly perceptible on the dog's behavior)
Fri individual in the defense system was houmgvarda fire — though what pyromaniac would come into ecstasy, if he was able to see the devices, designed to lower the Germans had landed in the fiery depths of hell.
In 1-x, ognesmes (25% gasoline, 75% diesel) proposed a spill — either by gravity from the slope with simple pumps. It has been calculated that the creation of the six-minute source of fire measuring 0.5 x 1.5 m requires 910 liters ognesmesi. Fuel could also "pack" in the barrel, turning them into improvised incendiary bombs. Buried on the road, they were ignited by electric detonators.
Was soon developed an improved bomb — it could disguise on the sidelines, and at the appropriate time lifting charge banished flaming barrel directly at the column technique. Then this bomb again upgraded: now fuel flew to the enemy is not in a barrel, but as a burning jet ejected by compressed nitrogen. Roaring column of flame, in the twinkling of an eye negates the road, created a constant remembrance in the test — which would be against the Germans, even scary to imagine.
In general, one is not limited to the British land mines. In houmgvarde became popular homemade Infantry "Harvey flamethrower." It was a 100-liter tank with a flame mixture and a can of compressed air 113 dal. Calculation of 2 persons carrying on an instrument specially made steel cart.
That was more convenient to carry a flame thrower, the men of the 24th Battalion Stafordshirskogo Tettenholskogo houmgvarda designed a self-propelled version of the chassis avtomobilchika old Austin 7. With the car engine was removed and added to the body pump, a 200-liter drum of fuel and a stool for the flamethrower. In theory, the militia had to water the enemy from a distance of 22 meters for 3 minutes, but most likely he would have become suicide bombers, having left the position and exploding.
In the end, the system of coastal defense included the introduction of the broadest flammable consistencies. So, on the beaches, also on the bottom at a certain distance from the coast was planned to lay pipes placed in them at regular intervals valves. When the landing craft approached the shore very tightly, valves revealed, oil from pipes and ignited surfaced. It was assumed that the German order not survive landing in heavy thick smoke and choking airborne units will fail.
Flamethrowers defense, meanwhile waiting for Luftwaffe — so heavy stationary version gave up the torch vertical height of about 30 meters next chore, but the self-propelled version of the improvised armored car had a bit smallest vertical distance ognemetaniya. On the bank also had to be on duty "Basilisk" — improvised means of combat, which is a reserved Bedford QL trucks with flamethrowers.
In contrast to the various means of throwing the fire was in the militia and military water cannon mounted on armored Universal Carrier. Thick hose filed a massive hydrant behind the flap is actually a lot of "ammunition", which operated almost silently and unobtrusively.
Elements of the strategy
Numerous controls, specially designed for houmgvarda, to anticipate fully all the situations likely to battle. In theory, the militia could resist a tank shell, platoons of infantry, airborne attacks. In fact houmgvarda units could be demolished during the first severe attack the enemy
English improvisational orchestra
Another discrepancy that stood before houmgvardom was the lack of armored vehicles. Since it was not enough, even in the army, had to turn inside the home.
Across the country, from home garages to workshops tremendous plants militia began to alter personal vehicles in the ersatz armored cars. The main transformation is the addition of a few sheets of iron doors and windows to your home light vehicles are also installing a light machine gun on the roof. In general, where the production capacity allowed, born and options, more like armored cars: a fully enclosed armored hulls and one or two machine guns in turrets. In some battalions houmgvarda alteration and reservations were even buses (including the luxurious two-storey) and agricultural tractors. In general, all of these machines have a very obscure military value, as hastily made "armor" is actually not protected from bullets and shrapnel, and a ride on overloaded chassis of old sedans and coupes on rough terrain could easily forgotten.
The first industrially manufactured ersatz light reconnaissance armored car was armored Beaverette («Bobrik"). All manufactured armored car was completely on the needs of the armed forces, as armored corps Standard Motor Company had to make of boiler plate 9 mm wide, mounted on wood frame. Armament open top of the machine was 7.71-mm machine gun and anti-tank gun Bren Boys.
Statewide "Biverettu" relied crew of three people: two arrows and the driver (a number that the first driver will die immediately as the car comes into the fight, because had to be spare). The following modifications of the length of the machine chassis decreased thickness of the "armor" grew to 12 mm, and the body was completely closed and got a tower. All were released in 2800, "Biverettov" individual instances were in Ireland right up to the beginning of the 1960s.
More languid "armored cars" were built on the base of trucks. Company London, Midland and Scottish Railway originally decided the problem of the lack of armor plates: platform truck mounted wood box, inside which there was a regular, but the smallest size. In the gap between the walls is 152 mm, to cast pebbles, gravel and small stones. Inside the boxes were loopholes with iron shutters and glass cockpit protected boiler iron. Machine, received the designation Armadillo Mk I, armed with a machine gun and machine-gun fire could withstand. In all there were 312 ersatz armored cars.
Armadillo Mk II, 295 copies were made on the basis of three-ton truck Bedford, had an elongated box also protect the radiator and fuel tank. 55 Armadillo Mk III had a box shorter, but polutorafuntovoy armed with a gun.
The company Messers Concrete Ltd took a different path — an old commercial two-and three-axle trucks were reinforced concrete armor that withstands even armor-piercing bullets. Machines under a common brand Bison had different forms of concrete boxes and security booths.
In general, fortunately for the militia, nor one outlined in suicide methods and devices of warfare the Germans were true and was not implemented. Hitler invaded the Soviet Union soon, and he was not up to the landing on the English countryside.
British Army Lieutenant Colonel Stewart Blacker developed many exotic instruments. At one time, he proposed to put into service even … crossbow. Easy-mortar mortar, received the title of "bombard Blacker," despite all the shortcomings of the design, all the same has been made in the proper number of copies and entered the permanent part of the English militia. 29-mm bombard could keep consuming several types of grenades, but all this was a terrible weight (more than 150 kg of the machine) and the expansion of such projectiles that hit right on target could be closer than 40-50 m first bombards were made at the end of 1941, and by July 1942, in parts, there we
re 22 000 guns. Commanders and soldiers are not fond of awkward mortar, strongly disavowed its use and even secretly sold the received bombard the metal.
In the militia used and very crazy designs — for example, fire thrower bottles Northover projector was made in the amount of 18,919 pieces. Like all gun houmgvarda, butylkomet was utterly commonplace and was a barrel-tube with the shutter. Everything in the collection cost £ 10 (about $ 38) — though the Thompson submachine gun was worth more then $ 200!
Fire of the guns was carried bottle number 76 (caliber 63.5 mm, weighing a pound) with white phosphorus, which burns at a temperature of over 800 ° C and ignite on contact with air. The effective firing range was 91 m, maximum — 274 m Because low weight (27.2 kg) Northover projector usually placed on the cradle bikes or just garden wheelbarrow. The main purpose of the calculation are the tanks, but judging by some photos, houmgvardovtsy were going to shoot a gun and low-flying aircraft …