Contrasts in 1941 give grounds for a variety of interpretations of what happened. Some they say that Stalin's purges stripped of the usual army commanders. Others — that the Russian people are not willing to defend the hated social system. Third — Advantages of the Germans in the irresistible opportunity to conduct combat actions. Many judgments. And there is a popular phrase Marshal Konev, who became not delineate the source of the war: "I do not want to lie, and the truth will still not be allowed to write."
It is clear that something even close to the truth could write a few. Soldier, Major, Colonel and even drill behold the little general. The overall picture is only visible from the large staffs. From the front headquarters in Moscow. But again, we did know that the staffs of the fronts had a bad situation, respectively, and in Moscow received bad information.
So Makar, the truth could not tell neither Konev nor Zhukov, or even Stalin, if he was able to write memoirs. Even they did not have the fullness of disk imaging.
But the truth is possible to calculate an inquisitive brain researcher who asks the right questions. Unfortunately, the right questions are not enough who are trying to ask, and most of the right to put questions just can not. Vavilov was once so conditioned experience: "Experiment — that's true nature of the issue raised, which is expected to fully concrete answer: yes or no." Well the question is always asked to answer in the form of YES or NO. Let's try a dilemma in 1941 to come up with specific questions in such form.
Was the German army irresistibly stronger of the Red Army?
All the logic of the general ideas pushes the answer — was. Germans have had the experience of several successful military campaigns in Europe. Germans have been perfectly well-oiled mechanism of interaction between the armed forces. Namely, the interaction of air and ground forces were worked out specially for 2.5 years, the Condor Legion in Spain. Richthofen, who had this not yet fully priced in the literature for a wide range of readers experience the Germans commanded the air force in the band of our South-Western Front in the summer of 1941.
But there is one thing. Turns out to be exactly the army, in which the enemy delivered blows before superior forces, which accounted for all the power stroke — specifically, they just have not been defeated. Moreover, they have long been successfully waged war by creating a task of the German offensive. This is the answer to the question.
Let's scheme will outline. At the front from the Baltic to the Carpathians German retorted coming three fronts: North-West, West and South-West. Since the Baltic coast our armies have been placed in the following order (from north to south): the 8th and the 11th Army of the North-Western Front. Next 3rd, 10th, 4th Army on the Western Front, 5th, 2nd, 26th and 12th Army of the South-Western Front. Behind the back covering the border armies on the Western Front in Minsk fortified area (SD) placed 13th Army of the Western Front.
June 22 hit enemy tank wedges came in the 8th and 11th Army, the 4th Army and 5th Army. Let us see what happened to them.
In the languid position was 8th Army, which had to retreat through aggressive Baltic. Yet, its compounds are found in July 1941 in Estonia. Stand back, take the defense, again retreating. The Germans are beating up this army, but do not overwhelm in the first days are the same. Over mass trapping forces of the Red Army in the Baltic region in the direction of the enemy has no memories of slips. A Liepaja, which held a few days fighters 8th Army and Red Navy — totally could claim the title of Hero City.
11th Army. In the first day of the war before all orders counterattack her 11 Mechanized Corps, nearly on the composition of the weakest in the whole of the Red Army, armed with a weak T-26 — Germans advancing storms, knocks them abroad. In the attack the next 2-3 days, he loses virtually all of its tanks. But specifically counter tanks 11 Mechanized Corps 11th Army of the North-Western Front marked in the history of the war as a battle near Grodno. The following 11th army retreats, trying to join the fight for the retention of cities. But this army to detain them fails. The retreat lasts. Army loses touch with the staff of the front as well as with Moscow. Moscow some time, does not know whether this is the 11th Army. But the army there. And more than the least sorting out the operational environment, the headquarters of the army of the enemy feels rather weak — weak flanks covered by Pskov-moving armored wedge. Falls on these flanks, cutting the road on certain number of days of the coming of the enemy stops. The following 11th Army saved as troop association. Participates in the winter of 1941-42, the coming of the Red Army.
So Makar, the two armies of the North-Western Front, which came under the crushing power first strike Germans — this blow was neither broken nor kinked. And continued to beat. In this case, without success. On some mass surrender of the armies of fighter no information. The soldiers do not show their own reluctance to wage war for the Soviet Motherland. Officers fully assess the ability of well-warfare. Where to move, so as not to be left out, which take up the defense, and where to put the dreaded enemy.
4th Army of the Western Front. She came under attack by enemy Brest. Two divisions of the army, which neither of the Belarusian Military Area Command, nor his commander did not give the order to get out of town in the summer camp — were shot by the Germans directly artillery barracks in the town of Brest.
The Army, though, came in the fighting, participated in the counterattack forces who had her mechanized corps, retreated, clinging to the frontier. One of the divisions of the army, lost in Mozyrsky SD on an old border, detained him for a month. This remaining far west division penetrated scattered groups encircled. And here is the headquarters of his way defeated 3rd Army. On the basis of this headquarters, numerous units encircled and the only organized military force — Division 4th Army was reconstituted 3rd Army. Brand new, replacing disappeared. In general, the very division had already ceased to be a division of the 4th Army, and was reassigned 21st Army. But we basically keep track of her fate. After all, it is the division of those engaged in battle on June 22 the direction of head impact. This division is not enough that she survived at its base revived larger troop union — the army. In which will be the fate of a long war.
What about the rest of the 4th Army. Her story ends July 24, 1941. But not because of the defeat and capture. Before disbanding it conducts offensive operations to assist the exit of troops surrounding the 13th Army. It's unfortunate. At night the 4th infantry army knocks the enemy of the towns and villages, and the days are required to give the same towns — in view of the availability of enemy tanks, artillery and aircraft. The front is not moving. And to make a dent encircled comes out. Finally available at this time as part of the 4th Army four divisions — are transferred into the 13th Army, which apart from the control of the army and control of the 1st Infantry Corps nothing more. A left without troops headquarters 4th Army — is becoming the new headquarters of the Central Front.
Army troops accepting the severity of the impact of the massive Germanic via Brest, defending one of the major roads leading to Moscow — on the Warsaw highway — not just been defeated and taken prisoner, and carried the offensive in order to help the surrounded troops. And these troops were organized militant nucleus around which were revived by the two armies. A staff of the army became the headquarters of a new front. In the next chief of staff of the 4th Army Sandalov practicable control in the capital's counterattack 20th a successful 20th Army (commander Vlasov, who at this time is not in the army — is being treated for a disease), will participate in a lucky Pogorelov-operation Gorodyshchens'ka In August 1942, in an operation "Mars" in the November-December 1942 and beyond.
5th Army of the South-Western Front was hit at the junction with the 2nd Army. And almost had to retreat, turning the front to the south. Mechanized Corps of the army took part in the counterattack near Novograd Volyn. At the front of the German army had the brakes for a week on the river happened. The following year, when a breakthrough tank wedge opponent to Kiev between 5 and 6 armies became a reality, the 5th Army front is facing south, stretches for 300 km — delivered a series of crushing blows on the flank of Kiev wedge intercepted the Kiev highway — and those suspended coming to Kiev. Panzer Germans came to Kiev fortified area, which is almost certain to protect it — and braked. Primitive remained without shells — because troops intercepted 5th Army communications.
Against the 5th Army, caught in Korostensky on an old fortified border, the Germans had to deploy 11 divisions. Their all Russian front was 190 divisions. So now, every 1/17 of the Wehrmacht was turned against the only 5th Army at the same time as the front came from the country's Russian army numbered 19, 20, 21, … 37, 38 … Within 35 days the army inflicted Germans 150 hits. Army troops secretly and swiftly maneuvered in Pripyat forests, appeared unannounced in the ground, crushing the enemy, and later escaped from the attacks themselves Germans. Well-acted and artillery. She also secretly maneuvering and caused a sudden very sensitive impacts on concentrations of enemy forces, the stations and on the columns of vehicles that supplied troops. Ammunition was. Fortified for which caught the army — it's not just dots, in fact lost their value in the criteria of maneuver warfare. Fortified — it first stores guns, ammunition, food, fuel, clothing, spare parts. Artillery 5th Army had not experienced problems with shells. And as it should, the enemy had very tight. Later, in 1943-44 during the offensive operations of the Red Army found that two thirds of German fighter corpses showed signs of defeat specifically artillery fire. So in fact it was the men in the trenches. And artillery 5th Army, which operated according to the reconnaissance and sabotage groups, launched strikes against concentrations of troops.
Accordingly, the German High Command directives liquidation 5th Army was supplied as puzzles, equal in importance to taking Leningrad, the occupation of the Donbass. Specifically, the 5th Army, took the fight on June 22, has become a prerequisite for the so-called Pripyat's crisis, which forced the Germans to stop coming to Moscow and turn Guderian south — against the Kiev group. This army inflicted crushing blows to the communications, even when the Germans launched a massive coming against her — after August 5. From the German by this ridiculous story coming out. It began on Aug. 5 instead of 4 to a curious reason. Reconnaissance-sabotage group 5th Army intercepted a package with the German directive to start coming. The directive is not reached to the troops.
The army was not defeated. It melted away in battle. The Commander-5 General Potapov asked the front marching reinforcements — and in fact did not receive. And the army has continued to torment the 11 German divisions vsepolnotsennyh sudden and successful attacks by staying on the 300-mile front with only 2,400 active bayonets.
So. Army, which came on the severity of impact the German army — crushed by this blow was not. Moreover, they showed vitality, activity and being a good retreat, and later also repeatedly destroy superior enemy. — No number, but skill.
Apart from the 5-Army of the South-Western Front, it must be emphasized act is not an army, and the right-wing 99 of the Red Army under Division 26 Przemysl. This division, which is struggling with 2 or even 3-advancing in this place German divisions. Threw them across the river San. And the Germans di
d to her could not help it. Despite the power of the impact, in spite of all the German organization and an advantage in the air against the other divisions of the army coming in the first days of the war was not conducted.
On the big question of paragraph answered big military formations: the army and the divisions that have taken on the severity of the impact. The answer is NO. Did not have the Wehrmacht high esteem over Russian soldiers and commanders.
And then the phenomenon of the disaster response in 1941 is even more serious. If the troops, which had brought down the might of the German coming, waged war successfully, then where millions of prisoners of war? Where the loss of thousands of tanks and aircraft, cyclopean areas?
Waged a war to the 12th Army?
What about the other armies? — Those for which the shot was applied. Or was relatively feeble.
Let's start with the most exciting for clarification Army — 12th Army, General Ponedelina. This army occupied the front from the Polish border in the south of Lviv region, 2 divisions, 13 infantry corps covered the Carpathian passes on the border with Hungary, which on June 22 had not entered the war. Next corps of the army stationed along the border with Romania to Bukovina.
June 22 of that army troops were put on alert, received weapons and ammunition — and took up positions. When moving troops fighting positions they had been bombed. Aviation, a subordinate command of the 12th Army on June 22, did not rise into the air. She did not give orders to soar into the air, or on the contrary to bombard someone to cover their own air forces. Did not give orders to the commander and staff of the army. The commander and the headquarters of 13 Infantry Corps, part of which is just exposed to enemy aircraft. Yet, after the position of the troops were not attacked by anyone. According to the border guards 3 detachments guarding the border south of Przemysl and down the Carpathians — up to 26 June inclusive attempts coming of the enemy in this great mnogosotkilometrovom front is not solved. Neither shooting case against 13 or against left-flank divisions adjoining 26 army.
In the web lined with letters from the front Inozemtseva artillery officer, who on June 22 as part of an artillery battery 192 Infantry Division entered the position, and a day or two they had to move away because they can be circumvented. So explained to the soldiers. After a day or two — it's June 24. Order of Staff of the South-Western Front on 12 departure army was not. Order of the corps headquarters was.
The border guards, which was removed from the outpost on the pass Veretsky Order Rifle Corps headquarters, also confirmed: there was a written order.
There is still some memoirs — Train Brigade officers to interact with the 13 Infantry Corps. The book "Steel Stretches." The brigade served the steel road in the south of Lviv region. Sambor, stry, Turk Drogobic Borislav. June 25 afternoon a group of explosives, railroad arrived at the location of the 192 Infantry Division headquarters to receive orders that blow up — and she found staff. Found a rifle of graduating from nursing to previously held positions.
Prisoners commander of the 12th Army of the Red Army, Major General PG Ponedelin (center) and commander of the 13th Infantry Corps of the 12th Army, Major General NK Kirillov. District Uman. August 1941
It all fits. Three supporting each other leaving certificate 13 Rifle Corps 12 Army positions on the border with Hungary in the evening on June 24 — in the morning on June 25. Nearly pressure the opponent. And without an order from the front headquarters. In the 12 Army combat reports, which are also posted on the Web —
June 25 report to the commander Ponedelin front headquarters that the position of the troops of Army Staff ck 13 is unclear. On quite untouched by the war wing of the Southwestern Front, the army commander is not clear what is going on in his right-wing case — to which staff of the army of 2-3 hours away by car, with whom there is a connection even while not affected civilian telephone network.
Meanwhile frontier outpost, concealing Veretsky pass given permission to return to the outpost. And discover the Germans on the road that goes down from the pass. In his memoirs, describes the guard that they were forced Germans knocked out of the way and the pass. But the fact of the nomination Germans on the pass from which the guards were withdrawn by order corps commander-13 — is there. In this extension to the countryside of Hungary, who by this time had not yet entered the war.
In his memoirs, railroad, meanwhile, is noteworthy details. Orders to undermine the structures that they received at the headquarters Infantry Division, were somewhat unusual. Instead of the principal objects they were ordered to destroy the dead-end branch but some minor link. A June 25 ran up to them with a request to assist the quartermaster kill army aviation fuel depot. Verbal orders to kill warehouse gave him, but he means destruction, quartermaster, is not there. And if the store is the enemy, so it is for himself let a bullet in the head. The railroad, received a receipt from the quartermaster, this warehouse was killed. And how many other military depots for all that has been left without the noise?
In the following days when the railroad-Blasters destroyed everything they got around, the Germans dropped leaflets with threats executions — specifically for the fact that all destroyed. The Germans, it seems, is counting on the contents of the warehouses that they quietly left the corps commander-13 Kirillov and commander-12 Ponedelin.
But the most fascinating on. Order of Staff of the South-Western Front on 12 and 26 departure armies entered. It was developed at the headquarters of the front at 21 o'clock in the evening on June 26. And next was considered unreasonable. Because the left-flank troops divisions 26th Army and the right-flank 13 sk 12th Army were not subjected to pressure. Hurried to the front staff. But for all that have the 13th Rifle Corps exactly the boundaries of waste to which the body went on my own yet, June 24-25.
We have quite an obvious fact of treason, which involved
1) Divisional-192, to give orders to the destruction of insignificant objects, but do not leave blasted warehouses;
2) The corps commander-13 Kirillov, who signed the order for the withdrawal of troops from the position and the lifting of border guards from Veretskiy pass (with all this outpost in the mountainous wilderness between the passes were not removed);
3) The commander-12 Ponedelin and his staff, who day or two "do not know" where the troops 13 of the body, and 4) the management of the South-Western Front in the Kirponos front commander, chief of staff Purkaeva and member of the Military Council of the front Nikisheva, without the signature of each of the which recognized unreasonable orders from June 26 — was invalid.
The fate of the upcoming 12 army.
In late Jun
e, she received orders to staff at the front on the waste to an old state border, evenly rolled east from 13 Infantry Corps. In combat contact with the enemy does not come, except for some minor skirmishes with the motorcycle rear guards. Aircraft of the army remains. According to the latest least until July 17 — in contrast to the battling armies, who had by then long since forgotten what krasnozvezdaya aircraft overhead.
And this army of 12, the order of harried spirited march from western Ukraine, who has lost in the course of the march of the real part of her dowry Mechanized Corps, which turned into hiking, take a stand on an old border. And only here on July 16-17, begins to put pressure on her opponent. At the same time the infantry. The German infantry breaks Letichevsky fortified, about the lack of armament which Ponedelin report to their superiors before the break. Although he stood this without affecting ur enemy is vsepolnotsennuyu week.
That same young artillery officer Foreigners Division of the 192 families in a letter from the front reported that he is, after all, July 9, got to the position on an old state border, where they will certainly fight the Germans.
So, here. Germans break through Letichevsky SD, while for the defense of the area who is responsible breakthrough would you have thought? — Noted by us commander 13 Infantry Corps Zakharov. The commander is responsible for a breakthrough Ponedelin harsh martial order of the blow by breaking through the enemy. The next day the order repeats. Appoints 7 am coming after the bombing of enemy aircraft, highlights for the coming of such and such connections. And what is the connection which was from 7 am to be in the offensive battles near the border of 10s km from the headquarters of the army — in the coming day or 17 hours Ponedelin sees side by side with his staff in the winery. This is noted in the documents of the Army 12. That is, an order was written for the report, and the troops anywhere nobody was going to move.
After that 12 army troops begin very successfully wage war for the retention of the bridge across the Southern Bug, in which the army and the nearby Ponedelina 6 army Muzychenko away from the dangers of the environment on an old fortified state border. With the rugged, wooded pillars filled Podolsk Upland, storage area of the property, food, ammunition, fuel, tools that can make war more than a month (in the image of the 5th Army) — a naked steppe. After being wounded Muzychenko — two armies are under the overall command of Ponedelina. And the marching columns on the naked steppe come to Uman cauldron. Where is August 7 and are captivated. Led by weekly and Corps Commander Kirillov.
In general, not all were in captivity. Our friend gunner foreigners at this time is on the left bank of the Dnieper. And a letter from his mother go right up to 1943. Do not fall into captivity 12 Army Chief of Staff and Chief of Army aviation 12. In captivity are 10's of thousands fighter, who were not given to war, and almost led into captivity, ie driven in conditions in which to wage war was hopeless.
12 The Army has not fought a war. It is not waged war not as soldiers or officers did not want to, but because she did not give the proper command to wage war, commit treason. Conclusive evidence that I dig lucky and connect into a coherent picture.
Fought wars whether mechanized corps?
Prior to the deal with the fate of the other armies, let's ask ourselves, what has been happening with the tanks numerous mechanized corps.
What are they supposed to do? In fact, history tells us clear about the Cyclopean tank battle in Western Ukraine, which in fact has been lost tanks. But all the same, now that we have found strange behavior of an entire army, the strangeness in the orders of staff of the Southwestern Front, let's see, what if it is not all smooth. As we know, the 5th Army has proved highly effervescent. It included two mechanized corps 9th and 19th. One of these corps commanded by Marshal Rokossovsky future, all its front-line method and proven dedication to the motherland, and good ability to wage war. Rokossovskii marked by the fact that from the defeated Germany, he did not bring anything, except his own suitcase. It is not involved in looting. Because in what happens in cases of 5th Army asking prices will not. Apparently, they honestly performed their own debt, despite the difficulties and confusion.
But with buildings that belonged to the armies of 6 and 26 would need to sort out. What we had in the Lviv region? Was the 15th Mechanized Corps and 4 second army and was 8 microns, the slave army 26. 4th Mechanized Corps.
First oddity events associated with the introduction of designated buildings is already in the middle of that day or on June 22 at the leading severe fighting in the army of Przemysl 26 selected 8 microns, to reassign the front of his staff and directed away from the front as well as from their own database supplies and spare parts depots located in Drohobych and Stry. At first, the body comes under its own power in the region of Lviv, then redirect it under the east of the town of Brody, Lviv region. It is a day delay against the order front headquarters is concentrated in the area for the coming of Brody in the direction of Berestechko. And in the end on June 27 in the afternoon begins to advance towards the Russian countryside. As noted in the combat reports Staff of the South-Western Front from 12 hours day or June 27, 8 microns coming to this point the enemy is not met. In the same direction of the assistance comes with it, and 15 microns. According to Russian countryside away from the border. And there is no enemy in front of them.
Dot "bands Molotov," built in the districts of Przemysl
Meanwhile, the exploration front yet found a cluster of 25 June mechanized enemy forces north of Przemysl, ie north of the great fighting 99 of the Red Division, which lupila superior forces of the enemy. June 26, these mechanized forces break through the front left flank Division 2nd Army, cut the metal on the road Lviv-stry and find themselves on the outskirts of the city — on the station Sknilov.
What's not normal?
It is abnormal that the main locations of 8 microns in Drohobych German effort to strip the south-west of the city — the least 50km. If he was on his own place, he could just fend off the German attack. And to ensure that the army opened flank 26. That is, to prevent the capture of Lviv, acting with all this in the interest of the army. After the appearance of breaking the army commander-26 infantry Kostenko had to compete in speed with the mechanized forces of the Germans, bypassing his army from the north. 8 microns his tanks were badly needed to cover their own ball.
But the body is taken away for a couple of hundred kilometers to the east of Lviv region and besides, gave the order to advance in the direction of the Rivne region. Still further east. In this case, the reaction of staff of the Southwestern Front on its intelligence information about the concentration of the mechanized forces of the enemy is not as such.
And the Lions, who eventually was abandoned — is the place where cyclopean storages of various military equipment of the same parts. Their location on the Lviv region had two basic storage Fri Lions and stry. Thus in the Lviv, which is an old town, has a warehouse awkward. In Lviv, 1970 80 main storage center of town was a station Sknilov I have already mentioned. Specifically, the Germans broke through here on June 26. Lions do not they needed, and Sknilov with cyclopean supplies of everything for the entire second army, and for her 2-tank shells: the 4th and the 15th.
And where we have the 4th Mechanized Corps of the future hero of the defense of Kiev, the future creator of Vlasov's ROA? You will not believe it. At the direction of impact of Germans from the area north of Przemysl on Sknilov. In the forests of the south-west of the city. Germans pass by the body because the Vlasov as if it does not exist. A Vlasov himself in the evening on June 26 receives an order from the staff at the front on the retreat in the direction of the Ternopil region. One of the most powerful 2-in of the Red Army corps with tyschey tanks, with the best of the Red Army in the security housing motor vehicles — does not react to break the Germans to Sknyliv, but not only did not react! The fact that God himself had commanded him to defeat the advancing German mechanized units — not recalled by the headquarters of the South-Western Front, which, in fact proclaimed Vlasov place of concentration in the forests of the south-west of the city. This is for their records staff at the front! Instead of a military order to defeat the enemy hull, which in the first days of the war is worthless wound on tank tracks more than 300 km (expending lifespan with all this technology), given an order for a new march in isolation far from the base of spare parts in the same Lviv, which he had to be protected. Neither the staff at the front or at the very thought of Vlasov does not appear that this is incorrect.
However, there is one man who thrashes alarm. Head Tank-Automotive forces of the Southwestern Front, Major General Morgunov, who writes staff reports on the inadmissibility of continuous marches mechanized corps. Wrote on June 29 about the loss of over 30% machinery, abandoned due to breakdowns and lack of time and tank parts for their repair. Morgounov requests to suspend the case, give them at least look around and adjust the equipment. But do not give mechcorps stop. Already on July 8 they are taken to the reserve — as having lost the combat capability due to the loss of materiel. As we remember from the 12 Mechanized Corps of the Army by the time the border was on an old foot — generally without fighting.
By commanders 8 and 15 mechanized corps have no complaints. They eventually made it to the enemy, fight Russian mechanized corps with the advancing Germans at Dubno — was. 8th Mechanized Corps was marked in him by his actions. The problem with incomparably more massive 4th Mechanized Corps Vlasov, the problem with the command of the 2nd Army, the problem with the command of the front.
As a result, we are required to state. Mechanized Corps in the main did not conduct the war. They were denied the ability to act, where they can change the course of events, marches and drove along the roads to the consumption of the service life of equipment. In this case, despite the protests of the documented superior forces Tank-Automotive Front.