What is under the pyramids?
In recent months, a host of rumors and evidence about the excavation and underground passages on and under the Giza plateau. But why local authorities scoff and underestimate these findings?
Giza Plateau stores only surviving to the present day wonder of the ancient world: the Great Pyramid. Overall, the place continues to attract many, and each archaeological discovery instantly receives general public. But in recent years, excavations and discoveries at Giza virtually awarded media attention. Why?
The central figure in all of history on the plateau since the early 1990s — Zahi Hawass, ambiguous man in Egyptology. In June 2009, in front of hundreds of cameras, he welcomed U.S. President Barack Obama on the Giza plateau. Much less satisfied he looked in November while visiting the plateau of the American pop star Beyonce, which he called "stupid person." Comment immediately hit the international headlines, as well as all that is said Hawass. In short, it can make a significant movement in the world, Casa Egyptology, is this archeological discovery or campaign for the return of the exhibits from the Louvre and other European museums.
You would think that Egypt is pleased with his son. But not Egyptian newspapers. The report about the incident with Beyonce they focused on the fact that Hawass is known for pranks, adding that he often uses the Arabic language to insult guests at the ceremonies, believing that they do not understand in Arabic. Bikya Masr newspaper even reported that "The incident has left archaeologists angered. They say it's time to show the world this Hawass. " As one archaeologist, who asked to keep secret his name — "He and insults, and all controls — has become extremely difficult to work in this country." So what is the real Hawass?
From the talk, Egypt would like to get rid of Hawass, but can not. Obviously, that Hawass more lives than a cat. When planning a forced resignation in May 2010, in October 2009, Egyptian President signed a decree calling Hawass vicious culture minister. This is a remarkable achievement, as career Hawass always accompanied by scandals.
Just a year before, on 8 October 2008, the former head of the restoration of Islamic Cairo and two other Egyptian officials from the Ministry of Culture have been jailed for ten years for having received bribes from contractors. Cairo court ruled that Ayman Abdel Monem, Hussein Ahmed Hussein and Abdel Hamid Qutb pay a fine of 200 to 550 thousand Egyptian pounds. Abdel Hamid Qutb was actually the head of the technical department at the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA), and reported to Hawass. Suspicion fell contracts to rebuild the famous monuments of Egypt millions of dollars.
During his arrest in September 2007, Hawass was trying to protect Qutb, alleging that the defendant was not able to sign contracts. Hawass told the Arabic service of the BBC, that the contracts were concluded only after "rigorous procedures" and Qutb had no power in the decision. The court obviously thought differently. This decision Hawass never commented …
Despite the love to be the center of attention, most of the excavations at Giza in recent months clearly avoid daylight. There are allegations that Hawass explores the underworld of Giza virtually in secret, some Egyptian newspapers have even used the word "illegal."
When Hawass announced their results, it seems to distort the truth. In April 2009, Hawass said: "Under my leadership, the Supreme Council of Antiquities is working to decrease the water table around the ancient sites throughout Egypt. We ended the event on the drainage of Karnak and Luxor temples, in many other places, the work is in progress. One of our recent great success was the development of a system to prevent moisture pads Great Sphinx of Giza "!
This reads like the most usual research, but it's not that simple. If you look at reports Hawass, not his statements in the press, get an interesting picture. We learn that in early 2008, the Supreme Council of Antiquities has collaborated with Engineering Center of Archaeology and Environment (Cairo University) to drill four wells, each four inches in diameter and about twenty feet deep at the base of the Sphinx. In each well lowered the camera for geological examination of the plateau. Separate scientific report states that through these drainage hoses every hour pumped 260 cubic meters of water. This amounts to 6,240 cubic meters, or 6.24 million gallons of water a day. In the Olympic swimming pool is 2500000 liters. In short, under the Sphinx daily swings water in an amount equal to almost three Olympic swimming pool. Indeed, he could just about fit sphinx volume Olympic swimming pool. The report continues, the volume of water in front of the Sphinx has decreased to 70% of the original. But wait: around the Sphinx were installed at least 33 control probes for inspection of mass movement Sphinx and the surrounding bedrock. Monitoring continued for months, and inspection showed that the structure is stable.
Further, if I am not greatly mistaken, for such a substantial amount of water is clearly necessary existence of at least one cavity size of a small swimming pool, which is continuously filled with water — in short, a subterranean lake. Which brings us to the next question: why they are draining the underground lake? For stability or for something else? It could be argued that the removal of water will reduce the stability of the Sphinx, which is due to all concerned, as the stability of the Sphinx area tested. But obviously, based on the monthly monitoring, the release of this underground basin does not endanger the surface structures. But why should it be emptied? Sphinx's paws to keep dry?
One source claims that Hawass with Egyptologist Mark Lehner found the lake a few years ago. The lake is under the whole plateau area fenced betoennoy wall (the construction of which began in 2002). He adds that in his opinion, these projects have been preparing for the dungeon crawl Giza.
In August 2009, British author Andrew Collins and Nigel Skinner-Simpson announced that they have made an accidental discovery in the Giza Plateau: they found a cave system, studied by Henry Salt and Giovanni Caviglia in 1817, but the existence of which was subsequently forgotten.
Back in 2003, Nigel Skinner-Simpson realized that Henry Salt, British Consul General in Egypt, working together with the Italian sea captain and explorer Giovanni Caviglia, entered the unknown 'catacombs' at Giza somewhere west of the pyramids. When his memoirs were published Salt, revealed that those records — the best study of the catacombs. Adventurers apparently infiltrated there "a few hundred yards," but first came across the large room, which was connected to the other three the same size, from which, in turn, passes go-maze. Caviglia was later one of these passes, "about 300 feet." Later they stopped the study because not consider the importance of this discovery: there was not any gold or treasure — the main objects of the early intrusive searchers pyramids.
However, although the treasure was never found, Collins was convinced that the place later unearths and yielded fruit: some mummies of birds found Colonel Howard Wise and engineer John Shae Perring in 1837. Collins visited a lost tomb in January 2007 in the company of his wife, Sue. It was found a little — further evidence of the cult of the local birds. March 3, 2008 Sue and Andy Collins and Nigel Skinner-Simpson returned to the so-called "Tomb of the Birds", received subsidies from the Association for Research and Enlightenment (ARE) in Virginia Beach, Virginia. They found a small crack in the rock, which led into a huge natural cave, connects to other caves and long passes. In short, the trio realized that they find — it is nothing like caves, discovered in 1817.
Currently, no one knows the whole value of the caves. As mentioned, Salt and Caviglia never reached the end, and Collins still failed in attempts to interest in his discovery of the Egyptian authorities. There are caves, to continue to the extreme point of the investigated, most likely they are going in the direction of the Second Pyramid, whose south-west corner just 480 meters south-west of the entrance to the Tomb of the birds. As Collins learned from the guard, who lived nearby and was familiar with the cave, the underground system stretches for miles.
Upon hearing the news of the discovery of Collins, Hawass stated that the structure was "recently" investigated by Egyptologists and further commented: "This story shows how people who have no experience in archeology, using the media and the Internet to screaming headlines … When I saw this online a story about a new discovery at Giza, I realized that she was mislead. The article reports that found a huge system of tunnels and caves, but I can say that at this point there is no underground cave complex. " Collins challenged Hawass, presenting scientific report to the caves in the past few years.
Collins adds, "Our cave — the only natural cave, registered on the plateau so far (despite many rumors). Our cave, even if proven their isolation (which we hope is not true), prove that the geology of Giza does include natural cave system, which may have been detected Abbas in eastern plateau in 2006. Salt report says that the caves are at "several hundred yards, then linked with the rooms and passages, one of which Caviglia explored as recently as 300 feet. Note — "not on." I say this because people may say, that's all they found, that is about 300 feet (90 meters) of caves, and no more. We have not reached the end, as well as Salt and Caviglia. We believe that the cave extends under and second pyramid. Cavities under the second pyramid was discovered by a team SRI, when they conducted their research in 1977. "
Then, at the end of November 2009, Hawass announced that the team under his leadership, explore the place: "We have cleared the system, it turned out to Late Period catacomb, like many others in Egypt. There is no secret, and there is no connection with esoteric topics. We will publish our results as part of the normal research process. " If the place had already been learned, why Hawass resumed work?
Opening Collins described in detail in his book, "Here pyramids", is part of a slowly opening picture, which shows that the dungeons of Giza still has secrets. Although Hawass does much to diminish and discredit the evidence, we note that it is not ignorant in this matter. Hawass himself, storm the ground before the temple of the Sphinx in 1980, found at a depth of 15 meters of red granite. Red granite lies not at Giza, the only source — Aswan, hundreds of miles to the south. The very presence of red granite proves the existence of a plateau of artificial structures. In short, since 1980, Hawass knew that something very interesting is hiding under the Giza plateau.
Bill Brown — a frequent visitor to the Giza plateau. In early November 2009, he reported to excavate the front of the Sphinx. Brown adds, "Hawass digs east toward the desert, where there is a restaurant!"
Brown discovered that the excavation explore the ruined mine, which leads to a double, carved in stone grave. Archaeological site — the right of the residential buildings and the concrete wall that surrounds the Giza plateau, the object — two mines. Mine ended in a chamber 2.5 by 3.5 meters, which leads to the second chamber of the same size, which, by their conversation, was a false door. It is possible that this room leads to the third, although it found no conclusive evidence, perhaps because access to it is destroyed.
Story was covered by the local Arabic newspapers in late September 2009, stressing the illegality of the excavation (this is Brown, which I can not confirm). But it is clear that something is on the Giza Plateau, and the Egyptians are unhappy with the way it happens. People from the SCA gave Brown the image allegedly from the excavation site. One source even claimed to have discovered the mummy, and added on the ceremony of sacrifice goats to protect the villagers from the curse of the mummy. Not surprisingly, Egyptian officials said that the history of the mummy is false.
Image of 'mummy', filmed on a cell phone, sent to Brown. Image definitely unlike ordinary mummy, perhaps so few believe that story. Brown noted that his mediator in Cairo, which is involved in the illegal sale of objects excavations confirmed the existence of the mummy. Taking into account that the story could be a bloated, really know about the ongoing excavations, and is reported to Egyptian newspapers, the nature of the excavation is extremely controversial.
Excavation site is located within the district, which in February 2006, using GPR scans studied Egyptian team led by Abbas Mohammed Abbas of the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, resulting in a plateau of Giza were found numerous anomalies. This cavity, located deep in the ground to a depth of approximately 25 meters, with tunnels, at least three to five meters wide. In the report, Abbas argued that the individual cavities and tunnels can be connected, perhaps even with undiscovered 'graves with the treasures, "noting that" the results of the survey support the possibility of the presence of unresolved objects of high value. " He came to the conclusion that "we can assume the existence of important and diverse archaeological structures in the plateau of the pyramids, which still remain unsolved."
While unresolved, but maybe not uncharted?