Vladimirskie archaeologists have discovered in the earth unique finds …
Summarizing the results of the next field season, the archaeologists said — it turned out "fruitful" and allowed to solve some historical mysteries.
Become absolutely transparent page in the history of the ancient architectural monument of white stone architecture in the north-east of Russia — Church of Saints Boris and Gleb in the village Kideksha.
Here remains amfaly — one of the essential elements of interior decoration of the medieval church, later transformed in the pulpit. Archaeological discoveries await in the final days of work.
It is interesting that such amfaliev preserved one, and they are mostly mosaic. In the famous temple near Suzdal was built of simple stone without any additional decoration. And of course, the safety of such pre-Mongol internal decoration of the temple — a great success not only for Vladimir, but also for the whole Russian archeology.
Architectural history of the monument complex, because the dating of finds in doubt. But in the case amfaliem experts are absolutely sure that this is an initial element of interior decoration of the church. Amfaly stone was erected on the still frozen until the end of the lime as the original limestone floors XII century sagged under his weight.
The adjacent area, archaeologists have found traces of structures XII-XIII centuries. But under the floor of the temple and a directly attached porch later excavated layer X-XI centuries, containing the molded ceramics. Features of this layer, they argue, show that up to ancient colonization in this place there Merya settlement.
The complex of this work has given absolute confidence that the monument stood outside residential areas and more opposed than include it in himself. This is important, because until recently it was believed that Yuri Dolgoruky built a temple in his village, and he was seen as a monument, standing in the center of a large settlement.
Today the site of the medieval defensive structure Vladimir — Ivanovsky shaft — towers over the central city street and a half meters. However, archaeologists have found that the visual elevation is not the remains of the shaft. Defenses were closed strata of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, up to 3.5 meters. Thus, from the seven-meter shaft reached us only a small lower part. But for researchers and that was enough to get the results to get a fresh look at the topography and history of Vladimir.
They found five stages of development of the territory. The first layer is represented in dark gray clay loam, which is the remains of ancient farmland. Later on it was erected carcass construction. Layer thickness is only about two or three centimeters, indicating short-lived residential area. Val was poured directly on the horizon of residential one meter. Found fragments of amphorae, a bone comb, various household items, led to the conclusion that development does not take place before the middle of the twelfth century, therefore, the fortifications, limited the city from the east, began to pour as no earlier twelfth century.
But for some reason these jobs are terminated, and the rise again built up. In the initial mounds recorded traces of human life and wooden structures with furnaces, perished in the fire. The remains of the fire cleared. A new stage of construction of the shaft: on a layer of construction horizon poured more powerful base.
According to archaeologists, the first period of construction of the shaft requires further study. As a rule, fortifications protected by the rule and had only a defensive function. Ivanovsky same shaft in a period of time was not the desired city. What are the reasons our ancestors began to build up, and then he went back to the original plan and built defensive structures up to 8.7 meters? The situation is unique in the history and waiting to be explained.
Experts are unanimous: one of the most interesting finds year — sanitary burial of the deceased during the taking of Vladimir the Mongols in 1238. 'Mass grave' found in ancient manor economic pit, burnt during the taking of the city, as evidenced by the large number of fragments of burnt wooden structures and grain. According to preliminary results of anthropological research it was found that the total number buried at least 50 people. Of which at least 36 people adults aged from 20-25 to 45-50 years and 14 children — from newborns up to 12-15 years. The number of men in it more than women, and virtually no elderly.
Burial is characterized by very high rates of injuries incompatible with life — Chopped inflicted sword or saber, stab, perhaps an arrow, and inflicted with a blunt object. Their nature suggests that, most of all, they are the result of an attack armed group of riders. On several turtles — punched whiskey. Conclusion is that arrows and swords did not result in death, and the people were finished.
It can be assumed, according to anthropologists, among the defenders were a few professional soldiers: some found already healed wounds or wounds the nature of evidence that at the time of their application in humans had protection.
— Thus, we can make the reconstruction of the tragic events which had led to this mass grave — says Vladimir archaeologist Tatyana Volodina. — Most likely, the people attacked by the well-armed soldiers, whose task was the total destruction of the population. And the conclusion of the cruelty of the invaders, who spared neither women nor children.
However, experts say this is only the preliminary results. Further study of this unique find will restore the appearance of our forefathers and their ethnic composition.
Diamonds in the ground
Not without the treasure. He was found in Vladimir in September. Only 30 inches from the surface of the earth were covered more than 90 items: coins, jewelry, awards. The most spectacular was the brooch with twenty-six diamonds, the most valuable — the highest bureaucratic awards: Star Order of St. Anne, St. Vladimir and St. Stanislaus.
True, the importance of the find is determined not only by its price, but the scientific value. Many interesting things waiting in the heart of Suzdal on the corner of Market Square. It opened early history of this southern portion of the city roundabout. After reaching the mainland, the archaeologists found traces of urban villa construction. A molded pottery found confirmed that it appeared here as early as the eleventh century.
Anastasia Fedorina, researcher of the Institute of Archaeology of RAS:
— One of the unique findings — traces of medieval plowing. In most cases, especially in the area of Suzdal, the upper limit of modern plowing plowing slaughtered and it is difficult to specify the time of deposition of these strata. We have a unique material. Part of the land is cut by later object began XI-XII centuries. Thus, it is safe to say that there are agricultural activities in this part of the city at the end of the first millennium AD.