This fully applies to the more controversial elements in the construction of Russian / Russian tanks — the automatic loader. Indeed, we have become accustomed to the color to emphasize the advantages: we de such automata equip their tanks and zabugornye manufacturers in the vast majority do not. But why? Neuzh that the development of this unit was too tough South American, German, English, Japanese (on almost indefinitely) engineers, and only the Russian idea of techno able to cope with the problem of so complicated? Try to understand.
Index of principle, but not the main
Thought the use of automatic loader was born in Kharkov during the design of the T-64, was included in the TTZ on this machine, then inherited by tanks T-72 and T-80. By an unknown creator of these things because of the device on the T-64 and T-80 is called the loading mechanism (Ministry of Health), and T-72 — Automatic (AZ). Surely, that complicate the possible opponent. In addition, it should be emphasized that the MV for T-64 and T-80 are similar, and Az in the T-72 (T and 90) is fundamentally different design. In general, the theme of unification, and more precisely the almost complete lack of it in 3 major Russian tanks, once mass-produced for almost 15 years, requested an in-depth conversation. At the moment, it's not about that.
Let's try to answer the question: Why handy T-64 loading mechanism? The official version is this: by not charging could reduce reserved capacity, reduce the size of the machine, and saved a lot spent on strengthening the armor protection. In addition, the rate of increase is commonly referred to and facilitate the work of the members of the crew. That after all of the above important? Quite obvious that the first three factors — in fact in Kharkov tried to solve an unsolvable puzzle: to make a tank with smaller size and weight, but with more powerful weapons and armor protection. So what exactly has been implemented for this machine, I'm sorry, loading mechanism.
As for the rate of fire, then this figure there seems to be parallel. He, of course, is important for the tank, but not in charge. Accuracy is more important. No wonder the NATO countries have long been guided by the concept of 'shot — the defeat. " In other words, the time taken to generate the second shot, it does not matter — the opponent, then put out of action. If there is a second target to kill, then the rate is not critical. Where speed is more important than the fire control system and the level of training gunner.
The autoloader of the T-72 provides a rate of eight rounds per minute. As follows, one shot spent seven or eight seconds. But it is unlikely that they will be enough to clearly pointing guns at the second target. However, various publications are full of stories about just how to score a one-two-three T-72 or T-64 carried the fragments on the target at the landfill. But the battlefield is not a polygon, the real enemy maneuver and fire is back and means and the rate will be slightly lower than in the exercises. Perhaps it is roughly equal to a y "Abrams" and "Leopard-2," In the ammunition containing 120 mm unitary munitions. Another thing, if the first shot was a bad enemy. It was then that the presence of the automatic loader gives tangible benefit of T-72. Provided that it is obvious that both missed tank. To amend the sight is not required a lot of time and twice the loading of frisky "seventy-second" is able to get out of a similar hypothetical duel winner. And that if the enemy tank for some time been in combat, taking a few shots. Why?
And since, according to professionals, confirmed by appropriate tests, rate for manual loading of the first 10-12 unitary munitions virtually the same as that carried out by means of AZ, even a bit higher. She is eight to ten shots per minute, fluctuating depending on the skill and fitness loader. Then figure starts to fall smoothly — affects fatigue tanker.
Inaccessible and terrible ammunition
It is, for sure, ask one more question: what happens if the T-72 runs out of ammunition autoloader? Despite the fact that the current battle is dynamic and fleeting, so you can imagine. In 1973, for example, in the Sinai and the Golan tank duels continued for quite a long time. We are not going to guess how long it might take for 22 rounds (of ammunition in AZ "seventy-two"), try to imagine what will happen later.
Here's an eccentric, perhaps neither doth another reader, because there are still non-mechanized combat pack, thanks to which the crew will continue to maintain fire. How annoying would that sounds, it is unlikely. In other words, on the range, for sure, the way it came out, but in the battle will not work. Pretty to look at the layout of the ammunition in the T-72, to behold: the shells and charges (loading, remind separately) rastykany around the crew compartment, which is very difficult to use them.
But the main thing — to charge, then who will? Because there is no charging! But there is abstract manual that prescribes seized the commander and gunner alternately. There is even a special allocation table shells and charges, and sequences of loading guns by hand, for example the first 3-shots.
And so for 22 ammunition, with the only difference being that since the fifth in the "position of the tower" is the azimuthal angle of the pointer on the scale on which it is necessary to turn to get to the projectile and charge. And the hunt to ask tankers (gunner and commander) all need to keep in mind? And where you want to remove the covers from the charges 2s, 3h and 4h? For the subsequent page annotations in black and snow-white is written that before loading the gunner's seat back manually removed.
Truly a script for the theater delirium. Quite obvious that in a real combat situation to charge the gun T-72 manual is virtually impossible. Even if they will do it, using more shots available, the process of loading dostavaniya and crew for a while lose or gunner or commander. Well, if this tank platoon or company?
To be fair to say that there is no different in the best possible way from the "seventy-two" and T-64, T-80. So, for example, the T-64A in the loading mechanism are 28 rounds of 37. Another seven are located in the department of management, and the two projectile and charge — on the floor of the cabin. In combat, the crew can only rely on ammo in the cockpit, because no gunner or commander to get to the separation of management fail. Although the respective annotations manual states that is loading mechanism can only be fired with high-explosive shells and cumulative. Of this, but does not become easier.
Quite obvious that after the execution of ammunition autoloader or its failure, for any reason, the T-72 actually lose combat capability. It is interesting to note that in the annotation manual T-64A chapter on the loading of the gun arms commander and gunner are absent, in other words, the crew seems to be prepared well in advance to ensure that he will have to rely only on 28 shots in the Ministry of Health. And in fact, and in another tank, however, provides supply line chambering rounds on hand, but it is subject to failure of the power drive only. In the case of jamming rotating conveyor to projectiles and charges it just does not get.
It follows that the firing of shots with the introduction of non-mechanized combat pack likely onl
y place in the main Target, which can not return fire. For all other circumstances, after being shot with a machine gun ammunition loading T-72 has to disengage to download it. And here are all seriously. So, for example, getting ammunition, the crew of the T-62 (four people) did 518 operations, and the T-64A (crew of 3 persons) — above 850. According to the tank, loading automatic loader T-72 even more labor-intensive process. Nothing for themselves, facilitated the work of soldier!
Question imposes itself: Does it even non-mechanized stacking? In addition to its uselessness for shooting it is a clear danger to the life of the crew. The whole world is spared photos of T-72 with towers, ammunition explosion ripped from Iraq, Yugoslavia and Chechnya. In some professionals that fact perplexed, because the shots in the autoloader of the tank below the level of rollers. In the machine — yes, but in the non-mechanized installation — no. Apparently, the last and are the catalyst for the detonation of ammunition.
In a possible opponent
It should be noted that for the first time equipped with an autoloader French light tank AMH13 in 1951. So it is not our invention. In the following the West has created several different designs AZ type including carousel. But neither one of them on serial tanks not used: the reduction of the booked there no one did.
The standard rate of 120-mm gun, "Abrams" comes to 6 shots per minute, with all this projectile 34 of the 40 existing unitary munitions are placed in a niche of the tower. Charging sits sideways to the gun (facing the breech) to the left of him, and shall be sent shots with his right hand, not the left, as in the Russian tanks with a manual loader.
The "Leopard-2" Krantz first shots in a niche of the tower are seventeen 120mm Unitarians of 42, and by this measure, he concedes, "Abrams" and T-72. But the difference in the case of the latter yavna — a German tank crew is charging, he will "dive" for the rest of ammunition stored compactly in one place in the department of management. So Makar, the combat capability of any South American or German tank does not lose the right to the full execution of ammunition, the load which these machines in comparison with the T-72 takes even less time.
According to Russian path was only French spices, AZ setting to "Leclerc". The reasons are simple solutions to realize: they, too, sought to reduce the amount of the booked exclusively within the boundaries of other dimensions and weight. But the design of the machine, "Leclerc" fundamentally different, and from the standpoint of assembly, ease of use, it still is better than ours.
French AZ with conveyor belt type 22 unitary (!) Shot placed in a niche of the tower. The shells are located in the cells of the horizontal flow of assembly, located across the cannon, which is arranged in front of the breech delivery window. On command from the remote instrument is set at an angle of loading — 1,8 °, the flow of supplies to the assembly window box with a suitable shot. Automation is able to provide the technical rate of fire (without aiming and pickup) to 15 shots per minute. Effective rate — 10-12 shots per minute (the T-72 — eight) as a place and on the move.
Equipment assembly cells flow is from the outside through the boot hatch in the aft wall of the tower or from the inside, with a gunner who can fill machine of combat pack — rotating drum to 18 shots, mounted in a housing on the right of the driver. In all this there is no need to distribute ammunition by type, since machine is equipped with a reader that is connected to the microprocessor, the ability to recognize more than 5 types of ammunition.
AZ guns compartment and separated from jobs commander and gunner tight walls, which increases the safety and survivability. In addition to convenience, refill machine both outside and inside the French unit has another advantage over the Russian analogue — it is adapted for all types of ammunition, while the Russian Ministry of Health and AZ does not allow you to position in their modern shots with long piercing projectiles.
The complete opposite of Russian and French solution — an Israeli tank 'Merkava »Mk4. In the autoloader (or mechanized stacking) of the tank, which is understandable, in general, too little, located only 10 shots, the other 36 — in an alcove next to the tower, non-mechanized installation. Coupled with the fact the crew was loading the machine, which is based on the situation determines how to load a gun: manually or by machine.
What to say here? There is a completely different approach: AZ, along with the charging, not instead. It really solved task facilitate the work of the crew and increase rate of fire.
So there is no need either a modern tank autoloader? As we see, the trend of world tank does not give a definitive answer to this question. One thing is clear: in the form in which it exists in the Russian tanks, AZ (MOH) is not exactly necessary.
Twenty years of the thunder of explosions boeukladok T-72 and finally came to Nizhny Tagil. At the T-90cm demonstrated in this year's exhibition RUSSIAN EXPO ARMS-2011, all the shots that are located outside of AZ, moved into the niche of the tower, the more isolated the crew of at least part of the ammunition. But it did seem to be reluctantly paying tribute zabugornoy fashion. Well, as a masterpiece of the Russian technical thought — the crew, sitting on ammunition and fuel, is the hallmark of all Russian tanks T-34 and T-90!
As for AZ, then quite naturally: the concept of "automatic loader plus charging" has obvious advantages over the concept of "automatic loading minus charging ", because it allows the tank to maintain the highest level of combat capability directly to the depletion of ammunition.