Not spared the military reform and the Russian military. Back in 2008, the Ministry of Defence announced its intention to conduct the most meaningful reform in the history of the army. This reform is to anticipate not only the reduction of certain officer positions, and the change of the force structure, reorganization of military units. Along with that, the management of the country planned to allocate additional funds for the purchase of modern military equipment and weapons.
From the outset, the reform has caused diverse assessment not only in the armed forces themselves, and in general in society.
But in spite of that Medvedev, while still at the head of the country, said that the reform of the army actually completed. So Makar, most of the military units ready to begin the task in the most rather short time, and by optimizing the cross-species groups of forces and the structure of the modern counties significantly increased the level of efficiency of planning and management.
According to him, during the years of reforms in the army supplied only the new standards of modern equipment and weapons, their volume has increased to 16 percent. During this time, in fact three times increased the intensity of operational and combat training.
Recall Reform in the Russian Army began in 2008. According to her, up to 2012, the number of Russian armed forces should be 1 million. In addition, it involves a transition from the regimental structure to brigade. In addition, the planned decrease of 200 thousand posts of officers, warrant officers and eliminate body warrant (which is about 160 thousand people). Because of this military government plans to reduce the percentage of officers to 15 percent instead of 32, and thus Makar, catch up with the international practice.
All military personnel who will be laid off will be able to retrain and get a non-military position. In addition, they will receive housing and real compensation.
But with respect to the transition to a contract army, but recently it will not. The Defense Ministry they say about the gradual increase in the number of contractors, respectively, the number of recruits will be reduced. So Makarov, in the coming years, the number of contractors in the Russian army will be about 425 thousand people.
How does the reform was carried out in other countries? A few examples of the military reform abroad we make out below.
Thus, military reform was carried out in the German Armed Forces. Management of the country in 2010 approved a plan to second military reform, which took place since the merger of the GDR and the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990. This reform is more extensive. Apart from certain organizational aspects, its main provisions are reducing the number of personnel, and changes of acquisition. In July 2011 he was stopped by the call for military service, despite the fact that the provision on compulsory military service has remained the main law of the country.
The number of troops, according to the reform, to be reduced to 185 thousand people, of which only 15 thousand are volunteers and 170 thousand — specialists. It is also planned, and reducing the number of civilian staff by more than 20 thousand people. The fundamental reorganization of nuance — improving access for women. First, the reform will affect staff officers, managers, and personnel with vast experience, which has developed a system of social support. And in order to attract more young professionals in the army, has developed a system of bonuses and wage increase.
The main purpose of the reform is the need to adapt to the new principles of the army to maintain security in the world. The need for reform of the armed forces more than once declared Angela Merkel, stressing that the army should be ready to perform operations outside the country related to the fight against terrorism.
Brand new military reform fits in policy to reduce municipal funding, since it will help reduce the cost of 8 billion dollars by 2014.
Despite the huge number of positive side, some experts fear that the German Defense Ministry fails to get the necessary number of professionals, as most of the contractors came to serve only through military service. In addition, there may be prepyadstviya and with another service, because not enough who will agree to go to work in a nursing home or clinic.
In general, the reform of the Bundeswehr has its own to improve the status of Germany in NATO, there is an intention to become a base of common security in Europe.
A somewhat different situation exists in the Land of the Rising Sun. In the country, according to the Constitution, not engage in wars and the creation of the army. Because at the present stage of development of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces — is, in law, is not quite the armed forces (although de facto, do not tell). Well, the Ministry of Defence here appeared only in 2007. In late 2010, the Defense Ministry submitted a program from the state of defense, which was the main Fri need to reform the armed forces. According to her land forces must become more mobile. Proposed to achieve this by reducing the number of military units with languid arms, the reorganization of the management system. For the Navy priority task — an association of destroyers, which are in various waters in tactical mobile groups, the development of the submarine fleet. In the Air Force, the reform is not so significant, it is limited to the organizational and staffing changes character.
At present, Japan is continuing to develop its military power. The government takes fifth place in the world in terms of the cost of this branch (once a year they make about 44 billion dollars). Noteworthy that in this respect, even ahead of Germany, Japan, behind only the United States, Britain, China and France. And if you take into account that in the last 2-states budgets military complex are cut, then it is possible that Japan will soon be able to reach the third place, and be able to compete with China for the second.
Now in service with the Japanese Army are carrying ships, the modern system of missile defense. It should be noted that a large part of the war effort in the home country provides. Moreover, all the more often there are calls to abandon the restrictions on the import of weapons. The only thing so far in the country — is a nuclear weapon, but all the necessary technologies for its creation are.
The armed forces of the Land of the Rising Sun, there are 240 thousand people. Weaponry is frequently updated. For example, in the navy has about 250 warships and auxiliary boats and ships. Among them there are four flagship — this helicopter destroyers, which at once can do the functions and landing of aircraft carrying units. In addition, there is available to the same 40 destroyers. With all of this the authorities to seriously reflect on the need to revive mobile commando units, which are often used to capture the coastal areas of the enemy.
Total funding for the reform of the army land of the rising sun is about 285 million dollars.
Lithuania after leaving the Russian Union was obliged to begin to reform
its armed forces, because it was one of the main parts of European integration. In 1994, the government applied for membership in the Alliance, and 10 years later, in 2004, the country became a member of NATO. Closing the reform of the Lithuanian Armed Forces is scheduled for 2014. By this time, is scheduled to make small-sized mobile army that would absolutely meet NATO standards and was able to participate in all of the operations conducted by the alliance. During the period from 2005 to 2012 the number of the army declined by more than 5 thousand people. So Makar, today as part of it, there are about 14.5 thousand soldiers. With all of this earlier if the number of recruits was 3.3 thousand people, today that number is much smaller — only 110 people. In other words, the Lithuanian army actually ran across one hundred percent on professional basis. In the past year lifespan was shortened from 12 to 9 months, and the duration of the basic military training is just only 90 days instead of 150. In the middle of recruits volunteers are preferred, but if there will be a shortage — the selection is made by drawing lots.
The reform of the armed forces means equipping them with modern standards of military equipment and weapons. So, on the basis of the brigade "Iron Wolf" is planned to establish a mechanized brigade, the formation of the battalion communications.
So Makar, the Lithuanian army — is a mobile, well-armed military equipment and organization that is able to protect the territorial integrity of the country, also assist allies when needed.
As for the armed forces of China, in the near future programm for reform began to receive certain shape. In Beijing, was made public a report on the government's policy in the field of defense, entitled "White Paper". According to her, the main task, which extends in front of the state army, is to maintain the strategy of active defense, which implies an increase in the level of combat readiness of the armed forces under their numerical reduction and at the same time equipping new weapons. The reduction is planned in the main in the Army. First, their number will be reduced to 1.8 million people, and over time the reduction will amount to an additional 30 percent. At this time the planned expansion of the air, naval, Vietnam, the creation of mobile forces for operations in local conflicts. Over time, these mobile units is planned to include a part of the navy and air force strike.
Reform of the Air Force and Air Defence is the value in the development of the Chinese army as a whole. A similar approach is the result of self-government in the crucial role of aviation in possible military conflict. Because a lot of attention is paid to the export of modern Russian fighter Su-30MK2, Su-30MKK, the production of licensed aircraft Su-27, the development of modern aircraft guns.
In addition, China has carried out and the modernization of air defense and navy. To this end zatarivaemsya intense anti-aircraft missiles Russian production Tor-M1, S-300PMU1 also created its own anti-aircraft missile systems.
The reform of the armed forces and stung officers. Embarked on a rejuvenation of personnel, and the introduction of new military ranks. Changes have occurred in the system of military education.
A lot of attention in the process of reforming the defense sector is paid to ensure the readiness of the country's economic development and military production, which should meet the needs of military equipment and weapons not only in times of war and in peacetime.
In South Africa, after the fall of "apartheid" in 1994, the army came first the formation of black. Such units were only 7, "The African State Congress," "Pan Africanist Congress", "IFP" and four army Bantustans. So Makarov, in the modern army, there were about 80 thousand soldiers of the armed forces of old times, 34 thousand former rebels and about 11 thousand Bantustans. With all of this middle and high officers was presented to whites, and the rank and file — blacks.
The main task of reforming the army was to correct the racial imbalance and age. Planned to achieve this by pursuing advanced courses and training programs increase. In 2011, slightly more than 70 percent of the soldiers was black, about 15 per cent — white, about 12 per cent — the "color" and a little more than 1 percent — Asians. As for the rank and file, then as before the main contingent (about 90 percent) are black, a lieutenant in the body of their number increased to 57 percent, but among the colonels — up to 33 percent.
Military Administration is confident that the Air Force can not fully make out their tasks, as in service are in the main the old technique. Because in the process of reforming the great attention paid to the reorganization of the Air Force specifically. It is, namely, the modernization of the fleet, the introduction of computer technology to support automation of service. In addition, the management of the country is also addressing the increasing capabilities of air defense systems — namely, the deployment of detection of low-flying objects near the borders of the country. In the process of modernization of naval forces (namely, naval aviation) South Africa lozhit great hopes on the United States of America.
So Macarena, all the reforms of the armed forces, which have been highlighted in the article, are characterized by the downsizing of the armed forces, the introduction of advanced command and control systems, advanced weapons systems and technology, the transition to a professional army accessory. Pinning hopes that the reform of our army will go on such principles.