Why Stalin destroyed, Stalin Line?

Fortified area (SD) in the construction plans of the Red Army was assigned to a very fundamental role. According to the plans they had to cover important operational areas and areas of retention are dependent stability of defense, and to be the supporting act for the boundaries of combat troops in defense and in the transition to a decisive offensive. In the case of an enemy breakthrough in the adjoining areas, UR had to make up a solid foundation for maneuver forces and means. According to these calculations for engineering preparation of possible theaters of war the main attention was paid to the construction of SD.

In the years 1927-37. to strip an old western state border and in particular the operational depth was built 13 fortified, formed the so-referred to as the "Stalin Line".

In the prewar years around these fortifications was deployed much publicity hype. Strengthening of an old state border called indestructible and compared with the French "Maginot Line". I remember the stories of my father, grandfather and many other veterans who are in the first days of the war were completely convinced that the Germans certainly will suspend on an old strip borders. This belief in the "Stalin Line" was absolute and therefore the war is simply moved further inland our area, the people experienced the shock. Many fighters and ordinary Russian people for a long time disturbed the question: "Why is it so easy to overcome the Germans indestructible building if Reddish Army for 3 months hardly breach the" Mannerheim Line ", considered to be more feeble?"

And now, 10 years after the war itself was born somewhere in the answer to this question is disarmed, they say, an old border, transported all the newest and defenses undermined. And everyone breathed a sigh of relief, happy with this explanation, as an annoying fly driving away the question-question: "Why did you blow up something?"

So, the version adopted after the war and retold many times, including in the work of the so-called "historian" V.Rezuna, better known by the pen name of Viktor Suvorov, based on the memoirs of General P.G.Grigorenko (1st of builders' line Stalin ") with co-workers, and in numerous publications, open the post-war press. Here are excerpts from the "book of life" companion Rezun, who has brought together all the stories glorifying power and mourning the fate of adamantine on an old border fortifications:

"Each UR — is a military formation team on an equal number of personnel, but the firepower equal to the body. Each UR included in the composition of its own command and headquarters, from 2-to eight machine-gun and artillery battalions, an artillery regiment, several individual battery caponier the heavy artillery, tank battalion, a company or battalion, engineer battalion and other units. Each UR occupied area of 100-180 km in length and 30-50 km in depth … Each UR could without the help of others to conduct combat actions for a long time in the criteria for exclusion. "

UR base were long pillbox (DOS) or a long gun emplacements (DOT). One of the so-called "standard" DOT "Stalin Line" — DOT number 112 53rd Ur in Mogilev-Podolsky looked at the views of all those followed by the same creators as: "It was a difficult fortified underground construction … There were warehouses guns, ammunition, food, medical unit, dining room, running water (acting, by the way, until now), reddish Area, supervisory and team points. Weapons bunker — trehambrazurnaya machine gun point at which stood on three stationary turrets "Maxim" and two gun polukaponira with 76-mm cannon in each. " "… "Stalin Line" was not built on the very borders, but in the depths of the Russian countryside. "

"In autumn 1939 … all build on the "Stalin Line" was stopped … The garrisons of fortified areas on the "Stalin Line" were first reduced and then to one hundred percent of disbanded … And the other day of the war itself — in the spring of 1941 — massive explosions thundered across the 1200-kilometer strip of fortifications. Mighty concrete caponiers … — 10 of thousands of long-term defenses were raised in the air at the personal order of Stalin "(repeat — all these points are taken from the" Book of Life "V.Rezuna" Icebreaker ").

That's it! A long time to build a powerful line of defense, and later her own hands and removed. Because, they say, the Germans like a knife through butter gone as far as Moscow. This explanation satisfied everybody, and at first — our "outstanding" military commanders and "talented" military engineers and builders. And now for him and cling to the new "researchers" trying to offer their interpretation of the facts.

Like someone Rezun I wondered "why would blow up building?", But unlike the latter, I did not find the answer in the memories-justifications of those responsible for its construction, and later engaged in science fiction. I just tried to find the answer to this question in the archives, access to which, according to the views of other "whistleblowers", shut up tight. Yet, in the archives for some reason let me and gave all the documents from the period 1936-41 gg., Who were on the subject. And here I was surprised to find that the inaccessibility of "Stalin Line" in the post-war period was, to put it mildly, exaggerated, and no building on an old state border no one has ever destroyed!

Some facts from the life of the "Stalin Line"

Already mentioned, in the years 1927-37. to strip an old western state border and in particular the operational depth of it was built 13 fortified. But their properties were much more feeble than that builders were in charge of memoirs (General Grigorenko companions). The length along the front of each UR averaged 80-90 km, although there were some giants who held up to 200 km on the front, but none have the depth extended to 50 km, and a total of 1.3 to 5 km. Most of the long-term facilities in the UR built 1931-37 years. were built from off-grade concrete, often without metal reinforcement (and at times Slalina stolen and absented). Because of the usual in our country (and especially — in those years), protracted, lasting some facilities by the end of the construction machine moved into the category of "requiring Polga repair and reconstruction." It is interesting also that the design and development of the fortified area was conducted major military-engineering management from maps 1909-1913 gg. and therefore in the process of building more than one occasion there were excesses, when the interests of the military very tightly faced with the interests of the national economy, etc. For example, according to the plans of building one of the DOT Tiraspol SD was to be built right among the irrigation canal, dug in 1931 and not accounted for in the plans and maps GVIU.

Armament 90% of the constructed bunker and had to make the DOS one, at least — two machine gun "Maxim". Only 10% emplacements (more precisely — 9.3%) had a gun design polukaponiry General Durlyahova arr. 1904 for the 76-mm guns, arr. 1900 and 1902., But the guns to January 1, 1939 was established only one third of the amount ought to rip it out and those were from stocks and long
-term storage were mostly incompleteness.

In 1938-39. services of the People's Commissariat of Defense and the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs was held extensive inspection of an old fortification of the state border, which showed their practical unfitness. Here are excerpts from some of said inspection protocols:

"NGOs comrade. Voroshilov

January 5, 1939

… According to the Department Especial BVI construction Slutsky ur going very poorly … Out of 91 objects, intended for the construction of the plan in 1938, only 13 built … Work has been launched with a significant delay, because the drawings and plans for the objects were sent from the Engineering Management with a delay of a few months …

Beria "

" NGOs comrade, Voroshilov

January 17, 1939

According to the Ukrainian NKVD, the construction of SD KOVO is obviously unsatisfactory sostyanii. Approved NGO construction plan in 1938 failed, as well as plans for the past … Of the 284 structures identified on the plan on December 2, was concreted 86 … 60 structures, including 30 and 30 DOT command observation Fri lack of drawings that are not represented department KOVO Corps of Engineers, with the building completely removed … Engineering drawings submitted controlled internal hardware facilities have a number of severe shortages that result in broken not only in their ordinary work, and use them …

In a newly built Shepetivsky ur just dropped out of the plan to build the units 7, 8 and 9, with the result that between Shepetovskaya and Starokonstantinovsky ur gate formed an exposure of more than 60 km …

In Novograd Volyn SD in terms of construction was not the 19th building, approved by the General Staff of the Red Army … There are no drawings of the internal equipment of many objects … Scheduled materials do not meet the needs of the construction …

The practice of concrete structures on the number of objects is carried out contrary to existing instructions NGOs …

In Kamenetz-Podolsk SD for concreting structures (ie number 53) about concrete embrasures utambovan was not, resulting in an additional poslke concreting had formed to fill the empty space than significantly reduced strength of structures …

In Ostropolskom UR concrete walls were 15 cm thinner than the set value … In particular, many flaws noted in the construction Ostropolskogo and Kamenetz-Podolsk UR …

Beria "

"NKO comrade. Voroshilov

February 13, 1939

Despite the long period of construction and retrofitting of Pskov, and Ostrovsky SD, they are not considered in the current time boevsposobnymi. Due to the ill-designed and built most of the internal hardware DOT they can not be occupied by troops … up to half of the constructions of 20-40 cm are filled with water, which seemed due to an incorrect assessment of the depth of the water table. At the same time, the plumbing does not work … Electrical equipment is not fortified … In accommodation, SD highest humidity and stale air …

UR supply centers are not built … Grocery stores are no …

Because of the illiterate planning ur their pillbox can not lead to a range of fire of more than 50-100 m, so the area has hills, ravines and uncut forest. DOS number 3 is mounted on the side of the ravine, and can not be masked because of the constant landslides, and it is available in gun polukaponir useless because placed below the level of the surrounding countryside … To expand the field of fire to remove about 120,000 cubic meters of earth, and cut down to 300 hectares of forest and bush …

DOT loopholes designed for the use of machine guns, "Maxim", but the machines are equipped with an unknown structure, … prednazanchennymi likely to Hotchkiss machine guns have long been removed from service. Gun polukaponiry not equipped with armor flaps and are a source of penetration into the bunker meltwater and sediment …

Armament of the UR consists of six field guns obsolete in 1877, for which there are no shells …

Protecting areas of SD is not conducted. In operation, the Commission has not once met with local residents held in the vicinity of a particular fire facilities to reduce road between the villages of …

Beria "

"In the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine

The state Kiur

January 11, 1939

… Kiev fortified area on this day only represents only a skeleton predmestnoy position consisting in the main structures of the machine gun … and did not secure the position of the equipment.

Of the 257 facilities available in the area, only 5 are ready for battle … The left and right flanks are not protected and have a free pass for the enemy (the left — 4 km, right — 7km).

In the center of the zone of SD … formed bag (open at 7 miles), after which the free passage of the enemy opened specifically to Kiev.

Front edge of the long strip is removed from the center of Kiev just 15 km, which makes it possible to enemy fire in Kiev, without intruding on the fortified …

Of the 257 facilities in 175 no suitable fire horizon because of the terrain (hills, mountains, large forests and bush).

Planning for SD, despite government guidance, pulled away in the execution time of war, while these works should be carried out immediately. Only on the 3rd section you need to take a grading 15,000 cubic meters of earth, and it is more than 4 months of work … In total … by fortified area to be removed over 300,000 cubic meters of earth and cut down to 500 hectares of forest and gustarnika.

… 140 buildings are equipped with machine-gun fire dampers arr. 1930, which are locked when shooting machine and facilitate the defeat of their own soldiers as machine guns ricochet bullets.

About Kiur unfitness and failure commandant Kiur Special Division KOVO not once informed KOVO command, but, despite this, there is still nothing taken …

Deputy. People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR
B.Kobulov "

In the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine

On the state of Mogilev-Yampolsky fortified area

… On the territory of Mogilev-Yampolsky fortified area has 297 fire facilities, of which 18 279 bunkers and artillery polukaponirov …

The real part of pillbox is neudovletvoriteolnom condition.

On the territory of the 2nd defense sector has 9 polukaponirov artillery fire. Of these three structures — "The Rock," "Guerrilla" and "Myud" have filtroventillyatsionnogo equipment …

In connection with the ongoing refurbishment of fire facilities, artillery polukaponirov terrain SD dungeons reign chaos and mess …

Posting in almost all defense confused and did not provide their electric lighting …

Polukaponirnaya artillery fire facilities are in poor condition.

All guns collected from different parts of incomplete guns. Forms on the gun is not available.

Guns found in buildings in 1932, only in 1937 were disassembled and cleaned, so that all materiel guns inside shows signs of rust.

Recuperator spring guns for the most part are assembled correctly (instead of the left put the head right spring) with the shooting led to a loosening of the cylinder head compressor and the gun barrel after a few shots could get away with the installation.

In the 2-guns instead of spindle oil w
as poured linseed oil to clog the hole oil line, which could lead to rupture of the compressor cylinder …

Ur so far is not staffed … average commanders.

Chain of command, assigned from distant places and cities (Saratov, Moscow, Leningrad), will be able to come to ur only 5-6 days after the announcement of mobilization …

With existing states privates pulbaty fail to fulfill the tasks entrusted to them, because in the company by the state has 21 machine gunner and company must serve 50 buildings …

HR gunners pulbaty not provided … In the presence of artillery pulbaty by state did not have a gun masters that could lead technical supervision caponier artillery …

Deputy. People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR
Kobulov "

Takih memoranda and protocols were drawn up in late 1938 — early 1939. majestic huge amount. Not only the NKVD, but also representatives of the infantry and artillery units of the Red Army, which had to be the base garrison ur considered these facilities unusable for doing what you like fighting (and in particular — the offensive). Because soon the General Staff of the Red Army and the Military Engineering Department had developed a set of measures to address shortcomings noted and rearmament of fortifications on the border of an old state.

In 1-x for bridging the gaps in the structure of the defense, it was decided to build an additional 8 fortified areas, the structure of which was better adapted to the terrain than the previous ones. The share of artillery in their caponiers was already 22-30%, and of guns they planned to install more modern — the A-17. But to equip caponiers guns was not, because the Kirov factory production program from the A-17 guns ripped off. In-2, were instructed to urgently establish new headquarters SD and additional machine-gun and artillery units, which were to form the backbone of their garrisons.

Re-inspection ur an old border was conducted in April-May 1941, representatives of the General Staff, People's Commissariat of Defense and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). It specifically identified the subsequent:

"1. Planned activities for the completion and modernization of an old fortification of the state border is not currently carried out due to the need to end July 1, 1941 to build on the recent state border fortifications, but would continue after a designated period of …

2. HR garrisons UR is not currently provided. The average number of the garrison of the currently less than 30% of nominal (actual — 13-20%) and can not be increased because of the lack of housing and logistics … The number of staff pulbatov also inconsistent with the task of defense fortifications, partly because it can cover less than 60% of fire facilities.

3. Despite the fact that to strengthen the arms SD in 1938-40 years. at their disposal was given a huge amount of artillery, most of them is outdated light field guns mod. 1877-1895 years. without special tools and weapons. Of comparable modern artillery means garrisons SD transferred only 26 76-mm guns mod. 1902 8 and 76-mm field guns mod. 1902/30, of the 200 ordered caponier cannon A-17 is not received at all …

Installed caponier fully equipped with guns … Device status is such that … conduct of their fire can not be, and often is not safe for the calculation. Forms these guns do not have … SPTA lost … Tribute not care for guns …

4. Small arms are guns DOT half an obsolete design and foreign brands, which are often lacking ammunition.

5. Tank battalions and tank companies support SD is exclusively in the reports because they have an old materiel release 1929-33. with one hundred percent-of-life, do not hav e the machine-gun armament is limited and can be used solely as a motionless firing points. Fuel tank companies to support nowhere.

6. Despite the multiple indications of need for construction of hiding gun and machine-gun tower installations … why the disposal of Engineering Management has produced more than 300 tanks T-18 and T-26, a single set to the current time is not available, a tank turret mounted on the tank buried in the ground body, from time to time in addition carelessly concreted. Life support systems in such settings bronebashennyh no … "

A new list of unfinished work was actually produced a similar first in 1939 and then again the People's Commissariat of Defense made the right conclusions. May 25, 1941 came another commemorative government regulation (in 1932 the tenth in a row!) On measures to strengthen the fortifications on an old and modern state border. On the border of an old term of performance measures was established October 1, 1941, but before the war had produced nothing — all forces were sent to complete the construction of the new SD for "Molotov line".

The last of the documents to find the weapons to strengthen the fortifications an old state border is dated June 11, 1941 According to a document available from the stores Letychiv SD NC Artupravleniya been shipped: machine gun "Maxim" in the machine Sokolova — 4 pieces, machine guns, "Vickers" on a tripod — 2; languid Colt machine guns — 6 pieces, 37-mm battalion guns Rosenberg on a metal carriage — 4 pieces, 45-mm tank gun mod. 1932 without towers — 13 units; shrapnel of artillery rounds caliber 45 mm — 320; shrapnel of artillery rounds caliber 76.2 mm — 800; 7.62 mm rifle cartridges — 27000. As can be seen, the practice of using SD of the Red Army as a warehouse of obsolete junk, no different from the practice of using the same fortresses Russian army first century and contemporary bloee UR — at the end. And no government regulations could change this situation.

So an old building of the state border to the very beginning of the war were expecting their own hours to once again undergo modernization. This, by the way, and shows Georgy Zhukov in their own "Memories and Reflections":

"Urs on an old state border were dismantled and disarmed, as stated in some memoirs and historical developments. They were kept in all the important areas and directions, and was meant to strengthen them further. But the course of fighting the war at first not allowed to perform well conceived measures and pay tribute to a way to use an old fortifications … "

Zhukov cautious in their own words — Ury have been saved and have not been only because of the unexpected "course of hostilities."

There is still a fascinating testimony made now one of the opponents. July 17, 1941 at the headquarters of the 20th Army was interrogated German engineer Lieutenant Behm, who was captured during the Battle of Orsha. Prisoner interrogation lasted more than an hour and there is no need to cite it verbatim completely. But in the course of other useful (and not) the information and he told something about an old fortifications of our state border.

"… Our company had a concrete block building puzzle to strip an old Russian borders of the Russian Federation and the undermining of their … We had a very good training and getting ready to act in a mobile groups with tank troops … But we were not able to fulfill their puzzle, because instead of the massive lines of fortifications that we waited meet … we have found only scattered abandoned concrete structures, in some places the unfinished … Those pillboxes, who greeted us with machine-gun fire, we just avoided using the convexity of the … We long could not believe that this is an impregnable "line of an old border …"

In general, even with the huge flaws
in the pillbox SD, their planning and equipment being employed field troops, they inongda provided some resistance to German troops. So specifically Karelian SD (one of the most representatives of early buildings) occupied by the 23rd Army kept coming Finnish troops and blocked their way to Leningrad. Specifically Karelian UR is the core of the defense of Leningrad in the north to 1944

Two weeks passed Kingisepsky ur busy parts of the 41 th and 191 th Infantry Divisions, but the building did not survive the bombing and were useless against tanks.

A little more than 10 days and fought Ostropolsky Letichevsky SD, although in this case, in addition Infantry filling ck 8 and 13, also 173 sd they were reinforced artillery brigade, and by some units of the 24th Mechanized Corps. This area could hold on to and a little longer, but were surrounded and were abandoned.

Resisted the Romanians and Mogilev-Yampolsky SD, structures which were occupied by the 130th Rifle Division. But as in the arrangement of fortified initially did not provide any supplies of ammunition and food, also because of the risk circumvention of its flanks, was fortified by troops, while at the time of abandonment of a number of fortifications have been reduced to silence.

So Makar, a bike Tipo built in the years 1928-1939. in the USSR invincible "Stalin Line", which later on Sheepish (or, conversely, sverhumnomu) disposal of "the leader of all nations" before the war, was blown up by that, they say, was one of the reasons frisky retreat of the Red Army, contrived from start to finish. And the creators of the stories (which seemed, by the way, after 1955 with the blessing of high Nikita Khrushchev), are many of those who built the line. And willingly supported the creators of those who showed their "strategic art" in the summer of 1941

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