Zbruch idol Svyatovit — the most rich in composition, is the most interesting of the surviving statues of Slavic deities. The complexity of its composition allows researchers to draw conclusions about the reflection in her ideas of our ancestors on the structure of the world. Therefore, since its discovery in the river Zbruch he was always the center of attention of historians and fans of the Slavic antiquity. First of all, striking tiered sculptures, reflecting the world in a three-tiered view of the Slavs.
In the lower tier displayed Nav — the lower world, who left his name in Russian: navyak — dead. In the Ukrainian language navizheny — obsessed, ie influenced Navi. Nav but not the kingdom of evil — it is death that precedes life as unsprouted grain.
Image there figure is considered by Welles, the god of the underworld, but one can hardly agree with this. Velez was of great importance in the pantheon of the Slavs, due to the nature of its rituals, his idols were placed in separate houses of the high, it is difficult to assume that one of the images on Idol another god — is disrespectful to both. Most likely, it is the souls of dead ancestors, supporting people in their new home — Navi. In favor of this interpretation and said the absence of such images on one of the faces that will be justified below. In the middle tier mapped the human world — Reality, richly represented in the languages of all the Slavic nations: an explicit, in reality, to show, to appear. It depicts human figures. Finally in the top tier of rules — the world of heavenly gods (edit, correct, right), a world where there is the one who actually devoted to sculpture: God controls and air, and people on the ground, and the souls of the dead in the underworld.
Unable to accept the fact that the idol izbrazheno four different deities, only because Idol four faces. The unity shown images underlined by the fact that they are wearing one hat, besides a description of four-faced idol Arkonskogo Svyatovit made Saxo-Grammaticus. There are four-faced Brahma and Varuna, coming from the distant Indo-European past, where he came from and Svyatovit. The presence of solar symbol on Idol allows to correlate it with the sun as a source of light and life. Calendar year cycle of our ancestors had four nodal points associated with the Sun: autumn and spring equinox and the summer and winter solstices. These nodes calendar easily track, accompanied by significant changes in the nature and inevitably acquired mythological content, become a kind of mystery. This was reflected in the Iranian gahanbarah, this was bound for holidays other Indo-European peoples, particularly from the last third of the III millennium BC. e., when solar calendars prevailed over the more ancient moon. According to the annual solar mystery, it is born, a man was growing old and new.
Each stage was accompanied by ritual, gradually degenerated into a holiday devoted to each phase of the hypostasis of the Sun-Dazhdbog-Svyatovit. The multiplicity of names of Slavic gods, making in attempts to recreate the world of the Slavs, due to the fact that we do not know the truth of their names. The true names of the gods taboo in many nations (not every Christian, for example, knows that Jehovah, and hosts — only god Ellahi epithets), known by their nicknames Heit. For example Perun — boom, Velez — Hair (option: Lord of oxen), Dazhdbog — giving God (not the god of rain, as many think), and so on. Consider the first hypostasis Svyatovit.
The sun is born on December 25, when the winter solstice is over, and the day begins prirostat. This Kolyada. Celebrate his birth began long before Christianity. Most of the Ukrainian Christmas carols bears traces of later Christian alterations, or has no relation to Christianity. "… Rejoice, oh rejoice, earth, Yassen Svit narodivsya" — is still one of the most popular Christmas carols in Ukraine.
On the verge of an idol corresponding Kolyada, God is in the hands of any attributes, only solar sign on clothes. Sun wheel, a symbol of the winter solstice, is still present at the Christmas celebrations in the Carpathians: the wheel tied combustible material on fire and let the mountain. Attention is drawn to another feature of this face: in the underworld there is no image souls of ancestors. This is explained more Indo-European views. The Iranians Fravashi — the souls of ancestors — the winter fly to Ohrmazd, return to the spring, it is possible to prevent such a fly Iriy ancestors in the winter and the Slavs. Sun grows, it becomes a warrior and conquers darkness. Day becomes longer than the night.
This is reflected in the celebration of the day Yarilin on the vernal equinox on March 21. Many refer to this day is considered the beginning of the Slavic year. Now is the beginning of the astrological year — the first degree of Aries, the warrior god managed Mars (hence the name of the month — March). Perhaps in this day begins berezen month, month-god warrior Yarily. On the verge of an idol corresponding Yarily depicted a sword and a horse — a purely military attributes. That Yarylo as hypostasis Svyatovit was particularly revered in Akron — the city of soldiers, during the Saxon-Grammar. Yarylo matures. After the victory over the darkness comes the well-being and it gives way to a mature husband — Kupala. Kupala celebrated on the summer solstice, the wire with honors shortly before Yarily. The apogee of the world, the longest day of the year …
The shortest night was the night of love, coming from the day's events. This midsummer night had a profound practical significance for the tribe. Conceived in the night the winners of competitions children were born in the spring equinox, got warm enough time to get stronger and, in terms of astrology, were born under the sign of Aries, ie had the character of soldiers, children Yarily.
On the verge of an idol corresponding Kupala, God holds the horn rhyton, a symbol of wealth and happiness, next to the man in the middle tier shows the child as a symbol of conception and procreation. Severe chest is a god in the top tier, was seen by researchers as an argument in favor of a few generalizations idol gods. To this we can see that in at least two of the known Slavic gods were male and female incarnation. This Kupalo Kupala (Lei-Lei) and Lado-harmony. This duality of names, called Unity male and female in Kupala night, and in the autumn weddings. This explains the presence of the Sun-sign Svyatovit female.
Time passes and the Sun grows old, the day begins to give the night comes time to summarize, it's time weddings.
At this time, September 22, celebrated Lado-Ovsen — fret in the family wanted to newlyweds. In terms of astrology, it is time to sign Libra, the most balanced, well in the Zodiac. We face idol corresponding Lada, like Kupala expressed breast. In his hand Lado holds a ring, a symbol of marriage and at the same time a symbol of the cycle. On this day, Iranians Zoroastrians see off departing to Ohrmazd Fravashi — the souls of ancestors. The sun slowly dies, shorter days, all night long. And when it seems that evil is defeated, the new born sun, winter solstice occurs, a new solar cycle.
This day, birthday birthday Christmas Carols chosen saviors and prophets in many religions of the world. So statuesque Svyatovit reflected annual solar mystery that finds response in all three worlds: Reveal, Navi and the Government. She is depicted in the course of the Sun — clockwise. Attempts to link the idol with the seasons, of course, we were, but the cycles of the sun against his attempts to treat stroke, which is hardly correct. Clear orientation to the cardinal sculpture enabled some researchers to researchers speculate about the worship of the cardinal points of the Slavs, especially emphasizing the worship of the South.
However, even the old names of the parties of light (noon, midnight, sunset, sunrise), preserved to this day in the Ukrainian language, inextricably linked to the cycles of the sun-Svyatovit. Zbruch idol stood on the temple so that the person looking at the Kupala, the congregation looked at noon Yarily — at sunrise, Lada — the sunset. To face the Kolyada, you had to go to the statue from noon to midnight and see. Therefore, special attention is due to the worship of the Sun South of the zenith, the highest point in his creative power — incarnation Kupala. Based on the study Zbruch idol image Svyatovit emerges as a comprehensive, all-pervading God. It merged four persons — four seasons — four aged people — the four directions. It combines masculine and feminine essence, has the power in the three worlds. This expression is not polytheism, and mnogoipostasnogo worship God.
This seems improbable in view of the traditional Slavic mythology, when an attempt to paint a clear function of the gods, as was done with the later Greek mythology. But Slavic pagan religion is the successor Vedic tradition. And Vedism than hymns, the more peeps Multiple Forms of the one God, and well documented Yu.Mirolyubovym evidenced in Veles book ("… Svarog and Perun is at the same time and Sventovit …"), and in the Vedic books, where Vishnu Krishna, for example, dynamically changing places on the same page. From Christian sources, the forced introduction to Vladimir cult of Perun, our ancestors worshiped Rod and Rozhanitsy.
At the same genus and Rozhanitsy like inseparable, even kinship of their names indicate a close relationship. At the same time, the presence of two female deities in a men would violate the harmony in the pantheon. This disharmony — apparent. Names Rozhanitsy rarely mentioned — is Harmony and Lola (grade) — the mother and daughter, family and love, autumn and summer female incarnation of the Sun-Svyatovit. Thus Svyatovit-Dazhbog-Sun, combining four other gods and goddesses of the two, is none other like Rod — the father of all things, the supreme god of the Slavic pantheon.