VV Vereshchagin. "Attacking by surprise"
After an unsuccessful Crimean War of 1853-1856. Russian government was forced to temporarily change the vector of its own foreign policy with the West (Europe) and the south-west (North America) on the east and south-east. The latter seems very promising in terms of economic (acquisition of new sources of raw materials and markets for industrial products) and geopolitical (expanding the limits of the empire, the weakening of the Turkish influence in Central Asia and the occupation of positions that threaten the British possessions in India).
The decision puzzles promotion to Central Asia seemed very ordinary. By the middle of the XIX century. most of the Kazakh steppe was under Russian control, the local sedentary population economically gravitated to the Russian Federation; Central Asian municipalities (the Emirate of Bukhara, Khiva and Kokand Khanate), torn apart by internal political contradictions that could have severe resistance. The main "enemies" Russian troops including a huge distance, off-road (hard to produce a supply of food and ammunition to keep in touch) and arid climate.
Martial acts against the Highlanders in the Caucasus and the Polish uprising of 1863-1864. delayed the start of a campaign to Central Asia. Only in the second half of May 1864 squads colonels NA Verevkina and MG Chernyaeva moved out of the Syr Darya and the fortified zone of the Seven Rivers in the general direction of Tashkent (naikrupneyshy edge of the city, with a population exceeding 100 million people.
Speaking May 22, 1864 from Fort perovskite, a small detachment Verevkina (5 companies of infantry, 2 patches of the Cossacks, Kazakhs weaving policemen, 10 artillery pieces and mortars 6), following up on the river. Syr-Darya, two weeks headed for the town belonged to the Khanate of Kokand fortress and Turkestan. Beck (ruler) rent the requirement to surrender, but no hope of success of the defense, will soon leave city to fend for themselves. And there came a sudden: The inhabitants of Turkestan had a stubborn resistance to Russian troops. The fighting was day or three, and only 12 June fortress was taken. For this victory, NA Verevkina made a major general and bestowed the Order of St. ZHoru 4 degrees. But to go with his young squad in the populous Tashkent, surrounded by a 20-kilometer fortress wall Veryovkin not himself, and took the towers of power in the conquered territories.
Features a larger detachment (8.5's mouth, hundreds of Cossacks 1.5, 12 guns (of 1.5 million regular troops and 400 men. Kazakh police) M. Tchernyaev taken June 4, 1864 Aulie-Ata (strengthening situated on the left bank of the river. Talas on the way out of the Faithful in Tashkent. September 27 he captured the big city of Shymkent and Tashkent stormed the move. But the siege and storming of October 2-4, the head of the Central Asian town ended in failure and 7 October Tchernyaev returned to Shymkent.
Tashkent trouble cooled somewhat "hot head" in St. Petersburg. Yet, the results of the campaign of 1864 were recognized for the RF successful. First, in 1865 decided to increment the number of Russian troops in Central Asia and in the conquered territories to form the Turkestan region. Chief of the area entrusted to separate from the Kokand khanate Tashkent and form there a special form of ownership under Russian protectorate. Doing this puzzle had to MG Chernyaev, produced for his success in major general and appointed military governor of Turkestan.
At the end of May 1865 with a detachment of Tchernyaev 9.5 companies of infantry, with 12 guns again moved to Tashkent, and took the position on June 7, 8 miles from the town. Kokand Khan sent to the rescue of the beleaguered army 6000th with 40 guns. June 9, under the walls of the town there was a meeting engagement in which Kokands, despite the numerical advantage, suffered a defeat, and their leader Alimkulov was mortally wounded. Terrified Tashkent requested help from the Emir of Bukhara. June 10th a small detachment of Bukharan troops entered the city. Without the time and effort to long-term blockade or siege, Tchernyaev decided to take Tashkent attack. Artillery guns have made a dent in the wall, and June 14, 1865 as a result of a decisive assault on the city fell. June 17 notable inhabitants of Tashkent came to freshly baked military governor with the expression of humility and willingness to accept citizenship of.
"The Apotheosis of War" in 1871. VV Vereshchagin.
Military and political presence of in the Turkestan region grew. But do not give up and its opponents in the face of local feudal and clerical circles and zabugornyh patrons. Ordinary dekhane and ranchers also still reluctant to outlandish intruders. Some beheld in their aggressors, because propaganda "gazavat" (holy war against the "wrong" non-Muslims) had a certain success among the people. First, in 1866 the Emir of Bukhara Sayyid Muzaffar, with the support of the Kokand ruler Khudoyar Khan, whom he has promoted to seize the throne, claimed by the Russian Federation to clear Tashkent (the capital of Turkestan. Negotiations between the parties nor to no avail. Began martial deeds, in what was a success again on the Russian side. 8 May 1866 Bukhara army suffers bitter defeat at the tract Irdzhar. May 24 "on hot pursuit" a detachment of Major-General D. Romanowski (14 mouth, five hundred Cossacks, 20 guns and eight rocket machines) takes storm located on the bank of the river. Syr Darya very strong city Khujand (node roads in Tashkent, Kokand, Balkh and Bukhara. Finally deployed Russian troops coming fall 1866 fell two more massive fortress of Bukhara: October 2 (Uroteppa and 18 October (Dzhizak. Jizzah and Khujand neighborhood were annexed to Russia. (1)
Won in the 1864-1866 years. areas were the Syr Darya region, which, together with Semirechensk in 1867 was united in Turkestan Governor-General. The first Governor-General of the edge was the most experienced politician and administrator engineer-general KP Kaufman. MG Tchernyaev with their opportunistic manners, in the views of Russian "top", the post was not fit.
Background of successful actions against Russian troops countless troops of the Central Asian rulers revealed in his memoirs, the last minister of war AN Kouropatkin, young second lieutenant after graduating college Pawlowski arrived in autumn 1866 on the service in Turkestan: "The advantage of them (the Russian troops (IK) consisted not only in the best weapons and training, but priemuschestvenno, in the spirit of privileges. Bound Disciplines and a sense of belonging to the glorious Russian nation, our soldiers and officers went to the enemy, not believing it, and success proves that they were right. Chernyaeva glorious feats and others with a sense of advantages over the enemy forces developed in the determination not find victory in defense , and coming … "(2)
Vasily Vereshchagin (1842-1904) "The wounded soldier"
Features of the fighting in Central Asia claimed develop specific, not provided for by the statutes of army strategy. "For the same local conditions (AN wrote Kouropatkin, (it was always necessary to keep in operations against the enemy, both defensive and offensive, complete, ready to repel the enemy from all sides. Because at each location for the night was produced by four of a kind providing troops on all 4 sides … Steps have been taken to avoid movement in the rear of single people and small teams. We tried their "base" to be in possession of … (3)
The brunt of the Central Asian campaigns rests on the shoulders of infantry. "She decided the fate of the battle (evidenced Kouropatkin, (and after winning the same pinned her major works on creation of a new Russian support Fri Infantry built fortifications, barracks and temporary space for warehouses, pursued the road, escorted transports. Conquest of Central Asia, the Russian business priemuschestvenno infantry. Its share fell and major loss in killed and wounded …
Our cavalry, consisting of the Cossacks, was somewhat … That's why when they met with tremendous force our Cossacks retreated back or dismounted and met the enemy with rifle fire and expected revenue … "(4) The Cossacks were also used for reconnaissance and objection to the postal service. Huge help in this case they have provided Kazakh police, serving as guides.
The purpose of military action was the principal occupation of strategic villages Fri, most of which were very fortified. "Approaching accelerated siege works to the moat of the fortress, the assault began, in most cases before the dawn. Squadron, assigned to the assault, secretly going to the elected Fri … with their ladders and a signal … get out of the trenches, pulled the stairs and along with they ran to the wall of the fortress … It took a run to the pit, pull the thick end of the stairs in the pit, rock the ladder and throw the narrow end of the wall. Later it was necessary to go down into the pit, and climbing these stairs, try to take over the site of enemy walls. Some shooters for all that remained was scattered in the counter-scarp to bombard the enemy … Stairs became at once more and our heroes, challenging each other's place, climbed up the stairs at a time when the enemy against their perceived his actions. At the attackers threw stones, logs , the pieces of the wall, poured kipyatochek, pitch, hit with rifle fire, and on top of the wall met batik, spears, swords. battlefield picture is quite takes the viewer to the Middle Ages "(finishing AN Kouropatkin (5).
Vasily Vereshchagin (1842-1904) "Triumph — final version"
And what about guns? (Obviously, the Russian guns were better and stronger than the enemy, especially on the battlefield. But "as long artillery preparation could make a huge dent in the thick walls of the Asian", although knocking down the big part of the fortifications, "very facilitated assault on the stairs." (6 )
The year 1867 was comparable quiet, except for the 2-collision Jizzak detachment of Colonel AK Abramov from Bukhara 7 June and July near the first building Yana-Kurgan, on the road to Samarkand Jizzak. Both sides prepared for a decisive battle. By the spring of 1868 Russian troops in Turkestan numbered 11 battalions, 21 hundred square meters of Orenburg and Ural Cossack troops, a company of sappers and 177 artillery pieces (of about 250 officers and 10.5 thousand soldier, non-commissioned officers and Cossacks. Unchanged army Bukhara Emirate consisted of 12 battalions, 20 to 30 hundred cavalry, and 150 guns (about 15 thousand people. Apart from regular troops in the war was going to countless armed militia of the inhabitants.
First, in April 1868 Seyed Amir Muzaffar appointed "holy war" against the Russian. In the case of fortune he hoped to help the Turkish sultan rulers Kashgariya Kokand, Afghanistan, Khiva and administration British India. But the anti-Russian coalition immediately began to disintegrate. The Central Asian rulers took a wait. A squad of Afghan mercenaries Iskander Ahmed Khan, not received by the deadline of salaries, leave the fortress NURATA and defected to the Russian side.
Russian troops, the size of about 3.5 million people by April 27, concentrated in the Yana-Kurgan. Chief of the detachment was Major General NN Golovachyov, but the overall management of the military action took over the commander of the Turkestan Military District Governor KP Kaufman. April 30 squad came on the road and Samarkand, having spent the night in the tract Tash Kupryuk, May 1, moved to p. Zeravshan. On the way to the river Russian avant-garde was attacked Bukhara cavalry, but the head of the cavalry colonel Nicholas Shtrandman with four hundred square meters of the Cossacks, 4 horse guns and rocket battery was able to push back the enemy on the left is saved.
Vasily Vereshchagin (1842-1904) "Look out for"
Bukharan troops occupied the lucrative position in the high-Chopon ata. All three roads leading to Samarkand, and the crossing of the Zarafshan shelled by enemy artillery. Having built unit in order of battle, Kaufman gave the order to storm the heights. The first band were 6 companies of the 5th and 9th Turkestan battalions of the line with 8 guns. On the right flank acted 5 mouth 3rd line and the 4th Infantry battalions and a company of Afghans, on the left (three companies of the 4th Battalion, and a half-company engineer. The reserve was 4 hundredths of Cossacks on horseback with 4 guns and missile batteries. Convoy formed up the supply train (square of the fortified wagons (IK) under the protection of the mouth 4 of the 6th Battalion, linear, 4 guns and fifty Cossacks. Coming through the chest in the water hoses Zarafshan and later at the knee in the mud marshy rice fields, in the cross-fire of musketry and artillery Russian Bukhara began to climb the heights. Operated in the main infantry, because the artillery and the cavalry did not have time to cross the river. Head was so swift that Sarbazy (soldiers standing army of Bukhara (IK) fled, leaving 21 cannon. Losses of Russian troops accounted for only 2 people. killed and 38 wounded.
The next day was supposed to attack Samarkand, but at dawn to the KP Kaufman were the representatives of the Muslim clergy and the Administration to take the city under his wing and then "King of the citizenship of a snow-white." The Governor General has agreed, and the Russian troops took Samarkand. Muzaffar Said Kaufman sent a letter offering peace on the criteria of the assignment of the Samarkand bekstva, payme
nt of "war costs" and recognition of Russia all acquisitions made in Turkestan in 1865 to answer the letter was not followed …
Meanwhile, all of the town of Samarkand bekstva except Chileka and Urgut, sent delegations to the expression of humility. May 6 Çilek without a fight was occupied by a detachment (6 companies, 2 patches, 2 guns and missile battalion) Major FX Stamp, who destroyed the building and barracks Sarbazy, for the next day returned to Samarkand. Against Urgut that threatened flank of the Russian troops on going to Bukhara, with the same force was focused on 11 May, Colonel AK Abramov. The ruler of the town of Hussein Bey, wanting to gain time, entered into negotiations, but refused to lay down their weapon. May 12 squad Abramov, breaking the stubborn resistance of Bukhara in the rubble and stronghold, with the support of artillery captured Urgut. The enemy fled, leaving behind 300 dead. The losses amounted to 1 Russian people. killed and 23 wounded.
May 16, most of the Russian forces (13.5 mouth, three hundred square meters and 12 guns) under the command of Major General NN Golovacheva moved to Katta-Kurgan and 18 May seamlessly took it. Bukhara retreated to Kermine. The rest of Samarkand 11 companies of infantry, artillery and missile command panels, 2 weave Cossacks were engaged increasing urban stronghold. Precaution was not too much, because in the rear of the Russian troops were activated guerrilla groups of the local population. May 15 is one of those teams, led by former Chilekskim Bey Abdul-Gafar, went to Tash Kupryuku to cut off from the Russian Yana-Kurgan. Sent to a threatened Fri Lt. Col. NN Nazarov, with 2 companies of, hundreds of Cossacks and 2 rocket machines, Abdul Gafar forced to withdraw through Urgut in Sharzizabz (mountainous area 70 km. South of Samarkand. Since May 23 by Shakhrisyabz in the gorge near the villages. Kara-Tobe, began to accumulate a large militia force. May 27 against their AK Abramov made with companies of 8, 3 hundred square meters and 6 guns. Infantry took Kara.Tyube, but the Cossacks were surrounded superior forces shahrisyabtsev. If not care 2 uh-mouth fighter, they would have to tightly …. The next day Abramov was obliged to return to Samarkand. Along the way, he found that there were already around town horse rebel forces …
May 29 in Samarkand received a report from General NN Golovacheva that Zerabulakskih altitude of 10 miles from the Katta-Kurgan appeared camp Bukharan forces of up to 30 thousand people. In Chileka concentrated militias to attack the Yana-Kurgan, where there were only two companies of infantry, two hundred square meters of the Cossacks and two mountain guns. Shahrisyabtsev troops concentrated in the Kara-Tobe for an attack on Samarkand. The plan, developed by the Emir of Bukhara vassal rulers Shakhrisyabz supposed June 1 immediately poruha on Rusko troops from 3 sides and kill.
Vasily Vereshchagin (1842-1904) "Turkestan soldier in winter uniform"
The situation became critical. To reverse the situation, KP Kaufman, leaving a small garrison in Samarkand (520 pers. 6th Turkestan line battalion, 95 engineers, 6 guns and mortars 2), with the main forces on May 30 headed for Katta-Kurgan. The next day, breaking the 65 miles per day, he teamed up with a group of NN Golovacheva. June 2 Russian troops stormed the enemy quickly to Zerabulakskih altitudes. Bukhara army, half diluted militias suffered a complete defeat. Resistance to try to put only Sarbazy, and they were dispersed by artillery fire. "About 4 thousand corpses covering the field contractions (AN Kuropatkin wrote. (All the guns were taken. Standing army of Emir was not there and the way to Bukhara was opened …" (7) Indeed, according to scouts, with Emir, fled to Kermit, there were only about 2 thousand people., including a small convoy. And Minorities Russian troops, having suffered the loss, needed a rest and put in order.
Meanwhile warlike mountaineers Shakhrisyabz, led by their rulers Jura Bey Bey and Baba, took Samarkand and with the support of the rebels besieged the stronghold of urban residents, which hid a small Russian garrison. Oh, so illuminates the subsequent steps in the memories of "70 years of my life," AN Kouropatkin, "June 2, at 4:00 am .., large swarms of mountain people, the inhabitants of Samarkand and plain Zarafshan with the beating of drums, the sound of pipes, with clicks" Ur! Ur "flooded the streets and rushed to storm stronghold. Adjacent to the walls of huts and gardens opened for patrons stronghold heavy rifle fire. One tool and huge falsconet (ancient howitzers — IK) vtaschennye the roofs of mosques in Samarkand, hit the whole interior stronghold, thrashed by the hospital and the yard Khan's palace, where stood our reserve. Friendly conducted once in 7 locations. Especially attacking efforts were focused on mastering with 2 gates and some breaks near this gate. Our not numerous garrison worn out. " (8) The commander stronghold of Major and Lieutenant Colonel Stamp Nazarov mobilized for the defense of non-combatants (clerks, musicians, quartermasters) are also unhealthy and the wounded of the local hospital that can handle guns. First attack was repulsed, and the defenders suffered severe losses (85 pax. Killed and wounded.
Vasily Vereshchagin (1842-1904) "The men at the fortress wall"
Had more than twenty times the advantage in numbers, the rebels continued to attack the fortress of anger, trying to get it over with her intercessors. Provided again the word contemporary events (AN Kuropatkinu: "At night attacks resumed, with the enemy struck the gate. Samarkand managed to put out the gate and arrange them in a recess through which the besieged thrashed by an attacker with buckshot, but Bukhara gate had damage, lining them dam behind which put tool. At 5 am the enemy with enough bolshennymi forces broke into the breach gate of Bukhara, but met with hand grenades and a friendly kick in arms, retreated. At 10 am, a huge enemy force immediately rushed into the stronghold of a 2-sides: from the west at food stores and on the east gate at Samarkand. Inside the bulwark got into a hot battle … Came to the rescue of its general reserve decided in our favor. The enemy was overturned and thrown against the wall with her … At 11 o'clock the day or even the risk of strongest threatened patrons of the gates of Bukhara. Mob of fanatics went on a desperate attack on the obstruction in front of the gates and the wall on both sides. They climbed, clinging steel cats dressed in his arms and legs, sitting down each other. Patrons of the dam, having lost half his staff, were confused … But, fortunately, revenue was close. Nazarov, gathering and encourage defenders stopped retreating, backing them up several dozen feeble (patients and the wounded soldier (IK) and the Cossacks, who formed a personal reserve area, rushed into this critical moment at the head of the bayonet, and overthrew the enemy, carried away success, pursued him through the gate on the streets of the town. At 5:00 pm a general assault was repeated, batt
ed at all Fri second day was worth the brave garrison of 70 people. killed and wounded. During the two day or loss amounted to 25%, the other does not leave the the walls of the two days were very tired … "(9)
Witness the bloody fighting in Samarkand, the eminent Russian painter of battle scenes VV Vereshchagin ordained these events, a series of his own paintings. Over the course of the uprising were closely watched Samarkand rulers of Bukhara and Kokand. In case of success of its first expected to turn in their favor the war with Russia, and the second (to discourage Russian Tashkent.
No hope in mind the small number of its own, to keep the entire perimeter of the walls stronghold, the besieged began to prepare to defend their last refuge (the Khan's palace. Immediately "Major Stempel … once a day at night sent a messenger to the natives-General Kaufman with a report on the languid state of the garrison . Total was sent to 20 people., but reached only one Kaufman. Others were caught and killed or changed. Kaufman messenger brought a laconic note on a tiny piece of paper: "We are surrounded by continuous assaults, huge loss, need help …" report was received on June 6 in the evening and squad came to the rescue immediately. Kaufman decided to walk 70 miles in one jump, stopping only for rest stops … 4, 5, 6 and 7 June times a day for a couple of times repeated attacks at the gate and breaks in the walls. Shooting never stopped, but our garrison, despite the recent fatigue and new significant losses, not only repulsed the enemy, but doing forays into the city and burned it. At night, due to fatigue on both sides, there came seemingly by mutual agreement of comparative calm. June 7 at 11:00 pm garrison stronghold of Samarkand saw with indescribable feelings of joy, vzvivshuyusya in counties on the way to Katta-Kurgan rocket. That came to the rescue heroes Kaufman … "(10)
United Uzbek-Tajik troops, leaving Samarkand, fled to the mountains or scattered nearby village. June 8 in the city once again entered the Russian troops. June 10 arrived in Samarkand representative of the Emir of Bukhara to negotiate. June 23, 1868 was signed a peace treaty in which Russia Bukhara recognized for all its gains since 1865, has committed to pay 500 thousand rubles. contributions and to provide Russian negociant right of free trade in all the towns of the emirate. From captured territories in 1868, was formed Zeravshansky district with 2 divisions: Samarkand and Katta-Kurgan. The head of the neighborhood and the control of military-national administration was appointed AK Abramov, produced by a major general. Leaving his disposal four infantry battalions, five hundred Cossacks, 3 Division artillery and missile battery, the Governor-General KP Kaufman with the rest of the troops moved to Tashkent.
Bukhara emirate was made a vassal of Russia. When the eldest son Sayyid Muzaffar Katta Tyurya, unhappy criteria of the contract in 1868, raised a revolt against his father, came to the rescue of the Emir of the Russian troops. 14 August 1870 squad, AK Abramov stormed Kitab (the capital shahrasyabskih Bolsheviks who wanted to secede from Bukhara. In 1873, under the protectorate of the Russian Federation has got the Khanate of Khiva.
Vassal rulers of Central Asia obediently followed in the wake of the policy of. Well, not hard! After all, the slave population they did not seek independence, but rather for entry into the Russian Empire. Their counterparts in the area of Turkestan live even better: the absence of feudal strife, could take advantage of developments Russian industry, farming, culture, skilled medical help. Construction of roads, especially the railroad Orenburg-Tashkent, contributed to the rapid development of trade, pulled in the Central Asian region into the Russian market.
The existence of a formally independent enclaves in the Russian Empire suit the terrain and the tsarist government. It served as one of the causes of loyalty of the population of Turkestan and allow, if necessary, to resolve difficult foreign policy conflicts. For example, in the 90's. XIX c., Due to the deterioration of relations with England, part of the Pamir mountain khanate, which claimed our homeland, was transferred to the nominal control of the administration of Bukhara (11). After the conclusion in the 1907 Anglo-Russian agreement on the division of spheres of influence this part of the Pamir successfully joined the Russian Empire …
1. Abaza VK The conquest of Turkestan. St. Petersburg., 1902; Terentev MA The history of the conquest of Central Asia. St. Petersburg., 1906.
2. RGVIA. F.165. Op.1. D.1741. L.34.
4. Ibid. L. 34-36.
5. Ibid. L. 37.
6. Ibid. L. 36.
7. Ibid. D.1742. L. 46.
8. Ibid. L. 51-52.
9. Ibid. L. 52-53.
10. Ibid. L. 53-54.
11. Ibid. F.400. Op.1. D.1863, 4287, 4290, 4944, 5000.