Why the name Russ always trying to determine the name of the Aryans or through or via the name of the Slavs, or — even worse, after some awkward rowers with a hypothetical (that is, in reality, not detected) Norse prototype and unknown departure address? Why is it so difficult to admit the obvious: Russ — the ancient name of an independent, carriers who were contemporaries of the Aryans and the older "krovniki" Slavs? Why did the ancient name of the carrier not named Russ just old Russian, and called, for example, Iranian or Eastern Slavic, although the name of the previously detected Slavs in the Balkans and in the Danube region, and Iranian "tribes" should, logically, be associated with Iran. I thought about it for a long time. One of the impulses for these reflections was the familiarity with the source, which are presented below and around which build the story.In the journal "Journal of World History" for the December 1900 note was placed on the Georgian parchment manuscript in 1042 with the story of the siege of Constantinople in 626 Russ year. Article was a reprint of an article from the newspaper "Caucasus", the author of which was a large Georgian scientist, educator and social activist, MG Djanashvili (1855-1934), who served as director of the Museum of Church Tiflis. Djanashvili were important developments in the study and description of manuscripts and old books, was the author of many works on the history of the Georgian Church and the history of Georgia, cataloguers, a member of the Tbilisi Museum Committee, and since 1894 — and a corresponding member of the Moscow Archaeological Society.
About the source reported: "In the church museum Georgian Exarchate, as reported by M. Djanashvili into gas. "Caucasus", received 16 manuscripts from Tiflis Sioni Cathedral. Among these manuscripts are particularly important two manuscripts on parchment, rewritten Zachary, Georgian Bishop Alashkert and Kigizmana and another manuscript, which appeared in the light of concerns by the famous Georgian — perelagatelya George in 1042
This manuscript — a huge collection consisting of 322 sheets (beginning and end of the book is lost.) An article entitled "The siege and storming of the great and holy hail of Constantinople by the Scythians, which are the Russian" is placed in the last part of the book (pp. 230-231). In the same article the detailed history of the campaigns of the emperor Heraclius (610-642) in Persia with his ally Dzhibgu (Zabel), king hazartsev.
In 602, the emperor ascended the throne of Byzantium usurper Phocas, soldiers, ignorant, unaware of any laws or military affairs. He soon squandered all the treasury, trampled all the sacred laws of the Kings and committed many crimes, for example., He was killed and beheaded by Emperor Mauritius famous general Narses, the Persian origin.
This was adopted by Mauritius Persian Shah Khosrau II-oh, who learn that Mauritius killed in Chalcedon and his son Theodosius, traveled to Persia, died at Nicaea by hand Fauci, acted to avenge his benefactor: Fok sent a huge army against the enemy, but it was overturned Khosrow, who attack the city and took the fortress Merdin, Daru, Amida, Edessa Gieropol, Halkida, Aleppo and Antioch. At this time in Byzantium revolution broke out, which resulted in the death of Phocas and accession to the throne of Heraclius (in 610)
Meanwhile Khosrow took Antioch, and capturing many Greeks and sent them to Persia, he went to Palestine and took Jerusalem, burned and destroyed the temples of the Holy Sepulchre, and others, beating 90,000 Christians, life-giving cross, and the patriarch sent to Persia. He himself went to Egypt and conquered it, came back, took Chalcedon, and encamped in sight of Constantinople. His army conquered the island of Rhodes. Khosroyev closeness turned the fear on the Byzantines. Emperor Heraclius, as Khosrow threatening from the south and wild tribes "skiov" from the north, was about to leave and move to Constantinople to Carthage. But he changed his mind and made peace with Khosrow, who offered 1,000 talents of gold, silk garments 1000, 1000 horses and 1000 girls.
It seemed that comes the last hour of existence of Constantinople, and the glory of the world is given to emperors desecration barbarians. "However, the Mother of God appeared Blachernae shield St. city ", and things took a different turn.
In 622 Heraclius for a large sum of money persuaded "Scythians, which are Russian," not to disturb the empire, and then went on to avenge Khosrow. At Issa, ie where Alexander the Great defeated Darius, was a fierce battle. Heraclius won a glorious victory, and set back the Persians. Irakli, drove the Persians out of Asia Minor, crossed the Trabzon and summoned men from Georgia and from all areas lying between the Black and Caspian Seas. The Emperor took a lot of cities, freed 50,000 Christian captives Khosrow and burdened prey, returned to the amide and thence sent to Byzantium notice of his glorious victories (in 625).
But Khusrau, who considered himself the ruler of the skies, do not lose heart. He called out of all the provinces of Persia and led a great army out against the enemy. His chief Sarvaron bowed "Russian Khan" to make a general attack on Constantinople. (This is in Mauritius Khan made an attack on the Empire, and once captivated the 12,000 Greeks and demanded that the emperor, so he bought them, giving a soul to the drachma.) This offer is accepted.
Hagan put the soldiers on the boat, which was carved out of solid wood and that their "barbaric" language called "monoksvilo" … Hagan landed them to Constantinople and besieged it by land and sea. His soldiers were powerful and highly skilled. There were so many that one tsargradtsa had 10 Russian. Rams and siege machines acted. Khan demanded surrender, leave the "false" faith in Christ. However, the threat of no effect, and only raised the spirits of the townspeople. The walls of the city there was a terrible dump. Freedom of Constantinople has hung in the balance. Patriarch Sergius khan sent a huge amount of money. The gift was accepted, but freedom was promised only to those who dressed beggar leave town and disappear, where he wants. But again was help Vlaherna Virgin. Heraclius sent from the East 12 000 soldiers, who, being vspomoschestvuemy Mother of Jesus did not allow the city to fall. Hagan besieging the city (in 626) "to the previous Saturday … the day of the Annunciation", made fierce attacks, hitting the wall of rams, but in vain; Blachernae Virgin was unshaken, and the soldiers broke her courage Khan and his warriors. Finally, the Russian lost hope to take the city, sat in his "monoksvilo" and returned home.
Heraclius, who at the time was defended by the Persians on the river. Phasis, was delighted with the departure of Russian. He invited the king of the Persians hazartsev Dzhibgu, promising him to make him his son in law. Emperor and Dzhibgu which had 40,000 soldiers, met in Tiflis. From there they went to the shore of the Tigris and Aras, and won a famous victory at Nineveh. The Emperor moved on, everywhere crushing force of the Persians … Entrance of the Emperor Heraclius in Constantinople was a magnificent … "1
Simultaneous translation of the source made MG Djanashvili, was published in the "Digest of localities and tribes of the Caucasus, published by the Office of Caucasus School District." The publication of this book, which came out from 1881 to 1915., Was one of the outstanding achievements of the Caucasus School District trustee KP Yanovsky (1822-1902). The rooms of the collection published material of interest for history, archeology, linguistics, and ethnography of the Caucasus.
In the introduction to this translation the very MG Djanashvili wrote: "The Siege of Constantinople, Russian (in 626 year) and a trip to Persia Irakli we learned from the Georgian parchment manuscript belonging to the Church Museum of Tiflis (№ 471). Manuscript (in quarto, 322 sheet, the beginning and the end lost) came out in 1042, by the care of the famous George Mtatsmindeli (died in 1066). It contains articles: a) The doctrine of Theodore the Studite and his life in the translation of George Mtatsmindeli, b) exploits the martyr Theodore translated by the same author, c) Resolution of the Fathers of the veneration of icons, d) Reading of John Chrysostom, on Easter Day, e) The Siege Constantinople by the Scythians, who are the Russian, f) Hike Emperor Heraclius in Persia and g) The appearance of Mohammed. The entire manuscript rewritten with one hand, handwriting "nuskhuri" … The story of the campaigns of the Scythians and Irakli generally converge with those of the General History of Histories and Georgia and Armenia. All this is described in detail in below our translation. Author of the story, apparently, a spiritual person, wishing to give his story a religious significance, more stops on the miracles and misses some details relating to the campaign in Georgia Irakli and which are set out in detail in the annals of Georgia and in the history of Moses Alvani Kagantkatvatsi. Readers will find these details in our "News" in the XXII edition of Book, Caucasian school district ".2
Thus, information about the opening of a new source Georgian scholar on ancient stories have been published in several newspapers and magazines and thus immediately received wide publicity. And no wonder: for the manuscript for several decades the Tale of Bygone Years! In 1912, MG Djanashvili made more extensive publication of the manuscript and pointed out that in 1900, he published only a part of it, on the list of most ancient Georgian church muzeya.3
I read the manuscript of Tiflis in the "Journal of World History," long ago, when I started to deal with problems of ancient history. And since I came to this perspective of Oriental Studies, I decided that I was unknown history of the study of this manuscript, while inserting it into scientific and other information. Began to investigate and discovered, to his great surprise, that the modern scientific publication of this manuscript has not been implemented, although the fact of its existence was well known to scientists.
Searching for information on the use of this source in the science, I came across a post about it in the work of the historian-immigrant Sergey Forest (1894-1967) "History" Russ "in the form of perverted", where I read: "There is however, a forgotten message, printed in "Byzantine Annals" for 1901, which contains the explicit statement that the war 626, and in the siege of Constantinople participated Russ … By publishing this forgotten post again, we hope that historians in the Caucasus take search and undoubtedly will find this a valuable source … "4 Thus, the message M. Djanashvili of Tiflis manuscript was reprinted in 1901 and even in the "Byzantine Annals."
"Forgotten message", "historians undertake search and undoubtedly will find this a valuable resource" — and this was said in the mid 60's of the last century, they say, at the height of Soviet power, when there was the USSR and work in manuscript repositories of different republics did not represent no complications!
On closer consideration reveals that Tiflis manuscript was not so completely "forgotten." For example, in the famous Soviet Byzantium MV Levchenko (1890-1955), "Essays on the History of Russian-vizatniyskih relations" could be read that there are "Georgian valuable guidance on the participation of the Eastern Slavs in the siege of Constantinople in 626 year" .5
Text published Djanashvili in 1900-1901 gg. Was in the 70's in a French translation published by the Dutch Orientalist M. van Esbrokom.6 In 1988, in his book "Antiquities of the Slavs and Russia," a very interesting, though very brief article Kiev archaeologist and historian JE Borowski "Byzantine, Old Church Slavonic and starogruzinskie sources of campaign Russes in VII. to Constantinople "7 However, the authors relied on the publication MG Djanashvili beginning of XX century., Ie Modern editions of this source has been done.
I received confirmation of this in an interview with the editor of "Vizantinorossiki» (Byzantinorossica) KK Akentevym, when we discussed the publication of my article in early 2008. KK Akentyev was working on the article "The earliest evidence of the emergence of Russia on Byzantine historical stage" and put the data on the Tiflis manuscript in this work. Considering the publication Janashvili Akentyev said: "Unfortunately, the history of this unique monument remains unexplored. The publication in 1912 MG Djanashvili only listed the eight lists, identified three editions, and indicated that in 1900, he published only a "part" of the longer version on the ancient copies of the Georgian church museum № 500 (471), dated colophon 1042 ".8
KK Akentyev given as a supplement text published Djanashvili, accompanied by the following explanation: "The review of sources tales is preliminary because of the absence of the modern critical edition. In anticipation of such challenge is to introduce this unique monument in the source study turnover, since it has been done either by MG Djanashvili nor M. Van Esbrokom that creates fertile ground for speculation about his pseudo-scientific literature ".9
So, a unique source for ancient history, more than one hundred years is known in science and over a hundred years has not been brought to studying: Do not make it a modern scientific translation from Georgian to Russian, it is not carried out historical research. How could this happen? The search for an answer to this question fail us and to answer the question at the beginning of the article: the complexity of determining the place of the name Rus / Rus in modern historiography.
First of all, it should be recalled that such a big event as the siege and storming of Constantinople 626 years, of course, has been described in a number of other sources, primarily — in Byzantine sources. The most complete example of this event is told by one of the direct participants in the events Theodore Sinkellom in a sermon delivered at the first anniversary of the assault — in 627. The sermon was called "the mad attack godless Avars and Persians bogohranimy Castle and their shameful retreat through philanthropy of God and the Virgin."
Detailed account of the event is contained in the Paschal Chronicle, compiled also allegedly witnessed the events that bring the story up to 628 From these sources we learn that in the summer of 626 accidents established along the northern border with Byzantium multi-ethnic power, came into the history as the Avar Khaganate (567-823), attempted attack on Byzantium. For the campaign, they have attracted many people, and a significant role in the army of divers Avar Khan played Slavs. In the description of Theodore Sinkella assault Constantinople August 7 626 looks like this:
"On the sea were filled Slavic monoksily to at one time and in one hour against the city began simultaneously on land and sea war. [Haganah] were able to turn the bay into the land [Golden] Horn, [filling] his monoksilami, carrying a mingled people. He believed that this is a right place to attack the city … and all over the wall and across the sea, heard frantic voices, and battle cries … and in the Gulf of [Golden] Horn [Khan] filled monoksily Slavs and other savage tribes, which he led [ with them]. Bringing the number found there barbaric hoplites to the myriad, he ordered the [fleet] lean on the oars, and with a loud cry to move against the city. [He himself] began to attack, hoping that his soldiers were thrown on the ground wall of the city, and sailors will pave the easy path to the bay. But overall the Virgin Lady of Hope made it futile and empty. So many enemies killed [fell] on each section of the wall and killed as many enemies around the barbarians could not even collect and burnt dead ".10
Under the influence of these sources (or rather, influenced by their interpretation), in science there is a tradition not to take part Russes mention the attack on Constantinople as a reliable historical fact or substitute the name of the Rus to the Slavs. For example, in the corresponding Wikipedia article notes that the siege contemporaries do not mention anywhere ethnonym Russes, but nevertheless the XI century. chroniclers somehow attempt to associate the Slavs, who took part in the siege, with Russian, or at least — with the Eastern Slavs, sailed to the aid of accident with the northern shores of the Black Sea. The beginning of this, the article notes, was laid in a Georgian manuscript 1042 "Siege of Constantinople by the Scythians, who are the Russian". Monk George Mtatsmindeli in the presentation of events followed Sinkellom, telling the free style of his phrases from the sermon. However, it does not distinguish between the tribes, the Avars and Slavs calling Scythians, and the Scythians it is the literary tradition of Byzantine writers X century is referred to the contemporary Russian. Example transfer ethnonym Russian to other people in the period of Emperor Heraclius and to the extent they see the book (XVI century), "When Heraclius the king went to Russia and the Persian king Hozdroya."
KK Akentyev was also convinced that the identification of "Scythians" with "Russ" belonged to George Mtatsmindeli copyist or his autograph and, therefore, dates back to 1042. Apparently, suggests Akentyev, Georgian scribe correlated story Tales of the repeated invasions of the Persians and Scythians in Constantinople in 602-626 years. Messaging and Byzantine chroniclers Synaxarion of attacks Russia to Constantinople in 860 and 941 years. and identified the Scythians with Russia by analogy. Apparently, the analogy is reinforced by the similarity of the combat tactics of both equally moves on "monoksilah" odnodrevkah-speed vessels, the use of which is celebrated by Slavs and Theodore Sinkellom in 626, and Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the middle of X century. More definite conclusion summarizes Akentyev, is impossible without a critical edition of this unique pamyatnika.11 That's it! — No critical edition of the monument can not learn it, and the publication has been delayed for a hundred years.
Thus, according to the above, George Mtatsmindeli different people confused and confusing, the Avars and the Slavs called Scythians. Or, as the article says from Wikipedia, some chroniclers (including Mtatsmindeli) tried to associate with the Russian Slavs. But the chroniclers of these associations is not: they Russes — separately, Slavs — separately. Furthermore, according to K. Akentevu, Georgian scribe for some reason still has confused and attack the Persians and Scythians (of any attacks Scythians VII. Can speak, it is not clear) to Constantinople to the attacks of Russia, separated from the Persian for two hundred years, which is very strange and clearly unconvincing.
But, in my opinion, there is no "confusion" at George Mtatsmindeli not: he definitely speaks of a people known as the double name, that is, the Scythians, whose middle name was the name Russ. Name Russes — a self-people, for the Scythians — ethnonym (ekzoetnonim) of Greek origin, entrenched since ancient times for the peoples who inhabited Eastern Europe. Witnesses (Theodore Sinkell, author of the Paschal Chronicle, etc.) do not call the name of Russ, but they also insist that monoksilah were exclusively Slavs. According to them, were filled monoksily Slavs and other savage tribes.
It is easy to assume that the Tiflis manuscript describes the event of the siege of Constantinople, from the perspective of its relationship with Georgia and the Caucasus, ie with the most interest to the Georgian side of the scribe, and thus complements the Byzantine sources. But for Byzantine writers this side was surely less relevant, because they were more interested in the people immediately adjacent to the borders of Byzantium: the Balkan Slavs and Avars, the late VI century, the greatest threat to the Byzantine Empire from the north. So Mtatsmindeli has underlined the fact that the Emperor Heraclius in 622 more bought off Scythian Russes and the secure itself against the Persians. At the same time the emperor urged soldiers from Georgia and from all areas lying between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, that is, from south eastern Europe, the Byzantine writers usually placed Scythian Russes (why these data should be called "literary tradition" Byzantine writers — too clear: in my opinion, this is clearly a historical tradition).
At the same time, continues the story Mtatsmindeli and Persian ruler Khosrow was to seek an alliance with Khan (according Mtatsmindeli, the "Russian Khan") and achieved success. Hagan has a large fleet of high-speed vessels odnodrevok that could provide an attack on Constantinople by sea. It is important to stress that the Russian Khan, as the ruler of the Scythians-Russes under 622-626 years. from Tiflis manuscript most immediately comparable with the message Bertinskie annals under 839 of the people led by the Rhos Khan. However, it is clear that no thought to link the Scythian Russes and Russian Khan with immigrants from Scandinavia have Mtatsmindeli in 1042 is not detected. So, I have often had occasion to write, gentis Sueonum of the same pointless Bertinskie annals identified with sveyami — ancestors of the Swedes with the Scandinavian Peninsula.
In my opinion, Tiflis manuscript is an extremely interesting source on ancient history, but the recognition of this fact, apparently, prevented the idea normanizma prove skandinavstvo Rus / Rus and associate the origin of the idea of Rus / Rus only Slavs. That is, either the idea of complete identification with the East European Slavs of Russia, settled in the vast eastern Europe during a certain period, the chronology of a poorly coordinated with the Rus-Scythians in 622-626 years. Consequently, Russ-Scythians from Tiflis chronicles do not fit into any of the existing concepts.
However, part of the information referred to in Tiflis manuscripts and related to the name Rus, attracted the attention of scientists in connection with their analysis of other sources. These were, first of all, the title of "Russian Khan" and type vessels "odnodrevok-monoksil." And we look at them, as in the discourse of Haganah and odnodrevkah affected as a microcosm of all the intricacies of the situation with the name Russ.
The article Kiev archaeologist JE Borowski, written in the late 80's. the last century, which analyzes the manuscript Mtatsmindeli, Scythians Russ identified with the Eastern Slavs, for which on this article so far blows reserved judgment. The main argument for Borowski in favor of its assumptions about participation in the siege of Constantinople by immigrants from the Middle Dnieper is the fact that the attackers use this type of vessels, as odnodrevki-monoksily. Bohr said that the same type of vessels has been described in several centuries Constantine Porphyrogenitus in his treatise "On the control of the Empire," in the chapter "On Rus, going from monoksilami from Russia to Constantinople." Go a long tradition of Dnieper to Byzantium, emphasizes Borowski, confirmed by archaeological materials found all over the great water route from Kiev to the Greeks. Byzantine coins VI-VII centuries., Gold and silver this time found in Kiev, Middle Dnieper and in the south — where the trade route from Kiev to Constantinople, as well as routes of military napadeniy.12
Very valuable article Borowski is, in my opinion, is that the author has collected for comparative analysis, all sources were sought where the details mentioned in the manuscript Mtatsmindeli. It turned out that many of these sources! Of particular interest are listed Borowski counterparts story about the attack of the Persians and their allies — Scythian Hagan — to Constantinople in 626, kept many Russian sources XV-XVII vv.13
In addition, Borovsky cited a number of Byzantine sources, which, in his opinion, is informed of the Slavs, who fought at sea hollowed vessels. So, he calls and "Avar war" George Pisidia known Byzantine secular poet and an eyewitness of the events, and the Byzantine historian Theophanes, and the Patriarch Nicephorus, and the story of ancient chronograph (as amended 1512), which is based on a number of Byzantine sources of set tavroskifov, allies Scythian Kagan sailed on ships — wooden boats, and dr.14
The mention of the attack on Constantinople Rus in 626, there is a complement Borovsky, and in some Byzantine manuscript materials, for example, in the Great Church of Constantinople Tipike (church regulations IX-X centuries.) On Patmosskoy manuscript X B.15
But the view from the outside to the sources cited by Borowski, discovers that the scientist joins in his analysis of different peoples. For example, the Byzantine historian Theophanes wrote that the troops with more hollowed boats to cover the entire Golden Horn came from Istrii.16 And for example, another historian, Constantine Manasses, who when writing his chronicle in the XII century. used earlier sources, among the people who took part in the siege of Constantinople, called tavroskifov: "So that none of the evils of human ills are not exceeded at the time, looked at the fate of the Greeks and all the people that live in is surrounded by Tavria. Tavroskifov cruel princes, collecting vessels with an uncountable number of men, the sea covered all the rooks-odnoderevkami ".17 But Borowski believes that if the names of the Greek authors tavroskifov combined with the name of Russ, this means that identical tavroskify also East European Slavs, and therefore does conclude its consideration of all known sources (Byzantine, Old Church Slavonic and starogruzinskih) suggests that the likely participants siege of Constantinople in 626, were the Eastern Slavs (Russ) of the Middle Dnieper, which came under Constantinople by sea on boats, and that odnoderevkah It was the first trip to Russia Konstantinopol.18
The idea that going 626 was the first campaign of Russia to Constantinople, it may be true. But now, thanks to the studies of many scientists, whose work is shown below, it is known that the Rus-tavroskify VII century were not Slavs. So about Russia and the Slavs will lead a conversation on, and help information here about "Russian Haganah", referred to in Mtatsmindeli. As for ships odnodrevok and their place in ancient history, the story is so interesting that he would have to devote a separate article.
On the "Russian Kagan" or rusah with Hakan headed than Tiflis chronicles known, according to other sources. One of them is the famous Bertinskie annals in which a reported 839 Embassy Russes, the ruler who held the title of Hakan (shacanus, chaganus), to Byzantium. For more complete information rusah with Hakan headed contained in the medieval Arab and Persian geographical literature IX-XII centuries.
Normanists worked directly dexterity, linking the title of Khan Bertinskie annals of sveyami (yes there with sveyami directly — with the Swedes!) Scandinavian Peninsula and developing a version of that seat Hakan Russ — it Rurikovo mound in the middle of the IX. A title Hakan had assumed familiarity of its support from the Khazar Khaganate and social order, thus: "title" Kagan "at Bishop Rosov-sveonov and baltoslavyan that took residence in Ladoga, arose as a result of imitation title" Kagan "a ruler of the Khazars desire to compete with him on the importance and / or oppose it … In Povolhove by the end of the VIII century. there protogosudarstvo centered .. Ladoga, whose head, not later 830's. takes the title of "hack" … the first Russian protogosudarstvo led Russ (in the male half — mostly descendants of immigrants from Sweden) and include the words, Chud, and Krivichy Meyrueis (?) experienced a strong impact from the raids of the Norwegian-Danish Vikings, leading to the break dynasty in the male line of the [earlier in this article was a link to the events told in the "saga Halfdan Eysteynssone" — LG]. However, the remnants of the local Russia, closely associated with "all Rus' in the coastal Sweden, it was necessary to negotiate and calling Rurik" .19
Dealing with the problems of the genesis of the institute of ancient princely power showed me that most Normanists there are problems with an understanding of how to function Institute hereditary power in archaic societies, and that means the titles of the rulers. As far as I know, the only AA Normanists of Gorski attempted to link the adoption of the title Khagan in ancient rulers with the tradition of inheritance:
"According to the IDPs, the Khazars were a few tributaries of East communities — glade north radzimichy and vyatichi. Thus, the "Russian Khaganate" appears in the previously subservient Khazars, with his head held the title of equal title of the ruler of the Khazars, and this title was recognized in Byzantium. Adoption of self-proclaimed leader of the title Khagan some Vikings still be allowed (although it would be a fact unprecedented — because none of their leaders in the West did not occur to be called "Emperor"), but the recognition of the Constantinople court, alert to this kind of things … unrealistic. It therefore appears that the first "Hagan Russia" was a relative of the Khazar Kagan, who had escaped from the Khazars The result is there in the early IX. infighting. On Slavic territory of the Middle Dnieper, before which was part of the Khazar sphere of influence and named Russ or similar-sounding term that arose from the "Khanate" designed to compete with the actual Khazars. Soon, the supreme power in this formation is somehow transferred to the Normans, and their leader, inherited the title of Kagan … After just under 839 mentioned in the annals Bertinskie could be and Scandinavians, who had served the "Russian king as" Khazar origin ".20
These arguments of both authors in that it relates to ancient history — a flight of fancy free, but Gorski in its flight, at least, tries to combine fantasy with knowledge of the traditions of inheritance titles of the rulers. However, I must say that and it's understanding of how the inherited title of the supreme ruler, not so much. Therefore, the dramatic tension history fugitive kagan relative, taking with him the title of Kagan, is not well applied to the tradition of succession of power. But I totally agree with Gorsky that a self-proclaimed assignment titles in the early Middle Ages on the head would not pat. And in our time, I think, too, would not have to iron those who illegally appropriated the title or rank.
However, returning again to the Tiflis manuscript should be noted that in normanistskih arguments about "Russian Haganah", it does not appear that Normanists naturally — they are not to touch with tongs to a source that can disturb their ideas about "skandinavstve Russia".
More basic research, which addresses the issue of Russian Kagan represented by VV Sedov and ES Galkina. Prominent Russian archaeologist V. Sedov took ideas largest linguist ON Trubacheva that in the Black Sea, along with the Iranian ethnic element for a long time remained the Indo-Aryan and the component that comes into contact with a part of the Slavs. By the time of the occurrence of this multi-ethnic conglomerate, he said, and include the appearance of the ethnonym "Rus". Like some other Slavic tribal name ("Croatia", "Serbs", "Ants" and others), "Rus" — originally a non-Slavic, but oslavyanenny ethnonym. He goes back, according to the researches Trubacheva as single rooted and extensive geographic range of the North Black Sea lands, the local Aryan basis * ruksa / * ru (s) sa — «light, white", from which it follows that the relict Indo-Aryan or Sarmatian tribes incorporated into the Roman time in Slavic, specifically, antsky etnogenez.21
Sedov identified with the territory of Russian Khaganate Volyntsevo archaeological culture of the late VII-VIII centuries. Extending from the left bank of the Dnieper to the middle basin of the Don. Volyntsevo cultural roots are found in the Middle Volga, where the IV-VII centuries. Imenkov culture existed and where Imenkovs moved in the Dnieper. Among the carriers Imenkovo culture, according to Sedov, also remained islands of the Iranian population, which speaks in favor of a significant number of Iranian hydronyms Volyntsevo in the area of culture. Referring to the information "Bavarian Geographer" and explore this source of AV Nazarenko, Sedov said that he could identify the ethnonym tribal education represented Volyntsevo culture. Of information "Bavarian Geographer" that somewhere near the Khazars (Caziri) lived Russes (Ruzzi). Rusam area remains Volyntsevo culture — Khazar territory Drevlyane. Ruzzi «Bavarian Geographer" — one of the earliest references to the ethnic group of European Russia in historical documents. According to A. Nazarenko, the appearance of this ethnonym in the "Bavarian geographer" evidence of the penetration in Old Slavonic dialects have forms * rus, and it happened within the IX. In Ibn Rust, written at the beginning of X century., But going back to the tradition in the middle of the IX. (To Ibn al-Khordabex and Dzhayhani), reported that the Rus' is the king called Hakan Russes. " Time of adoption of the head of the Rus Kagan title is difficult to determine, believed Sedov, but Russ — Volyntsevo media culture, according to Sedov, formed the basis of the population already Slavic political entity between the rivers Dnieper and Don. Sedov did not use Tiflis manuscript that has its explanation. He believed that the title of Khan-volyntsevtsy Russ took the Khazars, so the "Russian Khan" earlier, Avar period beyond its vnimaniya.22
ES Galkina connects the core with Russian Khaganate Saltov culture along the Don and its carriers — Sarmatian-Alan tribes, which took shape in the womb of the ethnonym and Russia have yet to VI-VII centuries. came to the steppe between the Don and his extensive study Dneprom.23 ES Galkina (new edition of her book, entitled "Russian Khanate. Without the Khazars and the Normans" was published in late 2012 by the publishing house "Algorithm"), dedicated to the reconstruction of the genesis and history of ancient polities, which received the name of science in the Russian Khaganate is a further development of the concept of Before Slavic origin of Russ, originally proposed by AG Kuzmin. According to the views of these authors, ethnic environment, highlighting the ethnic Rus, a conglomeration of Sarmatian-Alan tribes of the Northern Black Sea coast of Crimea and the first centuries BC — Early AD, acting under different names (Roksolana, aorsy). In the II-III centuries. BC These names were supplanted the name "Alan", which and became known as "Russ". Hun invasion changed the ethnic picture of South-Eastern Europe, which is why part Roxolan moved north in the steppe between the Don and the Dnieper, to link with the Slavs Dnieper that archaeologists in the establishment Saltov culture and marked the beginning of the history of Rus Saltov culture. From the headwaters of the Don was out on the Volga-Baltic Way, which came to Russia Alanian Baltiku.24
E.S.Galkina believes that after the defeat of the Sarmatian-Alan combining nomadic Hungarians at the end of IX century, the name "Russia" from the Rus-Iranian Alans (Roxolans) passed to the Slavic population of the Middle Dnieper (clearing northerners). She mentions Tiflis manuscript, and even makes it in passing, in a system of identification evidence with Russ tavroskifami and thesis: Russ-tavroskify — not Slavs, but her research Before Slavic Rus unfolds on a broad background of other sources that are perfectly correlated with the Tiflis rukopisyu.25 So in her work are a number of posts of the Arab-Persian historians IX-XV centuries. where ethnonym ar-rus, indeed, appears in the stories of events that took place in the Caucasus in VI-VIII centuries. Write Arabic Persian scholar and historian, the late tenth century. Al-Sa'alibi in his book "The Best of the Persian kings biographies and news about them," telling about the construction in the first half of VI. Chosroes I Anushirvan Derbent wall of Persians hostile northern people mention Turks, Khazars and Rus. In the second half of the XV century. Caspian historian Zahir al-Din Mar'ashi, based on ancient information, also wrote that the Rus in the VI. lived in the North Caucasus.
Galkina recalls that both AP Novosel in this regard suggested that under Russ here have meant some people of the Iranian language group. Another early mention Russes in the Caucasus on the eastern authors connected with the events 643-644 years., When the Arabs, seizing the Caucasus, rushed to Derbent and concluded an agreement with the governor of the city Shahrbarazom. Not preserved according edition "History of Kings" at-Tabari, the ruler Shahryar Derbent (Shahrbaraz) made peace with the Arab commander, explaining the actual surrender of the city, "I'm between two enemies: some Hazaras and other ruses, which are the enemies of the world, especially the Arabs. " The same source under VII. there is such a localization Russ: "In these mountains (Kavkaz. — EG) on the other side when they pass Virus and Juran (conjecture BA Dorn -" Alan. "- EG), they find state and many cities, which are called Balanjar … ". In the shorter version of Tabari is this message: "The people of these countries, all the infidels of the Khazars, and Russ Alan. They mingled with the Turks and reciprocally connected with them through the wedding. "
In Galkina drives and other Arab and Persian sources rusah in the Caucasus, as a nation, kindred Alans. Rusah the Caucasus, she recalls, was known to the great poet of XII century. Nizami Ganjavi. In "Iskander-name" hero Iskander, a prototype of which is Alexander the Great, fights with Russ, who are neighbors of the Abkhazians. Russ army consisted of the Khazars, Burtases Alan. The researcher points out that Nizami localizes Russ Alan in the country. Russ knows the Caucasus and Ferdowsi. In Persian chronicle "Pismovnik" mentioned George Lasch called the "king of kings of Abkhazia, Shaka, Alan and Roos" All this shows signs Galkina, the localization of some Russes in the North Caucasus near the Alans, and west of them, recalling that in the Rus Nizami — neighbors Abkhazians.
Drawing on a variety of sources, the author concludes that the people called Rus, the IX-XI centuries lived in the Caucasus, because we know a lot of reports of attacks on the town of Derbent Russes and Berdan, as well as their interference in politics Caucasian rulers. Save these facts in the local chronicles of Eastern Transcaucasia — Shirvan and Derbent. The earliest mention in the chronicle rusah "History of Shirvan and Derbent" — in the chapters relating to the Al-Bab (Derbent) at 987 (377 AH). Then the Emir of Derbent Maimon, heavily oppressed Rais, agreed with Russ for help. They arrived on 18 ships. This, of course, would be impossible, to find Russ away from the city, as some historians. Other reports Russ mentioned as a kind of mercenary squad emira.26
Thus, "the Russian Khan» VI-VII centuries. Chronicle of Tiflis, mentioned it in connection with the Avar Khaganate, could at that time be in the Black Sea region. But for more than two hundred years the situation in Eastern Europe has changed. And IX. vehicle title "Khan Russes" as convincingly shows ES Galkina, found much further north, in the area from the left bank of the Dnieper to the middle of the Don and the Volga region. It is worth two points, which are important for future considerations. First — this is what the title of the "Russian Khan" / Khan Rus (Rus-khaqan), presumably existed among rulers in the south of Eastern Europe for several centuries, starting at least from the second half of VI. (From the time of Emperor Mauritius, 582-602 years.), And, in the end, went to the Princes of Kiev (Great Hagan our land, Prince Vladimir, Yaroslav faithful Hagan, etc.) either as a title of honor, or simply as a shaped historical relic. Second — is that the name of the Rus, according to the sources mentioned here, during the first millennium recorded in large parts of Eastern Europe, from the Black Sea and the North Caucasus to the Dnieper and the Volga region as merging with the name of the Slavs, and it seemed at odds.
ES Galkina brought strong evidence that the name of the Rus in the reporting period, it had different people (as well as, indeed, and at other times, and right now), but at that time it was the people that are different from the Slavs, if only because that the most famous earliest of the name Rus is of the time and to the areas where resettlement Eastern Slavs noted archaeologists and linguists later. Therefore, our discussion of the title "Russian Khan" put us on a more global problem — the Eastern European origin Before Slavic Rus / Rus.
This idea, in fact, developed in the Soviet historiography since half a century. In the 60-ies. Archaeologist DT Berezovets proposed to identify Russes Alanian population Don region. Moscow archaeologist DL Thalys has come to the conclusion that Rosov in Crimea, Crimean analyzing such place names as Rossofar (options: Rosofar, Roxofar), terrain Rossoca, Rossa (now Tenderskaya spit), the place name "Rosiya" and place names with the root of "grew up" in the Sea of Azov — Rosso near the mouth of the Don and Casale dei Rossi south of Azov, Rosiya — Bosporus and saw their relationship with the Alans and Don region Priazovya.27
Famous Russian linguist O.N.Trubachev by examining a large number of names with the root of growing up in the Northern Black Sea and the Crimea, recalled that in the lower reaches of the Dnieper, on the eastern coast of the Kerch Strait and in the South-Western Crimea antique and early Byzantine authors mention a lot of names with this root . Next to Tamatarha (Tmutarakan) early millennium II, according to Byzantine sources, was the city Rusia. ON Trubachev, studying Waternames South-Eastern Europe, came to the conclusion that the area between the Seversky Donets and Don (just region Saltovo-Mayaki culture) and Sea of Azov have maximum binding to these hydronyms. This territory linguist called his working model of the Azov-Black Sea Russia. He tied her to the Indo-Aryan origin of the substrate, producing a rus, as mentioned above, from the Indo-Aryan basis ruksa / ru (s) sa — «light, white," because, in his opinion, it is in the coastal area with supposedly Indo-Aryan dialects are the examples "practical" simplify ks> ss.28
Conclusions of the authors, who proposed the concept of Russ Before Slavic origin in eastern Europe, seem to me particularly convincing. I also believe that the origin of Russ connected with Eastern Europe, but I believe that the history of ancient Rus Sarmatian-Alan period and goes into the depth of the history of Indo-European substratum of Eastern Europe. However, we know that any attempt to "enhance" the story of Russ met with hostility by the supporters of a Rhodes-rowers and "all Rus' from the coastal Sweden. All the wealth of the above sources denied them as coincidences, translation errors, misreading sources etc. And the pressure on dissenters was clearly no joke, that's why the work Berezovka, Talisa, Trubacheva to 90s were few attempts.
I drew attention to what words work opens Trubacheva "To the sources of Russia", he published as early as 1993: "Beginning this difficult, and I can assure you the story of hard-won Russia Azov-Black Sea, unwittingly developed into an acutely responsible, and therefore inspires in my embarrassment, was repeatedly postponed and re-elected, and for a number of years is not a new subject for me — about Russia and its title "29 What is it? The great scholar Trubachev almost asks for pardon for what is trying to defend the concept that believes? And this is one of the leading scientists, the Academy of Sciences! Then what do mere mortals?
However, as trying to silence those who are trying to make a hypothesis about the history of the ancient roots of the Rus, not being protected by a high status, I experienced myself. However, regardless of the resistance, the concept of the East-European, but Before Slavic period of ancient history, which began to develop Trubachev, Kuzmin, Sedov, Galkina, took his place in science, and were a big step forward in the development of the initial period of ancient history. Me, these concepts are particularly close, because I, too, according to their modest possibilities, several years developing his own concept of autochthonous pre-Slavonic period of ancient history, which binds to the Indo-European substratum of Eastern Europe.
1. Russ, in a variety referred to the eastern and Byzantine sources, often under the name of Scythians and tavroskifov in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus are considered supporters of the concept as Before Slavic people of the Iranian language group (Novosel), as migrants from the area Imenkov culture where the alleged Iranian islands of the population, and as carriers Volyntsevo culture, in an area which is made up of Iranian-Slavic symbiosis (Sedov) as Sarmatian-Iranian tribes (Galkina, Kuzmin), as representatives of the Indo-Aryan substratum in the Northern Black Sea, Azov-Don and Donets habitat (Trubachev).
2. I recall that on existing ideas, in the briefest and schematic form, media Indo-European language is located in IV-III centuries BC in the south of Eastern Europe, presumably from the lower reaches of the Volga and the Urals to the South, perhaps with adjacent areas of Asian steppes. Taken to identify them as protoindoirantsev. Since the beginning of III century BC this community has entered a process of decay, in which split off from it and the Indo-Aryan branch of the ancient Iranian language, 30 which, in turn, was the beginning of a vast migration of Indo-European family of languages carriers in Asia and Europe.
3. Since this line is ticking a new period in the history of Ancient India and Ancient Iran. I emphasize the "new period" rather than the beginning, for example, the ancient Indian history. Course in the history of ancient India starts in a couple of thousands of years before the arrival of the Aryans (Harappan civilization) and the offering of the name of the river there, "Indus" (Sanskrit Sindhu, gr. Indos), recorded in the Vedas, which they in time came to be called neighbors. Not it interesting: the history of India begins long before there was her name, and no one denies the right of modern Indians consider themselves the heirs of Harappa, which very often happens with regard to ancient history. And it's exactly the right approach, as the story — this is the story of the people and the history of the land that people inherit.
But back to the self-name of the aria. Known problem with the definition of prarodiny.31 In one of the posts I quote an excerpt from the St. Petersburg Khlopin archaeologist who studied the historical migration routes of the ancient Aryans, and proved that one of the centers of the Aryans or promote one of their "ancestral home" was the south-western Turkmenistan / Hyrcania . Khlopin hypothesis was praised nauke.32 To locate this "ancestral" Khlopin use ancient toponymy and analysis, the tradition which dates back to antiquity: coincidence toponym hydronym ethnonym and are a sign of the original settlement of the people in that area. Khlopin demonstrated with reference to a specified region, which is known to converge in the Iranian tradition ethnonym harii (aria), the river Hary (Aryan or Vedic Saraswati) and country Harahvayti — so here Aryans lived here a long time, and their path lay further: the current the Indian subcontinent, where they founded Aryavarta country (country of the Aryans) and the Iranian Plateau, which also founded the Aryan nation — Ariana or Iran.
4. So, the people who called themselves Aryans, celebrated their way to the historic arena, calling his name the country where they settled. According to the self-name of the Aryans called their languages: Indo-Aryan and ancient Iranian. In Eastern Europe, known place names directly associated with the name of the Aryans. But Eastern Europe is full of place names, the name Rus, rooted in Russian / Russian. Coincidence hydronyms (many rivers named Roos / Ros / Rus), name of the country (Russia) and the ethnonym (Rus / Rosov) indicates the original settlement of the people Russes in Eastern Europe.
5. It would seem clear as day. Then why even the most advanced scientific concepts associated with the ancient Rus' islets of the Iranian population "? Iranian population — it is in Iran, on the other side of the Caucasus! And on this side of the Caucasus — Russ — the same ancient Indo-European language support, as well as arias. Is wrong to assume that the family of Indo-European languages in the separation process for new branches in III-II century BC Select one only name — arias. Judging by gidronimike while stood out to him and the name Russ. Arias went to Asia, and Russ were in Eastern Europe. Later descendants of both began to develop and west of Europe. But what is interesting: the descendants of the Aryans — Indo Iranians and ancient — have their own languages: Indo-Aryan and ancient Iranian, and ancient Rus — not because they are the Old Russian language, according to science, only the resettlement of the Slavs, until that spoke … Iran. How did this happen? And why not in ancient, the proximity of which is known to Sanskrit?
6. In recently published a very exciting and in-depth articles prof. Klesov to denote ancient Russian history, using the term the ancient Slavs. As a historian I can not use it because the ancient Slavs — the ancestors of a large group of people, and I will explore the ancient Rus — ancestors of Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian, and some of the smaller nations of Eastern Europe. Every branch of science has its own terminology and methodology. However, with the historical method, I came to the conclusion of a close historical relationship Brahmins of India — direct descendants of Aryans and the Russian — direct descendants of the Rus. Name of the Slavs were born later in the Balkans, and the Middle Danube region Povislene as title of a new community, created by the same people from Eastern Europe: Serbia, Croatia, etc. Dregovichy Therefore genealogy in Rus and Slavs, some of which are newly relocated to Eastern Europe — General and chronology — is different. But the scope of the post is too tight for the affected huge topic, so I put the point yet. Going to continue in the next article, where I will try, to reveal the idea expressed here that Russ and Arias — peers in the Indo-European family of languages.
7. Try with the help of examples and confirm the idea that the history of the ancient language was a period in modern Sanskrit and Avestan language. Now the Old Russian language is hidden behind two screens. First — a "Baltic languages". I recalled in my articles that Baltic languages — speculative term coined in the mid XIX century. for want of something better: a more archaic Indo-European language in Eastern Europe, expressed in toponyms, was there, and the names for it was not, as the ancient Rus and their language were partially expropriated Norman theory, partly — equalized with the name of the Slavs. But such people as the Balts in Eastern Europe was not. The people who lived there since ancient times, called himself Russ. Second — this is a solid idea of the Finno-Ugric in central and northern Europe. I was also able to show that this idea of science inherited from the Swedish historical utopias of Rudbeck and Brenner. And the idea of having a non-scientific background, should be reviewed. Then do not be problems of Russian scientists with the analysis of sources, such Tiflis manuscript.
Ph.D. in History