The historiography of the Mongol-Tatar invasion (or the Mongols, or Tatars and Mongols, and so on, as you like) to Russia has more than 300 years. This invasion has become an accepted fact that since the end of the XVII century, when one of the founders of the Russian Orthodox Church, the German Innocent Giselle wrote the first textbook on the history of Russia — "Summary." In this book the history of his native Russian digging all the subsequent 150 years. But so far none of the historians have taken the liberty to make a "road map" campaign Batu Khan's 1237-1238 winter in the North-Eastern Russia.
That is, go and count how many were tireless Mongolian horses and warriors, what they eat and so on. Interpreter blog because of their limited resources trying to correct this defect.
A little background
At the end of XII century Mongol tribes has a new leader — Temujin, who managed to unite most of them. In 1206, he was proclaimed at the Congress (the analog of the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR) obschemongolskim nick Genghis Khan, who created the notorious "state of the nomads." Without wasting a minute later, the Mongols began to conquest the surrounding areas. By 1223, when the Mongolian army generals and jabs Sabutai encountered on the river Kalka with Russian-Polovtsian army zealous nomads managed to gain territory from Manchuria in the east to Iran, the South Caucasus and modern western Kazakhstan, after defeating and capturing the state Khoresmshah passing of northern China.
In 1227 Genghis Khan died, but his successors continued the conquest. By 1232 the Mongols reached the middle Volga, where waged war with the nomadic Cumans and their allies — the Volga Bulgars (ancestors of the Volga Tatars). In 1235 (according to other sources — in 1236) at the Congress decided on the global campaign against Kipchaks, Bulgars and Russian, as well as further to the West. Lead the campaign had grandson of Genghis Khan — Khan Batu (Batu). Here we must digress. In the years 1236-1237 the Mongols, were leading at that time fighting in the vast spaces of modern Ossetia (against Alan) to modern Volga republics seized Tatarstan (Volga Bulgars) and the fall of 1237 began to campaign against the concentration of Russian principalities.
In general, however, why the nomads from the banks of the Onon Kerulen and conquest took Ryazan and Hungary do not really know. All attempts to justify a forced historians such zeal Mongols look rather pale. Regarding the Western March Mongols (1235-1243 years), they came up with the bike that the attack on the Russian principalities was a measure to secure his flank and destroy their main potential allies enemies — Polovtsian (partially Kipchaks went to Hungary, the primary to become the ancestors of modern mass Kazakhs). However, neither the Ryazan principality or Vladimir-Suzdal, or so-called "Novgorod Republic" were never allies or Kipchaks or Volga Bulgars.
Also, almost all the historians of the Mongols did not really say anything about the principles of the formation of their armies, the principles of management, and so on. It was assumed that the Mongols formed their tumens (field operational units), including to and from the conquered peoples, the soldier for his service pay nothing for any fault they face the death penalty.
Success nomadic scientists tried and true, and syak explain, but every time came out pretty funny. Although, in the end, the level of organization of the army of the Mongols — from exploration to communication would be the envy of most developed armies XX century (although, after the era of wonderful hiking Mongols — only 30 years after the death of Genghis Khan — instantly lost all their skills). For example, it is believed that the head of the Mongolian intelligence commander Subuday maintaining relations with the Pope, the German-Roman emperor, Venice and so on.
And the Mongols, of course, during his military campaigns operate without radio communication, railways, road transport and so on. In Soviet times, historians are interspersed by the time the traditional fantasy of steppe yubermenshah who do not know fatigue, hunger, fear, etc., with the classic ritual on the class-formation approach:
With a common set of the army every ten tents was set for one to three soldiers, depending on the needs and provide them with food. Weapons in peacetime stored in special warehouses. It was owned by the State and issued to soldiers during a campaign speech. On his return from the campaign every soldier was required to surrender their weapons. Soldiers did not receive a salary, but they paid the tax horses or other livestock (one head with a hundred heads). In war, each man had an equal right to enjoy the booty, some of which had to pass Khan. In between the campaigns of the army is sent to public works. One day a week was allocated for service Khan.
The arrangement of the troops was put decimal system. The army was divided into tens, hundreds, thousands and tens of thousands (or Tumen darkness), headed by the foremen, hundred and tysyatskih. Chiefs had separate tents and reserve horses and weapons.
Was the main arm of the cavalry, which was divided into heavy and light. Heavy cavalry battle waged with the main forces of the enemy. Light cavalry carried the guard service and conducted reconnaissance. She was tying fight, frustrating with arrows the enemy ranks. Mongols were excellent archers from his horse. Light cavalry led pursuit of the enemy. The cavalry had a large number of clockwork (spare) horses, which allowed the Mongols to move quickly over long distances. The peculiarity of the Mongol army was a complete lack of wheel train. Only tents Khan and very distinguished persons transported on carts …
Each warrior was blade for sharpening arrows, awl, needle, thread and a sieve for sifting flour or straining muddy water. The rider had a small tent, two tursuka (leather bags), one for water and one for the steep (dried sour cheese). If food supplies ran low, the Mongols allowed the horses blood and drank it. In this way they could be content to 10 days.
In general, the term "Mongol-Tatars" (or the Tatar-Mongols) is very bad. It sounds about as Croatian-Indians or Finno-negros, in terms of its meaning. The fact that Russian and Polish, collide in XV-XVII centuries, with the nomads, called them the same way — the Tatars. Later Russian is often transferred to other nations that had no relation to the nomadic Turks in the Black Sea steppes. His contribution to this mess made and the Europeans, who have long considered Russia (then Muscovy) Tatars (or rather, Tartary), which led to a very bizarre designs.
Anyway, that attacked the Russia and Europe "Tatars" were also Mongols, society has learned only in the early XIX century, when Christian Kruse published "Atlas and tables for viewing the history of all European lands, and from the first of their population to our times. " Then idiotic term happily picked up already and Russian historians.
Special attention is also paid to the issue of the number of invaders. Naturally, no documented data on the number of the army of Mongols come down to us, and the most ancient and enjoying unquestionable credibility with historians source is the historical work of the authors under the direction of the official Iranian state Khulaguids Rashid al-Din's "List of Histories". It is believed that it was written at the beginning of XIV century the Persian language, however, it emerged only in the early XIX century, the first partial edition in French was published in 1836. Up until the mid XX century, this source was generally not fully translated and published.
According to Rashid-ad-Din, to 1227 (the year of the death of Genghis Khan), the total size of the army of the Mongol Empire was 129,000 people. If we believe Plano Carpini, then after 10 years the army was phenomenal nomads 150,000 Mongols proper and another 450,000 people typed in "voluntary-compulsory" order of vassal nations. Pre-revolutionary Russian historians estimated size of the army of Batu, concentrated in autumn 1237 at the boundaries of the Ryazan principality from 300 to 600 thousand people. In this case, it seemed self-evident that every nomad had 2.3 horse.
By the standards of the Middle Ages, like the army look absolutely monstrous and incredible, we have to admit. But blame the pundits in fantazerstvo — too cruel to them. Hardly any of them could ever imagine even a few tens of thousands of mounted warriors from 50-60 thousand horses, not to mention the obvious problems with the management of such a mass of people and providing them with food. As the story — the science is inaccurate, and in general is not a science, the researchers estimate the run fantasy everyone can here. We shall make use of the now classic assessment of the army of Batu in 130-140 thousand people, which suggested that a Soviet scientist VV Kargaly. His assessment (like all the others, completely fabricated, speaking very seriously) in historiography, however, is prevalent. In particular, it is shared by the largest modern Russian historian of the Mongol Empire, RP Hrapachevsky.
From Ryazan to Vladimir
In autumn 1237 the Mongolian troops, provoevavshie all spring and summer in the vast expanses of the North Caucasus, the Lower Don and the Volga to the middle, pulled together to place the total harvest, river Onuza. It is believed that it was a river Cna in modern Tambov region. Probably also some Mongol troops gathered in the upper reaches of the rivers Don and Voronezh. The exact date of presentation of the Mongols against the Ryazan principality not, but we can assume that it has taken place in any case not later than 1 December 1237. That is, the nomads of the steppes with almost half a million herd of horses decided to go hiking is actually winter. It is important for the reconstruction.
River valleys and forest dipole Voronezh, as well as tributaries of the river Pronya Mongolian army, moving one or more columns passes through the wooded watershed Oka and Don. They come embassy Ryazan prince Theodore Yurevich, which proved inconclusive (prince kill), and somewhere in the same region in the Mongols met Ryazan army. In a pitched battle, they destroy it, and then move upstream Prone, plundering and destroying the small town of Ryazan — Izheslavets, Belgorod, Pronsk, burn Mordovian and Russian villages.
Here we have to make a small clarification: we do not have accurate data on the number of people in the then North-Eastern, but if you follow the reconstruction of scholars and (VP Darkevitch, MN Tikhomirov, A. Cuza), then It was not great, and, in addition, it was characterized by low density of settlement. For example, the largest city of Ryazan land — Ryazan, numbered assessment VP Darkevich a maximum of 6-8 thousand people, and about 10-14 thousand people could live in an agricultural area of the city (within a radius of 20-30 kilometers). Other cities have several hundred people, at best, as Moore — to a couple of thousand. On this basis, it is unlikely the total population of the Ryazan principality could exceed 200-250 thousand people.
Certainly, for the conquest of the "protogosudarstva" 120-140 thousand soldiers were more than an excessive number, but we will stick to the classic version.
December 16 Mongols after the march at 350-400 kilometers (that is, the average daily rate of the transition is then up to 18-20 kilometers) out to Ryazan and commence its siege — around the town they build a wooden fence, build kamnemetnye machines with which they are bombardment of the city. Generally, historians recognize that the Mongols reached incredible — by the standards of the time — success in siege is. For example, historian RP Hrapachevsky seriously believes that the Mongols were capable of just a day or bungled in place from the available forest kamnemetnye any machine:
To assemble kamnemetov had everything you need — in the United Mongol army had enough specialists from China and Tangut … and the Russian forests in abundance supplied Mongols wood to build siege weapons.
Finally, on December 21 Ryazan fell after a fierce storm.
We are also no clear evidence of what the climate was in December 1239, but as a way of movement of the Mongols chose ice rivers (no other way to pass along a wooded area was not, the first permanent roads in the North-Eastern been documented only in the XIV century), we can assume that it was a normal winter frosts may snow.
Also important is the question of what to eat Mongolian horse during this campaign. Of the works of historians and modern research steppe horses clear that it was a very unpretentious, small — growth at the withers to 110-120 centimeters, conics. Their main meals — this hay and grass. In their natural habitat they are unpretentious and quite hardy, and winter during tebenevki they can break the snow in the desert and there is last year's grass.
Based on this, together historians believe that due to these properties, the question of subsistence of horses during the winter of 1237-1238 campaign to Russia's not an issue. Yet it is not difficult to see that the conditions in this region (the thickness of the snow cover, the area of the stand, as well as the overall quality of plant communities) differ from, say, Khalkha or Turkestan. In addition, winter tebenevka steppe horse is out of the following: a herd of horses slowly passing day a few hundred meters, moves across the steppe, looking withered grass under the snow. Animals thus save their energy. However, in the campaign against Russia these horses had to pass a day in the cold on 10-20-30 and even more kilometers (see below), carrying luggage or a warrior. Horses ever managed in such circumstances to make up their own energy?
After the capture of Ryazan Mongols began to move towards the fortress of Kolomna, which is a sort of "gateway" in the Vladimir-Suzdal. After going 130 km from Ryazan to Kolomna, according to Rashid-ad-Din, and RP Hrapachevskogo Mongols in the fortress "stuck" to 5 or even 10 January 1238. On the other hand moves to Kolomna Vladimir strong army, which, probably, the Grand Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich fitted out immediately after the news of the fall of Ryazan (Ryazan help he Chernigov prince refused). Mongolians are sending to him an embassy with a proposal to become their vassal, but the negotiations also is thwarted (as Laurentian Chronicle — Prince agrees to pay tribute, but still sends troops under Kolomna).
Believe VV Kargaly and RP Hrapachevsky, battle near Kolomna started no later than 9 January and it lasted the whole 5 days (by Rashid al-Din). Here at once a natural question arises — historians believe that the military forces of the Russian principalities were generally modest and consistent reconstructions of the time, when the army of 1-2 thousand people was standard, and 4-5 and more than a thousand people represented a huge army. It is unlikely that the Grand Duke Vladimir Gromov could collect more (if digression: the total population of the land of Vladimir, according to various estimates, ranged between 400-800 thousand people, but they were scattered over a vast territory and a population of the capital city land — Vladimir, even the most ambitious renovations, no more than 15-25 people). However, the Mongols near Kolomna stuck for a few days, and the heat of the battle shows the death Chingizid Kulkana — son of Genghis Khan.
After the victory at Kolomna, either in three-, or five-day battle Mongols cheerfully move on the ice of the Moscow River in the direction of the future of the Russian capital. A distance of 100 kilometers, they are just 3-4 days (average daily rate of march — 25-30 km): According to RP Hrapachevskogo nomads began the siege of Moscow January 15 (according to Karamzin — 20 January). Sand Mongols Muscovites caught by surprise — they did not even know the outcome of the Battle of Kolomna, and after a five-day siege of Moscow shared the fate of Ryazan: the town was burned and all its inhabitants — exterminated or driven into captivity.
It is worth noting that all historians recognize the fact of the Mongol-Tatar movement without the baggage. Say, unpretentious nomads he was not needed. It is not so obvious is that fact, how is it and what the Mongols moved their kamnemetnye car bombs to them, forges (for repairing weapons, to address loss of arrowheads, etc.), how the prisoners were driven. As for all the archaeological excavations in the North-Eastern was found no dumping "Mongol-Tatars," some historians have even gone to the version that the nomads and their dead were taken back to the steppe (VP Darkevich, B . B. Kargaly). Of course, raise the question of the fate of the wounded or sick in this light not even worth (otherwise historians have thought of that ate them, just kidding) …
However, spending in the vicinity of Moscow about a week and plundering its agricultural kontado Mongols moved already on the ice of the river Klyazma (clicking forest watershed between that river and the Moscow River) to Vladimir. After passing for 7 days over 140 kilometers (average daily rate of march — about 20 kilometers), the nomads February 2, 1238 beginning the siege of the capital of Vladimir land. By the way, this transition Mongol army in 120-140 thousand people "catch" a tiny squad Ryazan boyar Evpati Kolovrat either 700, or 1,700 people, against whom the Mongols — from impotence — kamnemetnye forced to use the car to beat him ( worth considering that the story of the Kolovrat was recorded, according to historians, only in the XV century, so … consider it fully documented complicated.)
Define academic question: what is all the army in 120-140 thousand people with almost 400 thousand horses (and it is not clear whether the convoy?), Moving across the ice of some river Oka, or Moscow? Simple calculations show that, even moving in front of 2 km (in reality, the width of the river is much smaller), such an army in the most ideal conditions (all come with the same speed, keeping a minimum distance) stretches at least 30-40 km. Interestingly, none of the Russian scientists in the last 200 years is not even asked that question, assuming that the giant horse army literally fly through the air.
In general, the first stage of the invasion of Batu Khan in the North-Eastern Russia — from December 1, 1237 to February 2, 1238 conditional Mongolian horse was about 750 kilometers, which gives the average daily rate of movement in the 12 km. But if you throw out the calculations, at least 15 days of standing in the flood plain of Oka (after taking Ryazan on December 21 and the battle near Kolomna), and a week off, and looting of Moscow, the average of the daily rates of the Mongolian cavalry march seriously improve — up to 17 kilometers per day.
Not that it is any record rates of march (the Russian army during the Napoleonic Wars, for example, committed, and 30-40-km daily transitions), the interest here is that all this happened in the dead of winter, and these rates were maintained a long time.
From Vladimir to Kozelsk
Grand Duke Vladimir, Vsevolod learned of the approach of the Mongols, Vladimir left, having gone with a small team in the Volga — there, in the middle of the river Sit windbreaks he broke camp and was expecting reinforcements from his brothers — Yaroslava (father of Alexander Nevsky) and Svetoslav Vsevolodovichi. In the city there are very few men who led the sons of Yuri — Vsevolod and Mstislav. Despite this the city Mongolians were consumed 5 days, firing it from kamnemetov took him only after the assault on February 7. But before that a small group of nomads led by Subuday had burned Suzdal.
After the capture of Vladimir Mongol army is divided into three parts. The first and most important unit, commanded by Batu comes from Vladimir in the north-west through the impenetrable forest watershed Klyazma and Volga. The first march — from Vladimir to Yuriev-Polsky (60-65 kilometers). Further divided army — part goes smoothly in the north-west Pereyaslavl (about 60 miles), after a five-day siege of the city fell, and then go up to the Mongols Ksnyatin (about 100 miles) to Kashin (30 km), then turn to the west and the ice moved to the Volga Tver (from Ksnyatin straight just over 110 kilometers, but go on the Volga, where all turns 250-300 kilometers).
The second part is on the dense forests watershed Volga, Oka and Klyazma of Yuriev-Polsky on Dmitrov (in a straight line about 170 miles), and then after its capture — on the Islamic Portage (130-140 miles), from there to Tver (about 120 kilometers) , after taking Tver — to Torzhok (along with units of the first part) — in a straight line about 60 miles, but, apparently, went down the river, so it will be at least 100 kilometers. Mongolians went to Torzhok is February 21 — 14 days after the departure of Vladimir.
Thus, the first part of a detachment Batu 15 days is a minimum of 500-550 kilometers in dense forests and along the Volga. True, it is necessary to throw away a few days of the siege of cities and get about 10 days of the march. For each of which the nomads through forests to 50-55 miles a day! The second part of his unit goes together at less than 600 kilometers, which gives the average daily rate of march up to 40 kilometers. Given two or three days of the siege of cities — up to 50 kilometers per day.
Under Torzhok — modest city by the then standards, the Mongols are stuck, at least for 12 days and it only took 5 March (VV Kargaly). After the capture of one of Torzhok Mongolian troops advanced toward Novgorod by 150 kilometers, but then turned back.
The second unit of the Mongolian army, commanded by Kadan and Buri came from Vladimir to the east, moving across the ice of the river Klyazma. After going up to 120 kilometers Starodub, the Mongols burned the city, and then "cut" the wooded watershed between the lower and middle Volga Oka, coming to Gorodets (this is about 170-180 miles, if a straight line). Next Mongol troops on the ice reached the Volga Kostoromy (this is about 350-400 miles), some teams even reached Merskogo Galic. Mongols from Kostroma Storm and Kadan went to connect to the third squad under Burundi to the west — to Uglich. Moved, most likely, the nomads on the ice of rivers (in any case, we recall once again so accepted in the national historiography), which makes for about 300-330 kilometers.
In early March, Kadan and Storm were at Uglich, passing for three weeks with little to 1000-1100 km. Average pace of the march was the nomads around 45-50 km, which is close to that of detachment Batu.
The third unit of the Mongols under the command Burundai proved to be the "slow" — after taking Vladimir he spoke to Rostov (170 miles in a straight line), then overcame more than 100 kilometers to Uglich. Part of the forces committed Burundai march to Yaroslavl (70 kilometers) from Uglich. In early March Burunday unmistakably found in the Volga forest camp Vsevolodovich, whom he defeated in the battle of the River Sit on March 4. The transition from Uglich to the City and back — is about 130 kilometers. Together Burundai troops were about 470 miles in 25 days — it gives us a daily average of 19 kilometers of the march.
In general, the conditional average Mongolian horse clocked "the speedometer" from December 1, 1237 to March 4, 1238 (94 days) from 1200 (the minimum score is valid only for a small part of the Mongol army) to 1,800 kilometers. Defined daily shift ranges from 12-13 up to 20 kilometers. In reality, if we throw distance in the floodplain of the Oka River (about 15 days), 5-day assault on Moscow, and seven days of rest after her capture, a five-day siege of Vladimir, and another 6-7 days for the siege of the Russian cities during the second half of February, it turns out that the Mongolian horses for each of the 55 days of their movement is an average of 25-30 kilometers. These are great results for horses, given that all this happened in the cold, in the middle of forests and snow, with the apparent lack of feed (unlikely Mongols could commandeer the peasants much fodder for their horses, the more that steppe horses were not fed grain almost) and hard work.
After the capture of Torzhok bulk of the Mongol army was concentrated on the upper Volga in Tver. Then they moved to the first half of March 1238 wide front to the south in the steppe. The left wing, commanded by Kadan and storms passed through the forest watershed Klyazma and the Volga, then went to the upper reaches of the Moscow River, and from it came down to Oki. A straight line is about 400 kilometers, with the average rate of movement of nomads rapid — about 15-20 days to go for them. So, apparently, in the first half of April, this part of the Mongolian army came to the steppes. Information on how to influence the melting of snow and ice on the rivers on the movement of this order, we do not have (only Ipatiev Chronicle reports that steppe moved very quickly). What this unit is engaged in the following month after the release of the steppe is also no information, we only know that in May Kadan and Storm came to the rescue of Batu, stranded by the time under Kozelsk.
Small Mongolian troops, I guess, VV Kargaly and RP Hrapachevsky, remained on the middle Volga, looting and burning the Russian settlements. As they came out in the spring of 1238 in the desert — not known.
The greater part of the Mongol army, commanded by Batu and Burundi instead of the shortest path to the steppe, which were groups of Kadan and Buri, has chosen a very convoluted route:
On route Batu know more — from Torzhok, he moved along the Volga and Vazuza (tributary of the Volga) to between the rivers Dnieper and from there through Smolensk land to the city of Chernigov Vshchizh lying on the bank of the Desna, writes Hrapachevsky. Made a round on the upper Volga to the west and north-west, the Mongols turned to the south, and across watersheds, and went to the steppes. Probably, some units were in the center, through the Islamic Portage (Forests). Tentatively, the left edge of Batu was during this time of the order of 700-800 km, slightly less than other groups. By April 1, the Mongols reached Serensk and Kozelsk (Kozeleska Chronicles, to be exact) — 3-4 April (according to other information — for 25 March). On average, this gives us another 35-40 kilometers daily march.
Under Kozelsk which could already begin to Zhizdra ice flow and melting snow in its floodplain, Batu stuck almost 2 months (or more precisely, for 7 weeks — 49 days — until May 23-25, maybe later if we start counting from April 3 by Rashid al-Din — 8 weeks). Why it took the Mongols certainly precipitate a tiny, even by Russian standards, medieval, town, is not clear. For example, its neighboring towns Crom, sleep, Mtsensk, Domagosch, Devyagorsk, Dedoslavl, Kursk, the nomads not even touched.
On this subject, historians still argue, any sane argument is omitted. Funniest version offered folk historian "Eurasian-wing" LN Gumilev, assume that the Mongols took revenge grandson Chernigov Prince Mstislav, who ruled in Kozelsk for murder after the Kalka River in 1223. Funny, that the murder was involved as ambassadors of Smolensk Prince Mstislav Old. But Smolensk Mongols did not touch …
Logically, the Batu had to leave quickly in the desert, as the spring thaw and starvation threatened him a total loss, at least, "transport" — that is, horses.
The question of what the horses were fed and the Mongols, precipitating Kozelsk almost two months (with standard kamnemetnyh cars), none of the historians puzzled. Finally, it is banal hard to believe that a town with a population of several hundred people still huge army of the Mongols, the tens of thousands of soldiers, could not take 7 weeks …
As a result, under Kozelsk Mongols lost up to 4,000 people, and only the arrival of the Storm and Kadan units in May 1238 from the steppes of saved the day — the same town was taken and destroyed. Humor, it is worth to say that former President Dmitry Medvedev after the merits of the population to Russia Kozelsk settlement awarded the title of "City of Military Glory." The trouble was the same in the fact that archaeologists for nearly 15 years of searching and could not find definitive evidence of the destroyed Batu Kozelsk. On what passions running high on this in the scientific and bureaucratic public Kozelsk, can be read here.
If we sum estimates in the first and very rough approximation, it appears that from December 1, 1237 to April 3, 1238 (the beginning of the siege Kozelsk) conventional Mongolian horse went from an average of 1,700 to 2,800 kilometers. In terms of 120 days, this gives the average day's march in the range of 15 to 23 with low miles. As known periods when the Mongols moved (siege, etc., and it is about 45 days in total), the scope of their actual average daily march of sprawl from 23 to 38 kilometers a day.
Simply put, it means more than the intense pressure on the horses. The question of how many of them survived after such transitions in a rather harsh climate and the apparent lack of feed, the Russian historians even discussed. As well as the question of the proper Mongolian losses.
For example, RP Hrapachevsky generally believed that for the time of the Western March Mongols in 1235-1242 years of their losses were only about 15% of the original in their numbers, while the historian VB Koshcheev counted up to 50,000 sanitary losses at a campaign in the North-Eastern Russia. However, all these losses — both in humans and horses, brilliant Mongols quickly made up for by … themselves as conquered peoples. Therefore, in the summer of 1238 the army of Batu continued war against the Kipchak steppe, and in Europe in the 1241 general invaded not understand what army — so Thomas Split reports that there was a huge amount … Russian, Kipchaks, Bulgars, etc. people. How many of them were themselves "Mongols", not really clear.