In the XIV century in the South-East European borders has increased the most powerful state, which has linked the freedom of movement of professing Christianity. This state was Turkey (Porte) — a powerful and aggressive young state. Turks closed all the way to Central Asia and India. There was an urgent need to find other ways, free from the threat of them.
Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) — Portuguese prince, repeatedly organized expeditions to the Atlantic Ocean, with the aim to find new land, which could serve as a starting point to India. Thus were discovered and conquered the Azores and Madeira, along the coast of Africa have grown numerous factors Portuguese. Portugal, England, Spain simply swept fever travels and discoveries. Failed to avoid such a fate, and young Italian Christopher Columbus (1451-1506).
Christopher, being the son of a poor weaver born in Genoa, working in his father's workshop, from earliest youth, even from childhood, dreamed of traveling and adventures. Christopher later took part in the campaigns of the Mediterranean and even once was able to visit in Iceland, which was the dream. In 1477, Christopher Columbus arrived in Portugal. This was a turning point in his life. There, in Portugal, he met the daughter of the famous Italian Perestrello, who was the governor of the island of Porto Santo. Columbus married her. I was with the father of Christopher warm friendships. In-law introduced him to modern at the time the principles of navigation and encourage the study of cosmography and geography. After acquaintance with these sciences, Columbus concluded that it is possible to try to get to the Indian Ocean in the west by the Atlantic by using the spherical shape of the earth and escape the traditional and less dangerous way along the coast of Africa.
With such an ambitious and fantastic at the time the project in 1483, Columbus said to the Portuguese King Juan III. But he refused to fund the expedition. This idea seemed quite unreal to him, the risk is too great, and the rewards, which asked Columbus too high. After the refusal, Columbus and his family moved to Spain. He hoped that the idea will meet him there is more favorable, because the Spanish kingdom is not disposed bases around Africa on the way to India. Spain's King Ferdinand and his wife Isabella rejected Christopher, but they considered the company quite fantastic and unreal. Moreover, the financial condition of Spain deteriorated from year to year, and it is not possible to make such a thoughtless spending. King decided that it was necessary to study well and calculate a project of Columbus. But this study has become so long that depressed, but is still eager Columbus decided to go to France and find happiness there.
It was in 1492. Special envoy of King Ferdinand Columbus has caught on Spanish soil. He reported on the positive decision of the royal couple on the plans of Christopher. Thus, from the port Paloe August 3, 1492 sent an expedition of Columbus. Its composition was three caravels, "Santa Maria", "Pinta" and "Nina". First expedition to follow the direction of the already well-known to the Canary Islands, and then set a course due west. After an exhausting and long flight which greatly undermined the team spirit, the expedition discovered in the ocean is very large area that was covered with algae. This place was the first significant discovery, which made the expedition of Columbus. It was called the Sargasso Sea.
Trip was delayed, all around was just a smooth water surface. Crews began to rebel. Columbus was forced to agree to return home, if in the next three days the ship will not reach land.
On the third day, ie October 12, land on the horizon. It was a small island. Columbus named it San Salvador (Guanahani). Were then opened and the other islands, which are called Hispaniola (Haiti) and Juan (now Cuba). Having any idea about India only by inaccurate stories and descriptions, Columbus thought that these islands located off the coast of India. Dark-skinned inhabitants of these islands were called Indians. Christopher Columbus, on behalf of the King of Spain declared the ownership of the islands of Spain, in Hispaniola, he resigned his military post and went back.
In Paloe expedition arrived March 15, 1493. Columbus was greeted as a triumph. The royal couple has provided him homage, and the Spanish aristocrats gave banquets in his honor. And in September 1493, with the full assistance of the state has been sent a new expedition led by Columbus, which left the port of Cadiz. It consisted of 14 caravels and three merchant ships as crew members was 1,200. Opening the way for Puerto Rico and the Lesser Antilles, the flotilla arrived in Hispaniola. Hence Columbus immediately headed west, where he discovered the island of Jamaica and explored the southern coast of Cuba.
Returning to Hispaniola, Columbus saw a very unfavorable situation. The fact is that between the local population and the Spaniards began open bloody war. The Indians did not want to tolerate looting and oppression on the part of the aliens, so they attacked small detachments of Spaniards. Columbus did not know about it, because he cared only about the accumulation of wealth for themselves and their families. In addition, one of his brothers, Diego, Christopher appointed governor of the islands, which were open, the second brother Bartholomew — deputy. Columbus is very concerned to ensure his family high and lucrative posts.
Return of Columbus in 1496 in Cadiz no longer looked so triumphantly. And although the royal court accepted it graciously, as he opened a gold mine in Cuba, but the traveler among the Spaniards were a lot of enemies. It so happens that, because of their plots, as well as information about the war with the Indians and the unhealthy tropical climate, very late start of the third expedition.
She came out of Sanlúcar only in 1498 and consisted of six ships. Their crews were collected from the criminals condemned to the links as to attract volunteers failed. The route passed to the Cape Verde Islands, and from there — to the west.
About two months travelers thirsty, hunger and heat, managed to get to an unknown island, he was named by Columbus as the island of Trinidad. European travelers, set sail from the island of Trinidad, in the history of first landed on the unexplored South American continent. It was near the mouth of the Orinoco River.
On the way, revealing a few small islands, which abounded with pearls, the expedition made a landing in Hispaniola. Things that Columbus found there, just hit him, the island was up in arms. But not Indians revolted. The Spaniards, led by Judge Roldan rose against Bartolomeo Columbus! The cause of the uprising was greed and cruelty Bartolomeo, who oppressed and impose a high exorbitant taxes not only the local natives, exhausted and poverty brought from Europe, major diseases, but also of the Spaniards. His extreme cruelty Bartolomeo alienated even peaceful and patient missionaries. Thus, all the inhabitants of the island were forced to act against him.
Christopher Columbus was able to suppress the rebellion, but Spain still had directed numerous complaints, which focuses on the injustice, violence and war of terror by Colombia. Bobadilla new judge appointed by the king, on arrival at Hispaniola brothers arrested and ordered to send both of them in chains to Spain, and all their property confiscated it.
The king remained gracious to Colombia. Both brothers were released from custody, and Christopher even paid an additional amount as a reward for past achievements, but here's former popularity, he completely lost.
His fourth expedition of Columbus organized in May 1502. This time, she was only four large ships, which were 150 man crew. From the port, is located in Cadiz, the expedition headed, as before, to the island of Hispaniola. But here's the new governor did not allow Colombia to the landings. Stubborn traveler continued quest of India, this enabled him to discover the coast of Central America.
Storms plagued the ships, the local population met traveler extremely hostile, finally, the crews raised a massive riot. Columbus, after a long year's stay in Jamaica, where he lived in abject poverty, have been able, with the support of a few friends to have a governor help in organizing his return to Spain.
Finally, November 7, 1504, Christopher Columbus, having undergone some terrible storms, dropped his anchor in the port town of Sanlucar. Now no one was interested in once so solemnly greeted the traveler. Queen Isabella, his patroness, three weeks after the arrival of Columbus died. In vain he tried to get past honors, wealth, and regain the high title of Viceroy. Replies to his letters he had received, and when Columbus arrived in court in person to the King, that he was offered the Spanish possessions. Columbus refused the gift. He's discouraged. And this, in the end, led to his illness. May 28, 1506, Christopher Columbus died. But even after his death his body was not found peace.
Valladoida from where Columbus died, his remains were moved to Seville, then in Santo Domingo to Havana and then finally in 1899, again in Seville.
The biggest merit of Christopher Columbus was in the fact that he was able to complete the journey, which his contemporaries even talk seriously did not want to, it seemed to them quite weird and crazy. Believing in the sphericity of the Earth, Christopher Columbus knew that going in the other, the opposite direction, different from the one that is accepted, you can get to the very end. Along the way, he made a number of other discoveries: the Greater Antilles, the mouth of the Orinoco River, Central America … But he did not give the report itself that really opened! Captured only one idea to get to India, he, as many believe, almost no interest in his great discoveries from the point of view of science, and sought only to honors and riches. That was his curse.
Many large and small geographic features are named after Columbus. In their chapter, of course, is the South American Republic of Colombia, then the Canadian province — British Columbia and one of the administrative districts of Washington — Columbia. In the United States, in the north-west, the Columbia River, a length of about 3000 km. In America, there are many counties and cities that have the name of Christopher Columbus. On the border between British Columbia and the Canadian provinces of majestic Mount Columbia. The second mountain, which has the same name, located in the U.S. state of Colorado. The most northerly of all the capes of Canada, located on Ellesmere Island, also known as Columbia. In southeast British Columbia stretched several lakes, which are called Colombia. One of the most important ports of Panama, located on the Caribbean Sea, is called Colon, this name corresponds to the Spanish pronunciation of the famous names in the centuries of the great traveler.
Category: Mystery stories