BAM — magical technique used to protect from evil spirits, diseases and other dangers; has both actional and verbal expression, that is, it can be either acts committed with the purpose of misleading the recipient or a lie, communicating with the same purpose.
By South-Slav. tradition widely used based on deception rituals protect newborn in families considered "live" (ie die in infancy) children. To bad luck (death) is not claimed a newborn baby, it tried to deceive, represent the matter as it was not born a child, and the cub or devil (hence the protective "animal" names are Serb. Vuk 'wolf'), that the child was not born and was found (cf. Bulg. "defensive" name found) or bought (ie, this is not the one who should take the death) that the child was not born in this house, and in the other, the other parent.
With the desire to cheat death and secure a possibility of birth of new children associated Yu-Slav. custom forbidding mother who died first child, to participate in the funeral, to go to the cemetery to mourn him, to wear mourning for him, and so on, on the contrary, it is often prescribed to express joy and fun to participate in the festive dances, sing, wear jewelry despite the common requirements in force in the period of mourning (see Vak.PO: 154; Mal.POB: 91). For the same reason, women with children died following childbirth tried to do in a different location, surrounded by other people, by other means than the previous, for example, went to give birth in the shadow of (Russian) or in the house, where all the children were alive and healthy (slovats.) delivery took no midwife, and her husband (bosn.) had to give birth in a copper bowl (c.-Serb., Ant.AP 134) grandmother, taking the child to submit it to the house, standing to door backwards (Russian, Nizhniy Novgorod., Zel.ORAGO 2:751), etc. To deceive evil fate baby food is not the first time mother, and another woman who is not baptized former godfathers, and the new (random encountered), returning home after the baptism of a road, brought the child into the house not through the door, and through the window, and so § Sometimes, to prevent the death of a newborn, the mother pretends child's death, portrayed his grief, he wept aloud (an imitation of death in case of serious illness of the child practiced and east. Slavs).
Effective is not only actional but verbal deception death: When a boy is born in a family where children died, the midwife cried in a loud voice: "Listen, people and nations! Wolf wolf gave birth around the world to know, and the child's health! "(SEZb 1934/50 :35-36). In Serbia. of Metohija was custom in which, when the family after several consecutive girls born awaited boy should spread the rumor that the girl was born again — it was to protect the newborn from death (Rask. 1987/49: 67).
The motif of "someone else's child" ("substitute child") combines several types of protective rituals. Within seven days, instead of the child near the mothers lay zapelenaty paddle dryer. Before the first time put the baby in the cradle, there put any living creature — a chicken, a rooster or a cat, so that they, and not the child, become a possible victim of the evil forces.
To cheat fate, immediately after birth midwife or mother carried him to the road to the crossroads, on the bridge, a church, etc., and there were left waiting in the shelter to any passerby picked up the child, or the finder became godfather declared himself a parent, to sell her child, and the mother becomes a buyer (South-Slav.). According to the custom east. Serbia, this child was given a magical name alive Zivorad, Zivko or alive, Zhivkov; Mosna near the place where the child was lying abandoned and left, put the hammer wrapped in a diaper, "the misfortune to hit it" (Gemba 1958/21: 252). Bulgarians often called the "planted" children found (Marin.NV: 159).
Sometimes, the parents staged the sale of his child in the other, a happy home, "selling" the child neighbors for some flour (bosn., SEZb 1925/32: 385), was invited to the house of a beautiful healthy boy and asked him to "buy" the child his father, the guy took the child and paid in gold or silver coin (bosn., GZM 1907:490). The Serbs, such children are often given a name to sell or sell (Rack. 1994/77-78 :54-55). If the "sale" or simply relying newborn in a happy home was accomplished in secret, then it turned into a theft: baby secretly carried away from home in any home and kept until the family did not know where he is, and do not take him (Bulgaria, SbNU 1900/16-17: 224).
Symbolic buying and selling of children known and east. Slavs. In Russian Vologda Province. "If the previous children from their parents died, then practiced imaginary sale of children, consisting in the fact that parents give a few pennies to the person from whom the children grow strong and sturdy. This man takes the money, buys a candle in the church and put it to the saint whose name is given to the pseudo-bought newborn. In the life of a child and the bidder are called mutually imaginary, godfather, godmother, swear bozhatka "(MEW Ivan.: 111). In Penza Province. served with a loaf of bread, a child of the window to a beggar, and then she went out to the gate and bought a baby at a beggar for two or four pennies (Zel.ORAGO 2:968).
To deceive the demons were calculated from the Serbs are "Abhor" children's names, as Mrtvak ("dead"), the curve ("curve"), Malco ("small"), etc. For the same reason a child up to a certain time (and sometimes life) called not his real name given at baptism, and the other, a false name, and the girl could wear a man's name, and the boy — a woman, a child born in a Christian family, could wear a Muslim name, or vice versa. The motif of deception also underlies the prohibition praise a child, especially a newborn, and prescriptions to scold him, calling him ugly, "reptile", etc. As a kind of deception can be understood and the custom of "kuvady": at birth mothers husband went to bed and portrayed the birth pangs, distracting the evil demons from his wife and child.
Tricking fate-death when the funeral veil removed from the mirror to the mirror first tray of cat and only then allowed to watch people, and when moved to a new house, the first house cat allowed in the hope that the substitution of human rights will protect the animals.
Using deception South Slavs defended twins' odnodnevnikov "and" odnomesyachnikov "from death, impending, according to popular belief, the death of their" double ". Survivor diverted to the cemetery and buried symbolically, prisypaya ground, or he lay in a coffin, crossed his arms and portrayed the dead man, and then got out of the coffin, leaving only its some thing or object that has the same size with him : Merck growth — thread, rod, specially made candle in its growth. Downtown. Bulgaria was lowered into the grave stone of the appropriate weight, saying: "I leave with you a stone, it will be your brother." Sometimes placed in the coffin of the black chick or puppy. When this had been a new "twinning" with a new face, instead of the deceased (BE 1989/2: 20). In Kosovo, in the case of two deaths in the same house for a year, which, according to legend, the third threatened with death, cheating death is the fact that the second funeral, the coffin was placed in a rag doll as a substitute third corpse (Vuk.SK: 312).
Cheating diseases (diseases of demons) are widely used in medical magic: to trick the fever and her off her path, the patient left the house backwards, hiding in the bath, stables, barn, or out of the house and then came back, stepping into their same tracks; went to the neighbors to sleep many nights (South-Slav.) secretly left the house, leaving a fever message: "not at home, come yesterday" (the same words are protected from evil forces, for example, houses) or "this person is not home "(in Russian with sea animals hung out a message that the village has no cows or sheep or horses) pretended sick, depicting ague to real illness passed, posing as dead: daubed with soot, dirt and climbed into pit, where he lay motionless and did not respond to "calls" fever until she got tired of it and it did not leave him alone (vyatsk.) out of the house and covered with a trough: fever, thinking that he lies in his coffin passed (sibir.) lay in a specially dug pit, and then it is pulled through the split rod rose, and then the rod buried in a hole in the belief that they bury disease (Bulgaria), etc.
In relations with the evil spirit admitted cheating powerful tool: the conspiracy of demons lured into otherworldly place of rich promise of treats and delights all kinds; flattering appeals tried to divert attention from themselves and to send away; portrayed miserable, wretched, unclean, foul, etc. to frighten hostile force and protect themselves. In bylichkah of walking dead men popular story about the deceased husband molested his widow: a woman sits on the doorstep, combing her hair and dress, come deceased asked where she was going, and my wife says that is a wedding — the brother and sister to marry the mother or son and so on (see VSES: 189). In order to protect the bride from demons, which are particularly susceptible to deterioration, at a wedding where the bride come, first output "false" bride (horv., Gemba 1927/2: 23).
All Slavs known folk tune deception death. In Polesie bylichku talk about how one person wanting to cheat death, made a rotating bed: when death come and stand in the legs, he turned the bed, and death turned out in their heads. But eventually people realized that death is inevitable, "you might say not cool, but requires umerti."
Verbal deception (wrong message) was one of the ways of distillate Gradova clouds. In app. Serbia, with the appearance of clouds of women from one end of the village, with a mountain screaming women living on another mountain, and asked what day of the week this year was St. George's Day. Answer had to be wrong, should have called one of the preceding days, then a cloud provided deceived and turned in the opposite direction.
Significantly less likely to use deception in producing magic. For example, the Serbs during the dyeing yarn thought it useful to talk some fiction, a lie, then the matter could better (SEZb 1934/50: 16), cf. Serb. expression nemoj yes IU farbash 'Do not deceive me' letters. "I do not need to paint." All Slavs believed that lie favors breeding poultry. Putting birds on eggs trying to secretly from outsiders. To protect the hen and her offspring, recommended "to deceive someone, preferably a priest" (Slavic 1994/5: 63). Also preferred to put on hen eggs from hens of others to be bartered with neighbors, or steal, beg, resorting to any lie. Widely known as superstition by which fraud has a positive impact on the casting bells: when you start casting, spread false rumors to the sonorous bell got (in Ukrainian. EZ 1898/5: 192; Rus., Green. Orago 3:1012; floor., ZWAK 1879/3: 127).
However, people's ethics lies and deception are clearly negative opinion, and are regarded as a sin. By Z. and white. belief, "hto on getom svetsi false, then on svetsi hodzits language vysalapiўshy» (Fed. LB 1:223). By Polesie. Believe me, if "unfair" bride hides his "sin" and come to the bowl (instead of having to work around it, or jump), it faces a big trouble: bread substituted by this dezhe, will not work out, seven years the earth will not give birth ( "bride pritopchet his bread"), the cattle will die, "the children will not live" in the family will not fret, etc.
In fairy tales, legends, bylichkah fraud — one of the most popular motifs, with O. ingenious heroes reach their goals, avoid hazards, and defeat enemies and rivals. In glory. paremiology and phraseology theme of truth and lies devoted many proverbs, clichéd expressions and formulas. Vocabulary of lies and deceit finds connection with mythological motifs, cf. rus. vernacular notation obmikulit. obegorit, podkuzmit, obvolhvit, etc. (see, in particular: Usp.FR :139-140).
Slavic antiquity. Ethnolinguistic Dictionary, ed. N.I.Tolstogo.
T. 3. Moscow, 2004, p. 457-460.
Lit.: Heavy SM magic and miracle of deception in popular culture / / Logical Analysis of Language. Truth, and the truth of the culture and language. M., 1995:109-115; aka. "Ako se detsa not drzhe": magical ways to protect babies from death / / CSC 2002/7 :55-87; Usacheva VV ritual deception in medicine / / LS 1996/1 :29-30.