Classical, that is recognized by modern science version of "Mongol invasion of Russia", "Mongol yoke" and "liberation from the tyranny of the Horde" is quite unknown, but it is useful to again refresh her memory. So …
At the beginning of the XIII century in the Mongolian steppe bold and energetic fucking tribal leader named Genghis Khan amassed a huge army of nomads, welded iron discipline, and set out to conquer the world, "to the last of the sea."
Having won the nearest neighbors, and then capturing the China, the mighty Mongol-Tatar hordes rolled westward. After about five thousand kilometers, the Mongols destroyed the state of Khorezm, then Georgia, in 1223, reached the southern outskirts of Russia, where he defeated the army of the Russian princes in the Battle of the Kalka River. In winter 1237 the Mongol-Tatars invaded Russia already with all his innumerable army, burned and destroyed many Russian cities, and in 1241, pursuant to the covenants of Genghis Khan tried to conquer Western Europe — invaded Poland, the Czech Republic, in the south-west reached coast of the Adriatic Sea, but turned back because they were afraid to leave in your rear ruined, but still dangerous for them to Russia. And it began the Tatar-Mongol yoke. Huge Mongol Empire, stretching from Beijing to the Volga, ominous shadow loomed over Russia. Mongol khans Russian princes were given labels to rule, many times attacked Rus, to plunder and rob, repeatedly killed at the Golden Horde, the Russian princes. It is necessary to clarify that the Mongols were many Christians, but because some Russian princes tied with Horde lords pretty close, friendly relationship, becoming even their sister. With the Mongol princes held other teams to "table" (ie, on the throne), resolved their purely domestic problems and even a tribute to the Golden Horde were collected in the home. Getting stronger with time, Russia began to show their teeth. In 1380, Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow defeated the Tartar Khan Mamai his Tatars, and a century later, in the so-called "standing on the Ugra," agreed the troops of Grand Prince Ivan III and the Tartar Khan Ahmad. Opponents long camped on opposite sides of the Ugra river, then Ahmad Khan, realizing at last that the Russian has become stronger and has a good chance to lose the battle, gave the order to retreat, and led his hordes to the Volga. These events and are considered "the end of the Mongol-Tatar yoke."
Today has accumulated a lot of information indicating that the so-called "Mongol yoke" is a fallacy today historians as the Tatar-Mongols had not come from the nomadic peoples of Asia, and Russian. Mongoloids Mongols were considered only in the 17th century probably by deliberate falsification historians Peter I. Evidence that the Tatar-Mongols — Russian, as follows.
Sources of the "yoke"
The term "Mongol yoke" but does not appear in Russian chronicles. All so-called "destruction and suffering," the Russian people from the Mongols, are described in the next record (Heart of strong damask. Collection of Russian Chronicles and monuments of literature.)
Oh, bright light and beautifully decorated with the Russian land! Much beauty glorified you: a lot of fame lakes, rivers and other sources of locally, mountains, steep hills, tall oak, clean fields, marvelous beasts, various birds, countless great city, nice villages, gardens, monasteries, temples of God, and the princes of the terrible, nobles and honest lords many. All you filled, and the Russian land, the Orthodox Christian faith!
From here to the Ugric and to the Poles, to the Czechs, the Czechs to Yatvingians from Yatvingians to Lithuanians, to the Germans, the Germans to Karelians from Karelia to Ustyug, home filthy toymichi and for Breathing sea from the sea to Bulgaria, the Bulgarians to Burtases from Burtases to Cheremisses from Cheremisses to mordtsy — all with bozheyu was conquered Christian people, these countries are filthy Grand Prince Vsevolod obeyed his father Yuri, Prince of Kiev, Vladimir Monomakh of his grandfather, who Cumans their small children frightened. And Lithuanians from the swamp to its light does not appear, and the Hungarians fortified stone walls, iron gates of their cities, to their great Vladimir is not conquered, and the Germans were happy that they are far away — the blue sea. Burtases Cheremysi, vyada and Mordvinians bortnichali the Grand Duke Vladimir. And the Emperor Tsar grad Manuel fear great gifts sent him to the Grand Duke Vladimir Constantinople had not picked up.
And in those days — the great Yaroslav, and to Vladimir, and until this Yaroslav, and to his brother George, Duke of Vladimir, misfortune struck the Christians and the Holy Virgin Monastery of the Caves lit trash.
This text is called the "Word of the destruction of the Russian Land" and is not a fragment surviving works of the Mongol invasion. But the text was too poor, and it did not discern any foreign invasion.
Part of this document destroyed (perhaps later Romanowski historians create falsification). However, this does not say that, and in the continuation of the document deals with the capture of Russia Mongols. And the word "pagan" may be referred to as peasants, pagans, and just the neighboring peoples.
Are there any doubt that the people who attacked the Rus was just Mongols-Asians. For example, there are doubts Mongoloid appearance chapter nomad Genghis Khan set out on a fairly "historically young" portrait that is being kept in Taiwan. Ancient sources depict Genghis high, long-bearded, with a "lynx" zelenozheltymi eyes. Persian historian Rashidad-Din (a contemporary of "Mongol" wars) reported that children in the family of Genghis Khan "were produced mostly with gray eyes and blond." G.E.Grumm Grzhimailo mentions "Mongol" the legend that the ancestor Genghis Boduanchar knee in the ninth — a blond and blue-eyed! And the same Rashid al-Din writes further that the self is the generic name Borjigin assigned Boduanchara descendants, just means Grey-Eyed!
By the way, just look drawn and Baty — blond, light-bearded, blue-eyed … The author of this all his life lived not too far away from the places where supposedly "created his innumerable army of Genghis Khan." By the way, in any language of the Mongolian group no name "Bat" or "Batu". But the "Bat" there in the Bashkir and "Basta", as already mentioned — in the Polovtsian. So that the name Chingizova son was definitely not from Mongolia.
Interestingly, the writing of his glorious ancestor Genghis Khan, his people in the "real" modern Mongolia? The answer is disappointing: in the XIII century Mongolian alphabet did not exist. Everything chronicles the Mongols were not written before the XVII century. And, therefore, any mention of the fact that Genghis Khan was indeed came from Mongolia, will be no more than three hundred years later, written retelling of ancient legends … which, I think, liked the "real" Mongolia — certainly very pleased to suddenly find that your ancestors, it turns out, once passed by fire and sword until the Adriatic …
Mysterious in the fact that no contemporary of the events can not find the Mongols. They simply do not — haired, raskosoglazyh people, those anthropologists and referred to as "Mongoloids." Managed to trace only two tracks, certainly came from Central Asia Mongoloid tribes — and Dzhalai Barlasov. That's just they do not come to Russia in the army of Chingiz, and in the Seven Rivers (near present-day Kazakhstan). Out in the second half of the XIII century dzhalairy migrated to this area of Khujand and Barlas — River Valley Kashkadarya. From Semirechie they came to a certain extent in the sense otyurechennymi language. At the new site, so they were already Türkicized that in the XIV century., At least in the second half, as their mother tongue Turkish language "(from Labor BD Grekov and A. Jakubowski," Russia and the Gold Horde "(1950). As there was no assimilation Mongoloids the Russian people, which was to appear in 300 years!
Since 80-ies of the XVI century, begins purposeful and unstoppable movement of the Russian east of the Urals — "walking meeting between the sun." It would be logical to assume that in this way thousands of kilometers of Cossack explorers stumble at least some traces of the great empire of the Mongol khans, stretching from the east coast of China to the borders of Poland …
The slightest trace of the empire is not! Somewhere vanished city had disappeared magnificent "Yamskaya path" of a thousand miles by which allegedly flew to the Karakoram runners from Russia. Not the slightest trace of material at least something resembling the state. Moreover, local people for some reason do not know, does not remember the great capital of Karakorum, once flourished in the Mongolian steppe, or of the great emperor, whose authority extended over half of the world supposedly. On the Manchus, the ruling in Northern China, remember and know well — is a concrete, familiar evil foe, still suiting raids. But with Genghis Khan Batu no reason can not remember … What is interesting, anywhere from the Urals to Lake Baikal Cossacks did not meet even the similarity of the state or city! Only "Kuchumova kingdom" in what is now the Tyumen region resembles the embryo state, and its capital Isker, small fortification, with the greatest stretch of the imagination can go out of town.
Curiously, all the ancient miniatures Tatar-Mongols are indicated with Russian appearance. At lower miniatures "Standing on the Ugra" and "Taking Kozelsk" appearance attackers not Mongoloid.
Interestingly, the Western miniature "Death of Genghis Khan" falling out of the saddle Khan depicted wearing a helmet, it is reminiscent of the helmet Boleslav, — then these were in Poland, and in Russia and throughout Europe. By the way, almost all the old Russian miniatures depict the "Tatars", which in appearance and armament downright impossible to distinguish from the Russian guards.
Let's leave aside the question of the composition — not because Duke killed Tatar and Tatar duke image should be somewhat different. Look to the foot trodden down of the noble duke, "Tatar." Quite Russian face, Russian coat, Russian bushy beard, a Russian hat, which subsequently were archers. In the hands of the "Tartar" — not a curve and narrow Central Asian sword and weapon called "Elmanov" at the time, Russian takeover of the Turks. Swords of this type, changing, long operated by the Russian cavalry, even in Paul's day 1. In addition, a similar weapon was used by the Germans and Italians (cleaver like "falchion", manufactured in Brescia in the XVI century.).
How much was the Tatars?
Pre-revolutionary historians have argued that the nomads were half a million, but — such an army would hardly be able to feed their horses, overcoming such distances. Whatever the endurance horse, but they would often die of starvation. For every nomad had 2.3 horse, plus baggage. No grass would not have enough to feed the rear ranks of horsemen — the front had to starve all the fields like locusts. Apparently, the version number of the nomads was compiled by historians, who had no idea of the nomadic life.
Modern historians argue that the Tatar-Mongol was 30,000. But this is not enough — as many of the nomads would not have been able to win a number of countries. Too little is to win almost all of Eurasia.
Moreover, history has been known to have forced nomads unite in the army, pull the other end of the world and can easily take a lot of countries. Typically nomadic peoples who have no territorial binding keep in small groups, occasionally attacking neighbors. It is doubtful that Genghis Khan was able to unite the wild nomadic people and get them to conquer the world — which meant that they had to abandon the nomadic life. It is very strange motifs appeared at nomads — to leave their families, and for some reason to go away they are unlikely to win the necessary land.
Surprises and that the Tatar-Mongols perfectly adapted to the war conditions they fought in the winter, and in thickets, to which, it would seem, does not have a nomadic life. Besides, they were not that "savage" peoples — they used siege weapons, battering rams, and by some accounts even "Greek" fire! Some sources describe them as different navigators (supposedly Mongolian Navy in the XIII century. Fired ancient Japanese court something like missiles). And if we consider their ability to measure, iron discipline … More like a well-armed European state. By the way, many of the early images of the Mongols are portrayed in mail
Symbiosis of Russian and Tatar
For some reason in the Mongols constantly fighting Russian and especially Christians. For example, in the Battle of the Kalka River (where by the way the word "Mongol" is never mentioned in the chronicles) Russian princes to keep the defense from the Tatars surrendered when a Ploskinya (name obviously Russian), released from the "Mongol" kissed the cross, the princes offered to surrender, promising that they save lives. In the barn there were Great Christian churches, and at the "rate of Khan" was an Orthodox bishop.
There are a number of chronicles of the time of Prince polovskom Basten, adopted Christianity, which sheds light on the nation "Tatar-Mongol." There is speculation that Bast (Batu) — the nickname of Vsevolod the Big Nest and, later, Alexander Nevsky — it was too similar to their targets unification of the Russian principalities.
As the official history teaches us, Vsevolod Big Nest first attempt to combine the Russian lands around his principality, ie VladimiroSuzdalskogo. He mastered Vladimir and went to the grand table, went hiking on the Volga Bulgars and Mordovians, to Ryazan, conquered Kiev, Chernigov and Galich. What makes the "Batu Khan" a quarter of a century after the death of Vsevolod? Imagine going hiking on the Volga Bulgars and Mordovians, subordinates Ryazan, Kiev, Chernigov and Galich, Vladimir possession, and then … the label conveys the great reign of Vsevolod grandson Alexander Nevsky.
With the arrival of the Mongols, Russia somehow has strengthened. Former Mongols to confusion and struggle for power, the princes settled — there was order. Chosen prince, who ruled Rus, who received the label to reign in the Horde.
In 1242 when Alexander Nevsky was easily repulsed Teutonic Order, which indicated that Russian troops excellent condition ..
Too much and often wrote about how the Russian princes and "Mongol khans" became sister, cousins, and zyatyami tests like walking in joint military campaigns.
Russian side of the Mongols in its ranks
In Poland, on the side of the Mongols was Kiev tysyatsky Demetrius, to which point directly to the Russian chronicles. After the capture of the city Vladimir Mongols left there the reign of Prince Yaroslav, who gave the cities around your brothers — it is strange that he was given such power nomads.
Not only Russian combatants fought for the Mongols. And the Tatar-Mongols fought often on the Russian side.
Alyn — "Horde Mirza." Mentioned in chronicles as marcher Prince Andrew Prince Dmitry Gorodetsky on Pereyaslav. Ektyak — "Prince of Kazan." In 1396, in command of the troops Suzdal prince Simeon in the attack on the last Murom separatists. Kavgady — "Horde official" involved in the campaign to Pereyaslav Gorodets Prince (1281). Persuades Prince Michael of Tver yield great reigning Prince of Moscow Yuri Danilovich (1317), Commander of the Moscow part of the attack on the ratification of Tver. Present at the court of the Russian princes of Mikhail of Tver. Mengat — "Governor Batyev." In 1239 trying to persuade the prince of Kiev Michael surrender the city without a fight — and after his assassination kievljanami after leaving the city. Nevryuya — "Tatar prince." Commander of the troops of Alexander Nevsky, Prince sent against his brother Andrew, who was trying to unleash another strife. In the 1296/1297 years., According to Nikon, Simeon and Laurentian Chronicle, Congress holds the prince.
There were strange and with tax collectors. For some reason the tribute collectors appeared only 19 years after the "conquest" of the Tatars of Russia. Collectors often pelted Russian, but the Mongols, for some reason very calmly to this attitude — apparently, the collectors were also Russian. Rather, the so-called Baskakov — ordinary tax collectors of the state.
Another interesting fact is that on the one hand, Russia seems to be a "vassal" Golden Horde. On the other — suddenly attacked Russian Volga Bulgaria, ie part of the Golden Horde, and forced the city to bring there the homage! Rather, it seems that Russia and the Horde were one state.
Kings called Horde khans or Hagan. Often referred to as the Russian princes and to the arrival of Christianity. "And faith in all languages, and to stretch out our language russkago praise Kaganov OUR Volodymyr, from him the baptized byhom" — so styled Prince Vladimir, Metropolitan Hilarion. LNGumilev wrote: "HANAMI were the rulers of the Avars, Bulgarians, Hungarians and even Russes: the title were St. Vladimir, Yaroslav the Wise, and, finally, his grandson — Oleg Svyatoslavich"
A number of undeservedly forgotten historians of the 17th century (eg, Lyzlova AI in his "Skifiyskaya history") generally indicates that the Tatars — a European nation, kindred Slavs. And Genghis Khan — the only founder Zavolzhskaya Horde (whose borders stretched from the Sea of Azov and the Caspian, not Asia). No mention of the campaigns of the Mongols in China, Georgia, and Asia in general. Described only trips to India, Persia or rather (for some reason India was on this information in the Euphrates, probably due to the fact that the word meant that the Indus and beyond — from the outside, and India were understood by neighboring countries).
By the way, the historians of the time do not mention the Chronicle of Nestor, which only confirms the rumors that this record — the falsification, and is the work of disinformation historian Peter Miller, who encroached on many historical works of the time. And Tatishchev tried to prove that his fellow historians have "classic version" of the Tatar-Mongols are wrong, but the findings have been called "heresy."
Curiously, the book Lyzlova have places that allow a high degree of confidence to say that the Great Tartary, she Zavolzhskaya Horde, was known a long time ago … China! And Athanasius Nikitin clearly shared Chin (China) ** and China: "And from the Ranks to go by land to China six months, and the sea, four days."
Another NA Frost in the 6th volume of his work, "Christ" and took meticulous inspection "ancient" Chinese astronomical chronicles, supposedly who took back to 2650 BC and found interesting things. The Chinese have proved to have no documents, previously written XVI century AD. Moreover, they have no description of astronomical instruments, and in China he found traces of ancient observatories. First Chinese Comet lists published by Europeans in the XVIII-XIX centuries, these lists are clear signs of re-writing of each other, and, as pointed out by Morozov, supplementing them by Europeans, that is, the European scientists replenished Chinese sources of the European materials, "fitting the task under the answer" . For example, "emperors-Le Zhao Di, Wen-Di and Da-Di," supposedly ruled in one year — in fact, clear-Ardent King, Literary King and the Great King. And the name of Wu means … "war czar." That's more like a long list of titles per person.
The parallels between the Roman Empire and China sometimes surprising.
Home III. AD: Roman Empire ceased to exist in internecine wars. It is time the "Soldiers of Emperors." In those years in China … in internecine wars killed the Han Empire, "came to power illiterate, morally corrupt soldiers."
The Roman Empire: in the middle of the III. BC power in Rome goes to the cousin of Emperor Caracalla Julia Mesa, whose board called a "bloody". After all, she is killed. In those years in China … to power a wife of one of the emperors, "the energetic and fierce." Government, the right and left spilling blood. After all, she is killed.
Start the IV. AD: The Roman Empire divided into East and West. In those same years, China Jin empire is divided into two parts — East and West.
The Roman Empire is at war with the Huns. China in the same period — from the Huns
V c. AD: the Western Roman Empire conquered by the Germans and the Huns. Chinese Western Liang … Hun conquered. And in Rome, and in China on the throne at that time, "very young emperor."
That's what happened in China since 1722, "Manchu rulers formed a special committee to draw up a previous history of the Ming Dynasty … The opposition was unable to accept this interpretation of the history of the fallen dynasty, therefore there were" private "History of the Ming Dynasty …
Rulers responded executions, imprisonments, links … Government Objectionable books confiscated. Between the years 1774 and 1782 seizures were made 34 times. Since 1772 the collection was undertaken of all printed books ever published in China. Collection lasted 20 years, to parse and process the collected data were attracted 360 people. After a few years of 3457 titles have been released in a new edition, and the remaining 6766 were described in the catalog. In fact, it was a grandiose operation to seize books and no less grandiose operation to falsify texts. In published new editions were removed all the unwanted places, I even book titles. " ("History of the World" in 10 volumes, prepared by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.)
And in the 60's and 70's of last century in the northern area of China traveled Archimandrite PI Kafarov, head of the Russian Orthodox Mission in Beijing. Keenly interested in the history and legends of China's Great Wall, he carefully, looking for it for a long time … and do not find! Wall of China in its current form was created by Mao Tse-tung, before that there were several earth dams.
So the Mongols and did not take "China." More precisely, perhaps, taken, but no one, not empire Chin and China "Golden Horde."
Karakum city — the capital of the empire of Genghis Khan "classical" theory of the Mongol-Tatar Empire puts it somewhere in the Mongolian steppe. The word of the Karakum — Turkic and translation can mean "north of Crimea." Here are travel notes monk Guillaume Rubruka, member of the embassy to "the Great Khan of the Mongols", sent by the French king Saint Louis (1253). In the Karakoram he goes … through the Black Sea and the Don steppes Tauris. Returns — through Derbent and Armenia. Perfectly normal direction if Karakoram located somewhere on the Volga and the North Crimea. If the Karakoram in the Mongolian steppe — so expensive it would not get.
The invasion of Europe
In March 1241 "Tatars", coming to Europe, to Poland in two large groups, captured Sandomierz, Wroclaw and Krakow, where committed the robbery, murder and destruction. Once under Opole Silesian troops were defeated, both wings united and Tatars moved to the town of Legnica, where the ninth day of April they blocked the road with ten thousandth army of Henry II the Pious, Duke of Silesia, Malopolska and Wielkopolska. Ensued a battle in which the Poles suffered a crushing defeat. The Mongols conquered some strange fumes may Greek fire.
"And when the saw the Tartar, ran a banner — and the banner was the kind of« X », and on the top of his head was shaking with a long beard, filthy and stinking smoke from the mouth to start up on the Poles — all were amazed and horrified *, and who ran off where he could, and so were defeated "- from Lyzlova.
After the victory in Poland, "Tatar" horse turns to the south, is the Czech Republic, Hungary, Croatia and Dalmatia. Until the end of 1242., Regardless of the loss, "Tatars" break through to the Adriatic Sea, and in the end, come to its shores. They go to the Czech Republic with almost no fighting, not particularly long delayed in Hungary. "Tatar" cavalry rushes to the Adriatic.
Neither Poland nor the Czech Republic or Hungary, or in Croatia or Dalmatia — the "Tatars" do not attempt to subjugate the country somehow. They did not impose tribute, do not care to put his administration, no one is lead to the homage. Conquest there was not a hint — we are purely military campaign whose actions somehow coincided with the actions of Frederick II Hohenstaufen Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Sicily (in the kingdom of Sicily and then entered Southern Italy). Somehow, the "wild" Mongols soyuznichat with Frederick II in his war against the Pope Gregory X. Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary — all three countries, defeated and devastated "Tatars" — the conflict between the Pope and Frederick were staunch supporters of the Pope.
In Europe at the time was widely popular belief that Frederick II … secretly communicate with the "Tatars" and tried to use them to destroy the papal power! After the return of Russian home to Russia in 1242. Crusaders attacked, and also moved against Frederick "crusading army," which stormed the capital city of Aachen to crown the emperor there.
By the way, the medieval Western Europe … somehow been convinced of the existence of the vast kingdom in the east of a Christian ruler of "Prester John", whose descendants in Europe and were considered khans "Mongol Empire"!
This belief was held very firmly — for more than two centuries, has been preserved in the XV century! Many European chroniclers "somehow" Prester John identified with Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan, by the way, "for some reason" and called "King David."
"Someone Philip, Prior Provincial of the Dominican Order of the Holy Land — writes a contemporary historian, — wishful thinking, wrote to Rome that Christianity dominates everywhere in the Mongolian East." Why — "wishful thinking"? And the situation was. "Mongolian East" was Russ, quite a Christian country. "The conviction is maintained for a long time and has become an integral part of the geographical theory of the late Middle Ages."
Interestingly, "Prester John" kept particularly warm and trusting relationship with Frederick II Hohenstaufen! Thus, it was the only European monarchs, who did not feel the slightest alarm at the news of the invasion of the "Tatars" to Europe. The only one who corresponded with "Tatars" — Frederick II, as shown by our reconstruction, conducted in conjunction with military operations against the pope.
But an abbot Odo from the monastery of Saint-Remi in Reims (1118-1151) wrote to his friend Earl Thomas that was in Rome, where it remained the patriarch of the kingdom of Prester John.
Conclusions: There are too many coincidences, rather, mutually supporting each other's evidence. In conjunction with the thesis that there are no Mongols from Central Asia to Russia, never appearing, and "Horde" was nothing more than the Russian army, the information about the "kingdom of Prester John," is just the finishing touch is the picture. Otherwise, do not explain why Europe is more than two hundred years, no doubt about the reality of "John's kingdom." It can be assumed that in Western Europe, XIII-XV centuries. knew little about what was happening in the distant lands like India, Indochina, Indonesia.
"Tatar-Mongols" were Russian and a number of people living in the Western Black Sea, the Caucasus. State of Genghis Khan is located between the Sea of Azov and the Caspian Sea, and in fact is the successor of the Khazars. Tatar-Mongols — the European nations with the European appearance (with few exceptions). No yoke was not — just established the procedure in Russia after the civil wars for power between the principalities. Tatar-Mongol "invasion" occurred only in cases of separatism any principalities. A Baskaks were just ordinary civil servants.
The capital of the Tatar state Karakum located, apparently somewhere near the Black Sea and Crimea.
In most of the Mongol troops were Russian. For comparison, the troops of Batu (Kumans Bastyya) was 600 000 ("150 000 Tatars, 450, 000 other infidels and Christians")
Russia and the Horde were essentially one state with shared goals. Batu policy coincided with the policy of Vsevolod the Big Nest and Alexander Nevsky, maybe this is the Batu Vsevolod (later attributed to him by Alexander). On the territory of the Horde were Christian churches may have been distributed, and Judaism, the remainder of the Khazars.
The territory of Kievan Rus often called Moscow Tataria, the territory of the former Khazar Khaganate — Freestyle Tataria, from the way and went to the horsemen, the Cossacks, and on which were based on speculation nomadic tribes (the "Mongol" for example Vatamanu called leaders!). Of Asia is often called the Great Tataria sometimes Siberian Tatars of the territory — China Tatars that will be indicated on the bottom card. There are numerous ancient maps that show that the Tartars called Russian. They are listed as a territory of Russia Tartary (Tartary). A word of Mongolia is likely derived from the word Moguls (marked on maps). Perhaps, therefore, in the territory of Russia as the land of the Bible from the Magog.
On old maps indicates not many Mongols, and Tartarus-flip, often Moscow Tartary (Kievan Rus) designated separately.
Tatar-Mongols soyuznichat with Frederick II in his borre against the Pope. Under Peter I were working under the direction of German historians Miller, who seems to have decided to erase evidence of the terrible state of Rus-Orda (Tatarstan) and assign them to the wild exploits of nomadic peoples. At the same time, created (or distorted) Chronicle of Nestor, destroyed other sources. At various times, it was resented such historians as Tatishchev Lomonosov. Even recent works were copied Miller.
But misleading, despite the obvious evidence are still in our heads.