March 29, 1911 after a long trial in comparison with other systems in the U.S. Armed Forces was adopted by 11.43-mm self-loading pistol of "Colt" as a personal tool of the officers of infantry, cavalry and artillery. He received the official designation of US Auto Pistol cal.45 or M1911 Government Model («Government Model", often referred to as the Colt Government). In the first troops arrived in January pistols, 1912.
Clearly, the system did not appear immediately M1911. At its base lay one of the schemes of self-loading pistols, proposed by John Moses Browning Company "Colts Patent Fayrarmz Menyufekchuring Company" in 1896. More precisely — with automatic circuit-based returns with a small trunk of his way, locking and unlocking of the barrel, respectively, due to lifting and lowering the barrel of the gun relative to the frame and slide. Since 1897, the first system was protected by several patents.
The company "Colt" almost immediately offered a new tool of the U.S. Army. According to tests a number of alternately successive models — from M1900 to M1909 — Pistol scheme being finalized. Changed and caliber — 9 mm (.38) to 11.43 mm (.45). .45 Caliber pistol cartridge created in the municipal arsenal in Frankfort. Browning significantly reworked the basic scheme of gun — the gun was rising and declining M1909 is not the whole barrel, but only the breech (the so-called scheme of "Colt-Browning"). Changed parts of the firing mechanism, the shape of the handle, etc. The result was a system and M1911. Delineate its superfluous — the device pistol perfectly understandable.
Ordered 100 thousand, were half
In 1911, news items about the adoption of a gun in the U.S. "Colt" caliber 11.43 mm interested in Russian Defense Ministry. Automatic guns are nothing new for the Russian army. What's more — its officers by their own means were allowed to get zabugornye standards of this type of small guns. Among them were three models, "Browning", although the production of the Belgian "Fabrique Nationale» (FN). In addition, in Russia officially experienced a number of German, Austrian, Belgian, Danish, Italian and British guns.
Against this background, understandable enthusiasm and oversea newcomer to the gun. General Directorate of the General Staff (GUGSH) allocated to the Main Artillery Administration (GAC) of the American newspaper article Arms and the Man of the test pistols, "Colt" and "Savage." Division of the armory of the Artillery Committee SAU 27 September 1911 proposed a "purchase through our North American military agent in the United States, two copies of such guns with 1,000 rounds of ammunition to be tested."
Appropriate permission was granted, but the incident was released because of assumptions in the proclamation of the term "gun" for all types of personal weapons. GAC requested the purchase of "automatic Colt revolvers," but in a ratio of 24 October 1911 the word "automatic" was missed. And in May, 1912 Artkom was acquired Russian military agent (the post is now called the Military Attache) in the United States, Colonel Baron Bode "old Colt revolvers … is of no interest "(refers to the 11.43-mm revolver" Colt "1909). I had to send the request anew in the United States, and pistols SAU received only in November.
Reacted to order and Belgian FN, hastened to offer their model of the same scheme, but the caliber of 9.65 mm (.38). In 1910, the "Colt" and FN shared markets its own products and so the sale of Browning pistols in Europe, including the Russian Empire, was the prerogative of the Belgians. They, having put in a huge amount of Russian "Browning", of course, did not want to share with someone such tasty morsel. All the more so that in the Russian army at that time shaped by the idea of mass substitutions revolver pistols.
Establish its fabrication automatic pistols Russian industry at that time could not — she just can not afford it to withstand the required precision manufacturing. Had to rely on zabugornye model. Followed by further testing, including pistols, "Colt" and the FN. Head of rifle landfill NM Filatov Artkom presented in a report on the results of tests of a Colt automatic pistol caliber 11.5 and 9.65 mm, in which 50 guns suggested ordering of the system for military trials. In general, the main contenders were then 9-mm pistol "Parabellum", "Mauser" in 1911 and "Browning" 1903.
This work, like several others, broke the global war. But she called and a new enthusiasm for the automatic pistols and eventually led to the M1911 Russia.
And there began an active search for suppliers of self-loading pistols, because combat experience has shown that guns with their comparable store frisky change are at the front of the suitability of revolvers — because of the "meshkotnosti" reload officers, going on the attack on the enemy trenches, from time to time take two pistol. On the caliber pistols purchased attention is not directed — if only with weapons supplied enough ammunition.
In January 1916, at the request of the Russian ally, the British government is in America an order for 100,000 pistols — issuing orders to the United States to Russia via the United Kingdom has become a common practice of the time. And as a representative of the Cabinet of His Majesty George V in the procurement of weapons in the U.S. acted "Morgan and Company", then an order for "Colt" arranged through a bank Morgan.
The company "Colt" began shipping in time. Already in May-June 1916, she passed the 6,000 guns to be sent to Russia. The Russian military agent in London, General Germonius telegraphed October 19, 1916 the first in Petrograd: «Colt Arms Co increasing its productivity and February 1917 could take up to 2,500 guns a week."
According to the South American data, from February 19, 1916 to January 18, 1917 the company "Colt" sent to the Russian Empire 47 100 pistols (in other words, less than half order). M1911, raised in Russia, had serial numbers C80000 and C23000 by Cyrillic inscription "British order." The letter "C" indicates the commercial purpose of the model. Although the order for the M1911 "Colt" was one of the most decent, delivered them was less than the Spanish, "Browning" (booked through France) or C-96 "Mauser" (bought in England and the land of the rising sun).
Since most of the guns were supplied without a holster, the latest production in Jan
uary 1917, laid on the Technical Committee of the Head Quartermaster management. Note that in most documents of the war as a self-loading pistols and revolvers were called earlier.
It turned out that the Russian army evaluate the pros M1911 "Colt" even some time ago the Yankees themselves: they recognized him as an effective private tool only in 1918, when U.S. troops had to take part in the fighting in France. In turn, England purchased 18,340 pistols for the Navy and the Royal Air Corps. In addition, during the First World War, "Colts" got Canada, France, Norway, the Philippines, the Netherlands. Overall, in the years 1912-1919 in the United States made 723,275 pieces of the M1911.
Stalin needed protection
After the February Revolution, pistols, and single-piece before leaving the Army, in conjunction with another tool started going to the genuine people. For example, the third school Peterhof warrant filed May 16, 1917 in the GAC statement demanding to issue 5 pistols, "Browning" 1st "Colt" and 3 revolvers, "revolver", and 50 rounds of ammunition for each compensation for officers' in whom these revolvers were selected unorganized fighters during the revolution. "
During the war, civilian clothes, reportedly due to the Entente 14,700 pistols, "Colt" was delivered crisp white armies. Not gone, "Colts" in supplies and after the war, although there are fewer than Belgian "Browning". "Colts" are mentioned, for example, in the midst of arms of Stalin in the 30's and 40's.
In the U.S. in 1926, the M1911 was modernized. Modification of the M1911A1 was produced until 1970 and remained in service until 1985, in a number of continued service and later. Record time work.
When, during the Russian war majestically raised the issue of increasing the supply of a reddish army personnel weapons — pistols and revolvers, their order abroad were not discussed. In any case, in the middle of the orders submitted by Russian representatives in the negotiations under the Lend-Lease Act and included in the Capital protocol (October 1941), there are no guns. Yet M1911A1 "Colt", as the South American sub-machine guns, "Thompson" in the Soviet Union did. They were, namely, a set of lend-lease tanks and armored vehicles. A total of about 13,000 pistols, and even though huge numbers. In addition, the Wehrmacht used the Norwegian "Colts" M/1914 under the designation P.640 (n), so that they could get in the middle of the Red Army captured trophies.
The new "Walter"
In Russia, the beginning of the XXI century, the situation with the creation of small tools and skills they supply power structures is quite different. There is (or rather — as yet available) and modern industry and highly skilled designers and production. Yet the tradition of using models zabugornyh reborn. In any case the decision of the Government of the Russian Federation of 14 July 2006 on the arms of the Interior adopted a number of models of small guns zabugornogo production. Among them, the Austrian guns "Glock", Czech CZ-75D «Compact» «Cheshka Zbroevka" German USP «Heckler und Koch" and P99 "Walter" — also in the versions "Compact". Everything under cartridge type 9×19.
Against the background of apparently detained by Russian work on the new military pistols and the organization of their large-scale production addition Russian products zabugornom looks reasonable standards in technical terms. It is more difficult with the monetary side — our weapon is just the Russian manufacturer, which means it is better to give than its foreign employees. Although you have to admit selected not the worst foreign models, which were created based on the introduction of the guardians of order, already tested by the world market and have earned great reviews to the same companies that have proven themselves as producers of high-quality personal guns.
P99 "Walter" — the youngest in the middle of these models on the birth of the system. Let's look at this "guest worker".
In 1994, "Karl Walter" began development of the latest generation of police gun chambered for 9×19 «Parabellum." The work conducted under the control of a group of designers Horst Vespa. Focused on the creation of a very compact and lightweight standard with a plastic frame. First combat gun company introduced in 1996 under the designation P99.
In accordance with the trend of making private gun streamlined model virtually no protruding parts, controls are arranged flush with the contours of the gun. Automation based on impact with a small hole is made on the progress of the upgraded scheme "Browning High Power", with the clutch bolt and barrel by the occurrence of a rectangular projection breech bolt into the groove of the window. Such a scheme is now widely used in pistols, excludes a number of manufacturing operations at the factory. The entire structure is made in a modular fashion, allowing to modify the instrument in a relatively wide limits.
Apart from 9×19 P99 pistol is also represented in variants chambered 9×21 and .40 "Smith & Wesson". 9mm P99 is supplied with the store for 16 rounds, and 10-mm version of magazine holds 12 rounds. The magazine release is controlled by two-way lever on the rear of the trigger guard. The sighting device includes a front sight and constant sight with a rectangular slit in the criteria for firing a bad light is equipped with a snow-white dot front sight and sight — a frame around the slot.
Naturally gun here is overgrown with various devices. The American company "Lazer Divaysez", for example, presented to him a set of pointer-illuminator, named "Walter" P99 — "Lazer Website Unit."
Apart from the basic model P99 soon, a number of modifications that differ in size, characteristics of the trigger mechanism, etc. Modification P99 C ("Compact") differs from the first base of the trunk and the size of the gate — the barrel length reduced from 102 to 90 mm, and the total length — from 180 to 168 mm. Shortened and pistol grip — respectively magazine capacity fell from 16 to 10 rounds. As in several other small pistols, shortening the handle is offset shaped plastic plate cover store, giving support fingers, which allows reducing the size of the convenience store guns unloaded hold in the firing position.