About the pantheon of gods of Russian paganism
This diagram shows the historical relationship of the Russian people, including pedigree Varangian Rus.
On the pagan gods in the history of Europe
Beginning of the tour, the best way may be a "history" of the Byzantine chronicler Leo the Deacon, which describes the representation of the people, which is a contemporary of this writer:
"They say that the Scythians (Rus) Greeks revere the sacraments bring the pagan rite of sacrifice, and poured out drink offerings for the dead, having learned that whether at their philosophies and Zamolksisa Anacharsis, or colleagues at Achilles. Indeed Arrian writes in his" Description of the beach " that Achilles was the son of Peleus skiff and came from a town called Mirmikion lying at Meotidskogo lake. Exiled Scythians for their wild, cruel and insolent temper, he later settled in Thessaly. clear evidence [Scythian origin Achilles] are cut his cloak, fastened zip wont fight on foot, blond hair, light blue eyes, a madcap irritability and violence, who are bullied Agamemnon, denouncing it in the following words: the propagation of a single, abuse and murder you only pleasant. Tavroskify (Russian) and now also have a tendency to settle disputes murder and bloodshed. That this nation foolish, brave, warlike and powerful, [that] he makes an attack on all the neighboring tribes, many argue, speaks of this divine and Ezekiel these words: "Here I am with you navozhu Gog and Magog , Prince of Russia. "
In the "History" of Herodotus, is the following:
"Scythians worshiped only the following gods. First of all — Hestia, then Zeus and Gaia (Gaea they considered Zeus's wife), and after them — Apollo and Aphrodite Heaven, Gerakla6 and Ares. These gods recognized by all Scythians, and the so-called Royal Scythians sacrifice even Poseidon. On Scythian language called Tabiti Hestia, Zeus (and, in my opinion, rightly) — Papey, Gaia — Api, Apollo — Goytosir, Aphrodite Sky — Argimpasa, Poseidon — Fagimasad. Scythians not customary to erect idols altars and temples to the gods than Ares. "
Also, in the "History" by Herodotus, should mark the place which the pagan Rus Prince Svyatoslav Brave calls "the middle of my land", without any assumptions, and in fact — with the description and the western part of the "Land of Svyatoslav," given the fact that vocation "Vikings, Russia" took place in the West.
"I fear the Gods Thracians m only three: Ares, Dionysus, and Artemis. Their kings (in contrast to the rest of the people) the most revered gods Hermes and swear by them only. According to them, and they themselves are descended from Hermes."
"These same Thracian tribes during a storm, when a flash of lightning, shot an arrow into the sky and threaten to God, as did not recognize a god, but his [God Salmoksisa (others call him as Gebeleyzisom)]."
From "Notes on the Gallic War" Gaius Julius Caesar, you can find out that:
"Of Gods they (Gauls) most revered Mercury. It has more than all the other gods, images, he is considered the inventor of all the arts, he also recognized ukazyvatelem roads and guide in the travel, I also think that it is very promotes greed of money and trade cases. Following him they worship Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, and Minerva. about these deities they have about the same view as the other nations: Apollo drives disease, Minerva teaches the rudiments of craft and art, Jupiter has sovereignty over the inhabitants of heaven, Mars directs war ".
"Morals Germans are very different from the Gallic customs: they do not worship the Druids for the management, and they are a little overlooked offerings. They believe only in the gods, and they see that they obviously help — namely, the sun, the moon and the Volcano , about the rest of the gods, and they do not know by ear. "
For comparison, the same can apply to the "Slavic chronicle" Gelmolda.
"In addition to groves and idols, which abounded in the fields and villages, the first and principal were Provence, god aldenburgskoy earth, Siwa, the goddess polabon and Redegast, god of the earth bodrichey."
"Among the many Slavic deities is mainly Svyatovit, god of the earth a paradise, because he — the most convincing answers. Beside him the rest as if they worship the demigods."
After that, it remains to complete the proof of the "Tale of Bygone Years" Nestor, which is credible only because of archaeological research:
"And he began to reign, Vladimir in Kiev alone, and put the idol on the hill behind the prisons court: wooden Perun with a silver head and gold mustache and Horsa, Dazhbog and Stribog and Simargl and Mokosh."
And prior to this, the story about a Russian prince Oleg Wise:
"Kings of Leon and Alexander also made peace with Oleg obliged to pay tribute, and swore to each other: they kissed the cross, and Oleg with men of his swearing led by Russian law, and they swore their weapons and Perun, their god, and the hair, the god of cattle and establish peace. And Oleg said: "Sew for Russia sails of canvas, and the Slavs Koprino" — and it was so. And he hung his shield on the gates as a sign of victory, and went to Constantinople. "
About pagan customs in Europe
In view of the high degree of responsibility, in the description of the pagan beliefs of the Russian people, you can not rely on the current research, which is what, for example, the works of Academician BA Rybakov, the integrity of which no doubt, but there is one very weighty remark that the author was not a pagan. Therefore, the basis for the study of paganism, should use the information of the chroniclers, the koi were personally acquainted with the Gentiles, and their views, but did not describe their vision on rumors of pagans and pagan gods, as is common in such chroniclers as Nestor (whose 'Chronicle "deserves special attention, but it is not credible.)
The first thing that is distinct from the Russian in the "History" on the deacon and Herodotus — "Scythians not customary to erect idols, altars and temples to the gods than Ares." Second, it is striking — a completely different hierarchy of the gods, where the supreme god Perun serves thunder, but the supreme god in the king of the Scythians (princes) is Fagimasad (Greek Poseidon), ie analog Horse (horse god). God is the supreme rest of the Scythians, voystvenen pagan matriarchy Tabiti (Greek Hestia).
This implies that the customs, which were of pagan princes Oleg, Igor and Svyatoslav, differ in all respects from those of the future Baptist of Russia, especially given the fact that the introduction of these cults was reform. But what reform?
It makes no sense to list all references to the fact that up to Vladimir the Baptist in Russia already was Perun, on the one hand — due to the fact that it was described orthodox chroniclers, koi never been versed in paganism, and on the other — due to the fact that Perun did take place, but before the arrival of the Vikings Russia. The first mention of Perun found in VII century, during the Lithuanian expansion in the territory of the future Kievan Rus. Lithuanian paganism as it is based on an exact copy of Perun, the only Lithuanian accent in the name Perkunas. Historically same Perunas, meets for the first time in the name of the Hittite god Pirvy, and can only be associated with the Turkic tribes, which broke Khanate was in the VII century. Thus, Perun could appear in the Kievan Rus — thanks to both the Turks (and the Khazars of them), and Lithuanians.
We know that in glory (Novgorod Russia), cults existed Rod and childbirth, which is confirmed by archaeologists. Kind, while the reform of Vladimir the Baptist changed to Perun (which is also confirmed by archaeologists). There were two women in labor, and they stood at the foot of a pagan sanctuary of Roda.
Such a system does not fit the Scythian custom — because of the presence of goddesses (idols are not erected Scythians) on the one hand, and the idea of the sanctuary Roda (analog Fagimasada, the god of the Royal Scythians). Therefore, the replacement of Rod Perun the reform 980 years, is inadequate Scythian paganism (referenced by the chroniclers to the pagan customs of the Russian).
You never know, because we can not exclude the fact that the cult Fagimasada, Tabitha and Api could serve as a prototype not only for Rod and mothers, but also to Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, who, as usual, can be borrowed by the Romans. Indeed, there is evidence that the earliest known stories dew Russes, considered Volos (in the north) and Veles (directly Noriko, a province of the Roman Empire federates), which was the sole and supreme god along with other goddesses.
The next step can be compared with Thracian pantheon Vladimir yazychestvom28. In this case, you can see the god of war, led the pantheon, but again for ordinary Thracians, and we know that the prince was the god Perun. Thracian kings worshiped the god of wealth, or speaking in Russian livestock (cattle — a synonym of wealth) of God, that is, Again, Volos. The attitude to the Thunderer was unequivocal — "Thracian tribes during a storm, when a flash of lightning, shot an arrow into the sky and threaten to God, as did not recognize the other god but their own." An inverse model similar to the Lithuanian Perkunas feud with Vendian Wels. Velez is not included in the pantheon of Vladimir, but the god of the pagan princes and is revered in Russia until the adoption of Christianity.
The same exact story is waiting for us in the study of the Celtic pantheon, made famous in the history of religion, the presence of the Druids, which again comes first analog hair, and God of War, in third place.
German as worshipers can only be compared with the pagans of Thrace, even mark their austere way of life, which deprives them of God's good and makes conservative admirers just that obvious. It is also clear that will not be difficult to mention the names of the god of the sun — and the moon goddess Yarily — Okay, well known Russian paganism.
The last hope is to Slavic pagan Germanic Middle Ages. And as soon as we meet almost Perun, thunder Provence, but only adjusted for the fact that he is a god of justice and war since the days of the Roman Empire was in charge of Radegast (one of the most prominent commanders of German barbarians).
Here, it would be reasonable to assume that the Vikings vowed not militant Perun, a divine judge Provost (whose name has been made available in the history only through the Catholic chroniclers). It was this German state, which mainly among other esteemed Provence, in various medieval documents called Russian. Even the mythical island of Buyan, now Rügen still found in a number of plots and ideas of Russian paganism. Not difficult to find the desired location for the call "Vikings, Rus." Even the relocation of people in the V century BC in the area has been called Slavia, available for history.
The disappearance of a Svyatovit standing over Provence, very easy to explain — the accessories is the "land of paradise", ie Akron on the island of Buyan (Rügen).
History of Russian paganism is in your hand is not the first millennium, while various researchers are looking for it in the wilds of the mythical Slavic, which appeared only in the VII century AD. And how little is needed for happiness newly Gentiles, so grab the pantheon of Vladimir the Baptist, who is not even close parallels with pagan customs of the known world history. The history is actually more answers than questions, only Russian as usual — too lazy to look for the answers, especially when they are offered a ready model failed pagan reform 980 — 988 years.
The answer to the question of the pantheon of Russian paganism, the answer is not the choice of any one of said piece of history, and the set of all European life — all ancient tribes have joined the Russian People.
Category: Mystery stories