Proposal favorites 3 North Caucasian republics to change the official name of their positions once again led to reflect on the role played by the region merging military and religious principles in political life.
Let me remind you that the control of Chechnya, Ramzan Kadyrov, has taken the initiative to abandon the designation highest administrative post in the Federation entity subordinated to it the word "president". Instead of the Chechen parliament intended to organize the position of the Imam of the country. The example of the Czech Republic were ready to follow Ingushetia and Karachay-Cherkessia. The official statement of the grounds of such a move on the outside are fully integrated into the context of strengthening the vertical of power — in a single country, a truly strong state president should be only one person. But the substitution of the name evokes associations, very distant from the plans pacification of the conflict region of.
'll Deal with the definition of
The word "imam" has a purely religious origin and its use in matters of social life testifies to the harsh effects of the confessional factor in the process of adoption and implementation of policy-making in the North Caucasus. Experts in the years noted the growing influence on the situation in the region of moderate clerical circles that are driving together with the federal government to fight religious extremism, in turn reinforce their positions.
As an example, a meeting of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev with leaders of the republics of the North Caucasus and its spiritual favorites, held on 28 August 2009 in Sochi. Most of the invited religious leaders were not so long ago made the Coordinating Center of Muslims of the North Caucasus. At the meeting was an attempt to develop forms of countering the propaganda of militant Islamic fundamentalism in recent years has won many adherents among the population of the Caucasian republics, especially the young part, inexperienced in matters of doctrine of the prophet Muhammad.
The value of public policy in this area has become a combination of restrictive and educational measures to protect young people from exposure to the ideologists of Salafism. Great hopes, for example, are associated with the opening of new Islamic TV channel and higher educational institutions for training clergy. On the other hand, it is anticipated tightening of control over the departure of the Russian people for religious education in zabugornyh countries.
In turn, the meeting tried to extract the greatest political benefits and extend the authority of the highest state authorities of the Russian Federation on the declared their ideological positions. So, not once sounded accusatory outbursts against the policies of Western civilization. Favorite of the Coordinating Center of Muslims of the North Caucasus, the Mufti of Karachay-Cherkessia Berdyyev Ismail expressed his appreciation of the Putin's Munich speech where he "put America on the place." Ramzan Kadyrov has directly accused in inspiring the separatist movement in the North Caucasus, Western intelligence agencies.
Meanwhile, the competent authorities of the Russian Federation has not once betrayed in support of extremism in the region, government and non-governmental organizations from the Arab states, including Turkey. Why did the meeting with Dmitry Medvedev did not hear about this word? Apparently, as many secular and spiritual favorites Caucasus (and to distinguish between those getting harder), regularly showing loyalty to the federal governance, while at the same time perceive themselves as members of the global Islamic Ummah. On partners and allies in the Muslim world, and most likely have been calculated anti-Western attacks, voiced at a meeting with the president of Russia.
Ismail Berdyev on behalf of the Islamic clergy did not fail to act with initiative to address one of the more severe problems in the region by offering your help in reconciling the sides of the Ossetian-Ingush conflict. While this desire did not respond nor Vladikavkaz, nor Nazran, neither the Kremlin. At the same time, the President of the Russian Federation supported the worldview of Kadyrov's undeniable that the need to abandon the official consumption of the term "Islamic extremism". Members of illegal armed groups were asked to name the bandits. It seems that a similar approach could mislead the efforts of those who have to deal with terrorism in the North Caucasus.
It is well known that members of stable criminal groups engaged in criminal fishery, in other words bandits, guided only by cynical reasons, they do not know sacrifice for ideological reasons. Persons whose profession is banditry, strongly eschew political slogans and do not put their own to overthrow the existing municipal system.
But in the Russian term to denote the armed anti-government protests used the term "political gangsterism." It refers to a municipal crime very wide range — from individual acts of terror to the organization of the insurgency. The time frame of the "political gangsterism" were also voluminous, including a Cossack and peasant uprising and the 20s (the so-called small plainclothes War), and Basmachism in Central Asia, and the fight Galicia, Poland and the Baltic nationalists in the 40's and 50's years.
The following consumption of the designated term has almost given up and participants of illegal armed formations during the first Chechen campaign is simply called bandits. Many of them still legalized and work in different legislative and executive authorities, law enforcement agencies.
It seems that the notion of "political thuggery", being free of ideological strata Russian period may need to be reconsidered in the current criteria. However, I think the situation in the North Caucasus was characterized objective of the definition of "armed rebellion" and "rebels."
But this phenomenon continues to exist regardless of how it sounds corresponding to the representation of those in power about the reality. More competent municipal leaders understand this fully: at the same meeting with the President of the Russian Federation head of Ingushetia, Yunus-Bek Yevkurov said that Wahhabism is a major destabilizing force in the country and the region as a whole.
DEEP ROOTS EXTREMISM
To misanthropic ideas of a particular religious sect found practical expression to the presence of many factors: socio-economic, political and socio-cultural. Separatism in the North Caucasus in the 90s was a completely secular phenomenon, but its organizers while appealing to a greater degree to the deeds of "Al Qaeda" or "Muslim Brothers", and to the experience of the Baltic nationalist movements and the Caucasus. But life has shown that the idea of national unity in the value system of the Caucasian peoples are inferior commitment to tribal interests.
At the turn of XX-XXI centuries clash of nationalism and tribalism (the primacy of clan interests over national), usually ended in favor of the latter. This stimulated the rebel leaders appeal for constructive Islam, strongly denies the value of ordinary life in so
ciety and politics. Wahhabism or Salafism leaves no room for the existence of the clan hierarchy, the presence of which, it seems, resigned and official Moscow. Because people from commoners or impoverished tribal communities will continue to be very receptive to the extracted remistskim ideas preached by Islamic fanatics.
Rather weak layer of modern ideas disguises powerful stratum corresponding to the classical culture of values, motivations and behavior patterns. Virtually all North Caucasian ethnic groups is very honored customs of war, as the 1st of livelihoods are promoted at crucial moments in history real or fabulous feats. As a tribute to this tradition can be called and contemporary appeal to the word "imam. " The previous half-century imams rocked back in Caucasus not as peaceful preachers. Here and in the XXI century, preserved or are in the latent phase of obsolete forms of military construction. Their main difference — the commitment to the principle of irregularity and the presence of non-state armed groups — both with legal status, both legal and illegal.
Russian modernization has weakened the classic cultural-economic types that correspond to the republics of the Caucasus, but did not kill the main backbone unit of society — family and kinship or tribal group. It did not work and the replacement of the collective consciousness of the personal, daily life of a person is determined by the will and decisions of the tribal and clan authority. In a patriarchal society preserved a certain clan specialization, when people from one clan usually replenish the armed forces or the police, while the other engaged in agriculture or business. And often armed forces — both government and illegal — are formed by the clan principle and subject to the commander or his own, or local tribal favorites.
The prototype of a role model for the armed groups of the Caucasus are the paramilitary structure of ordinary society, which existed from ancient times. The core of the political system, which had no state in the region have always been referred to as male alliances, cultivating the idea of military brotherhood. Such groups hitherto widely vserasprostraneny all peoples around the world at the pre-industrial stage of development. It is logical that once in the ranks of the regular armed forces, they tend to reproduce themselves normal patterns of behavior.
Observed transition normal male unions, fraternities at the current horizontal communication, including in their composition professor, territorial, sports applications, criminal structures. During exacerbation of the political situation, such groups are the basis for the creation of illegal armed groups. Practice shows that many of them can then be needed and the official authorities to counter extremist groups clanishness.
Caused mass unemployment finale more active part of the male population beyond the original residence to a large extent weakened the control of tribal elders of the behavior of their fellow citizens. During the armed conflict is a transformation of the active part of young people in autonomous force. Clan universities for it are replaced by new groups, ryadya in clothes men's unions or fraternities fighting led to criminal favorites or warlords. Even hitting the ranks of the standing army, pupils of similar structures are the usual method, creating ethnic and national groups terrorizing colleagues, and sometimes commanders.
Because the content and principles of the old men's unions or fraternities, godfather to the status of their claim that today's apologists were lost over time, is now virtually impossible to bring back the tradition of their current operations. As a result, formed a brutal environment ready to act against the real or contrived perpetrators of the plight of the people.
Leader of the Caucasian War
Motives of political leaders of the North Caucasus republics in choosing the name of the post of head of the Federation, are clear. The use of the word "imam", surrounded by a halo of heroic and has a religious origin, was to strengthen the impact of the policy, which will take betrothed so makarom post for citizens belonging to different clans and clans. But should not lose sight of what the imams appeared in the Caucasus in the period when there exist powerful forces of the Russian Federation aggressive and depressing their own co-religionists.
Outlook for the peoples of the Caucasus imam — this is not only a spiritual favorite territorial Muslim community, and the military and religious leader with dictatorial features. Maybe it's because the idea of using this name are not supported in the Republic of Dagestan — specifically where in the first quarter of the XIX century was created Imamate — a theocratic quasi-governments, for 3 x 10-s years of opposing Russian Empire.
Hitherto the North Caucasus supreme conviction of defensive disposition actions of armed groups of mountain peoples against Russian tsarist. But for a long time before the rise of the imperial administration in the Kuban and Terek, even in the XVI-XVII centuries, troops of the Caucasian mountaineers in the Turkish troops took part in the invasion of Russian territory, supported the military actions of the Persian Shahs. This was the case and during the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774, which resulted in our home for the first time firmly established itself in the North Caucasus.
Formidable measures taken by the Russian command in response to the constant predatory attacks, prompted favorites mountain communities to seek a unifying idea that is able to combine into a single front isolated and constantly warring among themselves tribal and clan groups. So when in 1785 the inhabitant of the Chechen village of Aldy Mansour declared himself a prophet, and called for a holy war with Russia, he has found many adherents. The defeat sent against Mansur Russian detachment under the command of Colonel Pierre raised his reputation for performance and soon joined Chechnya, Kabarda and Kumyk rulers. Mansour, who is now called a sheikh, the imam was eventually defeated and fled to the Turkish fortress of Anapa. In 1791, she was taken by storm by Russian troops, Mansur was captured and taken to St. Petersburg. He died in captivity.
His military-political, military and religious activities for the first time enveloped the relevant areas of the North Caucasus, which in no small measure contributed to help smooth the Ottoman government. With all this movement Mansour was apparently devoid of optimal justification — Sheikh has not been able to make sustainable management or administrative structures. This idea has cost dearly supporters of the Prophet, who have suffered not only from the Russian troops, and had been involved in the latest internecine carnage that swept Chechnya and Dagestan.
Subsequent anti-Russian speech under the banner of religion also took place in Chechnya. It had come out during the reign of the Caucasus, General Alexei Ermolova. This time, the role of the Imam claimed some Misko, which in fact he was the protege of the famous abrek Bay Bulat. The impact of the latter on the mountain people was so great that Ermoloff to pacify the rebellious province at the time granted him the rank of lieutenant of the Russian army. Indignation 1825-1826's not gone beyond the border of Chechnya and Kumyik possessions and managed to put down quite rapidly.
The upcoming performances fate mastermind Bay Bulat was strikingly different from the fate of fellow who believed him, whose villages were burned Russian troops. It is quite common for long and is identical to the fate of some modern rebels. By removing from the Caucasus Ermolova Bay Bulat found a common language with the latest military administration in exchange for loyalty was forgiven, officer rank and state salaries. In the end, he fell into the hands of blood feud, as an officer of the Russian service of Prince Salad Giray, who is on
ly the intercession of the comrades helped to avoid during this exile in Siberia.
After a couple of years a group of like-minded people — inhabitants of the Dagestani village Gimry — announced the emergence of a new Imam. It was the Gazi-Magomed, teaching the canons of the Muslim confession under the tutelage of the famous theologian Magomed Yaragskogo. On the formation of the Imamate influenced the spread of the 1st of influential currents of Sunni Islam — tarikata Nakshbandiya. It exists to this day, now referring to the classical Islam and denying the ideology of religious fundamentalism. But half a century back nakshbandiytsy were set very firmly, sought clarification of the Islamic faith from the effects of the usual customs of the Highlanders — adats and the widespread introduction of Sharia law.
In general, the call to arms was not the main task of the missionary nakshbandiytsev — focus are directed to the inner self of the Muslims. To the idea to declare a holy war Russian Ghazi Mohammad reached his brain. In his own public speeches, he threatened to come to Moscow, and then to restore order in the capital cities of the Islamic world have jumped, in his opinion, a vice and disbelief. Soon, under the banner of a new imam, who took the name Kazi-Mulla, met numerous groups of Dagestan and Chechnya, unleashed on strengthening Caucasian strip. In 1832, after a two-month siege of the Russian troops took aul Gimry attack, and Ghazi Mohammad died in battle.
Imam Gamzat-Beck major efforts directed at fighting compatriots who did not share his constructive opinions. He methodically destroyed the Mountain know that one way or another tended to Russian citizenship, soon declared itself is already a secular king — Tragedy Khan. It cost Gamzat Beck-life: he fell victim komplota avengers of the death of loved ones (including the famous Haji Murad).
More flourishing headed for the Imamate by Shamil, close associate of the founder of the movement Ghazi Mohammed. Owning exceptional military leadership, administrative and diplomatic capabilities, he made quite an effective system of mountain communities, formed a military company is able to withstand one of the most powerful armies in Europe. The basic principles of management by Shamil were his personal example in matters of religious and military life and the repression of fellow believers, retreating from the requirements of the Imam.
At the outbreak of the Russian-Turkish war In 1877-1878, and the emissaries of Istanbul organized election in Nagorno Dagestan new Imam — Muhammad Haji. His first event was the organization of rebel troops in the rear of the Russian army at war, for which the rebel leader was hanged in the autumn of 1877.
The latest Caucasian imam is Nazhmuddinov Gotsinsky, notable theologian of the early twentieth century, a descendant of the 1st of the companions of Shamil. With years of his spiritual career peak in May 1917, when the I Congress of the Mountain Republic Gotsinsky chose Mufti and Chairman of the Spiritual Administration, and in September at the II Congress declared the military and religious leader of Dagestan and Chechnya. First, the 20's specifically Gotsinsky was the inspiration of the insurgency in eastern Caucasus, demanding the Bolsheviks to clear the entire area right up to Rostov and Astrakhan and give him the Crimean peninsula. The inhabitants of the 1st of Chechen villages gave Imam expeditionary corps of the Red Army. In 1925, he was shot.
So Makar, imams as politicians took to the stage of history during the last exacerbation of relations between the Russian imperial power and Mountain clans that lived military plunder. Their foreign policy was aimed against Russia, and on the slave lands, they have established a terrorist dictatorship, which would eventually deprive them of popular support, leading to the undisputed military and ideological defeat.
The initiative to name the heads of Russian regions imams first voiced in Chechnya. This is understandable, because religious tarikat Kadiriya, the ownership of which in recent years segodnyaschy states formed during the war, the political elite of the Republic, has never had a favorite, with a similar title. Designated specifically religious movement originated in Vainahs lands against the failures and hardships the last phase of the Caucasian War of XIX century. The founder of the doctrine — Sheikh Kunta-Haji no claim to the title of imam preached the idea of non-violence, for which he was prosecuted and the Russian authorities, and Shamil. During the rebellion of 90th kadiristy been on both sides of the conflict. In this situation, the supporters of the doctrine perceive the right time to strengthen their own status in relation to other informal political and religious groups of the Caucasus. To do this, apparently, and took the last name drawn from the post of the leaders of anti-Russian statements of past centuries …
The perception of historical time in ordinary societies differs from the similar process in modernized nations. For example, the population of the North Caucasus XIX century war between Russia and the Imamate of Shamil is as close and ideologically important as the action of the second World War to modern Europeans. It is no secret that during the invasion in 1999, the terrorist army Basayev and Khattab in Dagestan phase of the operation extremists were the names of the first imams. Since the introduction of the word "imam" for the name of state positions in the North Caucasus will inevitably cause a clear historical parallels reopen old wounds, forced to remember that stage, when our motherland and the Caucasus confronted each other. And well, that gave up the idea, at least in Chechnya.