Presentation of the flag of the "Varyag" the Russian president gives a reason to come back again to the feat of Russian sailors, to his well-known and little-known page. All the more so that the waves of time wash away the details of this feat, and not all now have a clear idea about it, especially young people. Even some news agencies, reporting on the transfer of the relics, claimed that the cruiser then died. But is it?
From Vladivostok station, end-Fri most longish in Transsiberian the railroad, the hand throw from the main street — Svetlanovskaya. On it was once strolling characters delightful novel Valentin Pikul "Battlestar", dedicated to Russian-Japanese war. Her battle raged on land and at sea exactly 100 years ago. Here, in Vladivostok, Far Eastern outpost of, a lot of memorable places connected with the history of the development and protection of the borders far, but nashenskie edge. Although the city of sailors, fishermen and border guards by historical standards, is quite young. It was founded by Russian servicemen people in 1860, when the Russian-Chinese border in the Far East was secured Beijing collateral contract.
In the international contractual terms of this document graduated territorial demarcation in the Ussuri region and Primorye, confirming Aigun main provisions of the contract concluded with 2 years earlier. But the consolidation of peace in the Pacific borders of the Russian Federation did not like the fledgling country of the rising sun. After the so-called Meiji Revolution (1868) Land of the Rising Sun came out of isolation and began to flourish in the capitalist road, once more claim to hegemony in the region.
So now, if from the 1st of the signs of the town — a monument to soldiers for the liberation of Primorye, next to the tall building of the regional administration — turn to the north, in the direction of the Institute, by the Ocean Avenue and then by bus you can reach the nainteresneyshey attractions related to Russian-Japanese war. And more precisely, with the events that have Distant War, in which as fate would have been involved sailors cruiser "Varyag" and the gunboat "Korean".
It is a question of the Sea cemetery where the remains of 14 sailors from the "Varyag". Their remains were transported to Vladivostok in December 1911 from the port of Chemulpo (now Incheon, South Korea). At the tomb of heroes obelisk of grayish granite. On its sides Slavonic carved the names of sailors who died in the unequal battle. Leaves no flegmantichnym inscription: "Centuries will pass, and the new generation of Russian sailors will be proud to carry in their own hearts fond memory of those who are in harsh homeland for an hour did not bow his head before the enemy."
About the exploits of the crew of the "Varyag", in general, almost everything is clear, but the general public — it is far not all. Although the feat — more than 100 years, the new facts revealed in recent years. Either way, if the meaning is to remind our readers about it. For example, she Svetlanovskaya street and the beautiful bay of the Golden Horn 21 March 1916 witnessed how came here thousands of urban residents to welcome the famous cruiser "Varyag" and three other ships returning from the land of the rising sun. How did they get there, will be discussed below. When the cruiser moored to a pier, languid Khmara the sky at one point as if vanished, and over the bay colorful colorful sun shone. And arrived at the port of pigeons nesting on the Sea Cemetery. Members they say that it was a sign …
Cruiser Class 1 "Varyag" was one of the best in the Russian fleet. It consists ship entered in 1901. Not many people understand that the "Varyag" commissioned by the Russian government, was built a year ago in America, at a shipyard in Philadelphia. Why?
The fact is that particularly the South American steel at the time the one of the best in the world. And the construction of the ship was used a great number of technological innovations. Suffice it to say that for the first time in world practice, all the furniture in it was made of metal, though its painted wood. The performance data cruiser 1st class "Varyag" are as follows: length of most 129.56 m, width (without the skin) 15.9 m, 6,500 tons displacement design, cruising range 10-speed hub with full of supplies of coal is about 6100 miles; full speed of 24.59 knots. The king has the hots "Varyag", which he included in his convoy imperial yacht "Standart".
TWO AGAINST THE FIFTEEN
January 8, 1904 (on a brand new style), the war with Japan. Began with a dangerous attack on the Russian squadron of Japanese ships stationed on the roads of Port Arthur. At this time, the gunboat "Korean" (commander Captain 2nd Rank Belyaev) and the cruiser "Varyag" (commander captain Vsevolod Rudnev F.) were in the Korean port Chemulpo (now Inchon). They have been charged with urgently unite with their own. But on leaving the port 15 blocked the path of the Japanese ships. Squadron Commander Rear Admiral Sotokiti Uriu passed on "Varyag" ultimatum:
"The commander of the cruiser" Varyag "Pravitelskogo Russian Navy.
Sir! Due to the outbreak of hostilities between Japan and Russia I have the honor to respectfully ask you to leave with all the vessels under your command, the port Chemulpo pm to 27 January 1904. In the unlikely event I attack you in the port. I have the honor to be your most dutiful servant.
Sotokiti Uriu, Rear Admiral Pravitelskogo Japanese Navy and commander of the Japanese fleet anchored in Chemulpo. "
One of the reasons that claimed Uriu leave a neutral port, was finding it warships of other countries. The commanders of the French cruiser "Pascal", British "Talbot" Italian "Elbe" and the U.S. gunboat "Vicksburg" received notice of Japanese Rear Admiral Uriu further attack his squadron on Russian ships.
At a council of war it was decided to fight our way out of the port. By the way, in principle, the chances of a breakthrough were given the combat and speed properties of the "Varyag". In addition, the commander of the cruiser captain Rudnev was a brilliant naval officer. But he could not throw the failure of low-speed "Korean". The concept of honor at the high officers of the fleet blyula since Peter stateliness. On the surrender was out of the question — it's not in the tradition of Russian sailors. "There is no question of surrender can not be — we will not surrender cruiser, nor ourselves, and we will fight to the last, and the ability to the last drop of blood." With these words, Rudnev appealed to the crew. These words explorers met an explosion of interest. As he later recalled, Vsevolod Fedorovich, "it was pleasant to build such a hot display of love for his own country."
January 9, 1904 in 11 hours and 20
minutes of "Varyag" and "Korean" for the exit from the raid. Seafarers with foreign courts gave honor to our ships, and the Italians began to play the Russian national anthem. "We salute these heroes, so proudly marching to certain destruction!" — He wrote later, the commander of the French cruiser "Pascal" captain Senes.
Living in the country of the rising sun waiting for the "Varyag" and "Korean" in the archipelago. Russian protected cruisers and outdated gunboat contrasted fifteen enemy combat units: armored cruiser "Asama" protected cruisers "Naniwa", "Takacs", "Chiyoda", "Akashi", "Niitaka" Tender "Chihayya" and eight destroyers. Against the Russian 2-203-mm and 13-152-mm guns and torpedo tubes 7 are ready to conduct fire four 203-mm, 30 eight 152-mm guns and three torpedo tubes 40. This was more than triple an advantage!
The fight against the superior forces of the Japanese. At 11.45 "Asama" from a distance of 7-8 km opened fire. After two minutes guns thundered "Varyag" and boil mercilessly artillery battle that lasted, according to one source, exactly one hour, on the other — 45 minutes. Of the 12 152-mm guns on the "Varyag" there are only two, and from the 12-75mm — 5, all 47-mm guns out of action.
But the worst was that the composition of the team, which was on the top deck, dropped almost half. "I'll never forget the cool kind, introduced himself to me — recalled captain Senes, to board the" Varyag "immediately after the fight — deck is filled with blood, corpses strewn everywhere and body parts."
On the "Varyag" was put out of action more than half the guns, seriously damaged the steering. Ship received the slope to the left side, which prevented the conduct fire serviceable guns. Rudnev gave the order to arrange the wounded and crew on foreign ships, and the "Varyag" and "Korean" kill …
The battle of the "Varyag" is full not only of dramatic episodes, and examples of unprecedented courage Russian sailors. Wounded in the back of the control Snegiryov, bleeding, to the end of the battle was still standing at the helm. The orderly commander of the cruiser Chibisov, wounded in both arms, did not go to the hospital, saying that while alive, for a minute will not leave his own commander. Received several wounds driver Krylov filed shells of the powder magazine before the time, until lost consciousness. Of the 570 members of the crew of the cruiser killing 30 sailors and one officer.
Residents of the country of the rising sun, in spite of the enormous numerical an advantage over Russian ships failed either sink them, much more so to capture. Rudnev captain had every reason to report later command, entrusted to him by the court that the order "with dignity, supported the honor of Russian flag, exhausted all means to break through, was not given the ability of residents of the country of the rising sun to win, and inflicted many losses to the enemy and helped the rest of the team."
January 27, 1904 at 16.30 was blown gunboat "Korean". Then, with tears in the eyes of the heroes of the "Varyag" left their own ship. The final came down to him commander of the cruiser, carefully carrying the excised fragments of the ship's flag. At 18.10 the crew flooded own unbeaten cruiser. Seafarers fled to the French and Italian cruiser (in naval solidarity denied only Americans). Above the bay of Incheon waning sunset …
Admiral Uriu and other Japanese senior officers were struck by the courage of Russian sailors. Uriu gave the command to help those injured in the hospital Chemulpo on par with the Japanese and ordered not to regard them as prisoners. Later sea crew was taken to Russia. The entire journey on his native country — from Odessa to the capital — the heroes solemnly celebrated compatriots …
Admiral Uriu later triumphantly denounced that he had no losses. Until now, the people of the country of the rising sun officially did not report on them. But in fact, the enemy has suffered significant damage. 1105 shells produced for this truly historic hour Russian cruiser, causing, according to our data, the severe damage "Asama" and "Takacs." Later it became clear that after the fight 5 Japanese ships had to send in for repair. It is logical that Uriu not very loved going over that fight.
Turns lock STORIES
The researchers estimated that the heroism of Russian sailors piled almost fifty songs. The most popular begins with the words: "Back you, comrades, to all the places." It is popular, but it has the creators. In this case, it is striking that the creator of the poetic text does not Russian, and Teuton — Rudolph Greynts. This song, like the feat "Varyag", for more than 100 years.
Greynts wrote it under the influence of German newspapers detailed messages about the fight of Russian cruisers and gunboats against the superior forces of the Japanese. After all, at the time, first of the last century, between Germany and Russia was a great cause. Translated by Russian Student Lena poet, musician and music by the 12th of the Astrakhan Grenadier Regiment Turishchev. The first time the song was performed at a gala reception in honor of the hero sailors who organized the Emperor Nicholas II in April 1904.
But back to the fate of the cruiser. In 1905, the "Varyag" was raised by the Japanese. Noteworthy that in the land of the rising sun, he came under its own power! Almost 10 years the ship served in the Japanese navy under the title "Soya". A steering wheel with the "Varyag" people of the country of the rising sun as an exhibit arranged for a memorial ship — Battleship "Mikasa" dug-in on the local maritime museum in Yokosuka. Japanese Cadets pravitelskogo future officers of the fleet, for example, the "Varyag" were taught how to do military duty. As a symbol of respect for the courage of the crew of the Russian naval command cruiser even left on its stern original Russian name — the "Varyag".
In 1916, the Russian government bought the cruiser at the land of the rising sun. Then, in March, he made a visit to Vladivostok, where he was greeted ecstatically the residents, soldiers, sailors and officers of the local garrison. It was decided to put "Varyag" in the flotilla Arctic Ocean, but the ship was in need of repair. So he ended up in the UK. But after the October Revolution of 1917, brand new authority refused to pay royal debts. "Varyag" and serve it to the sailors were left to fend for themselves. British authorities confiscated the Russian ship and sold it to a German company for scrap. But while being towed to a place of breaking the cruiser struck the mountain and sank off the coast of Southern Scotland. Until then, nedavneshnih was thought that in the 20 years of the British one hundred percent made it into the sea.
On the eve of the 100th anniversary of the feat "Varyag" TV channel "Russia" with the support of the command of the Navy organized a unique expedition to the shores of Scotland, to the place where the remains of the famous ship. The preparation of the expedition to the site of the death of the cruiser in the Irish Sea was gone for almost a year. But the chances of success were not enough. Archival documents about the last days of the famous ship neither in Russia, nor in England, did not survive. In addition, members of the expedition, it became clear that the German company engaged in butchering cruiser for scrap in 1925 undermined his body, to make it easier fo
r the job.
The explosion scattered the pieces of the ship is practically a large area. Scottish fishermen could only approximately specify the area where the '82 sank back "Varyag". But with the help of local residents managed to find the place where in 1922 the "Varyag" struck the mountain. It is located 60 miles south of Glasgow, and just half a kilometer from the shore.
In the end, 3 July 2003 at 12:35 local time on one of our divers found the first piece of the "Varyag". It was a wood railing forward superstructure. Some pieces of the cruiser, which had survived the explosion in 1925, at a depth of 6-8 meters. At this point the water no one has ever filmed. Now for the first time had the opportunity to behold the remains of the famous cruiser "Varyag". Unfortunately, little has escaped. But preserved brass and bronze parts. And even iron: a thin layer of rust from the U.S. were preserved even glow.
The most sensational find Russian expedition steel porthole brass plate and the South American plant is supplied to the "Varyag" steam pumps and drives. At the site of explosion ship dive made commander of the cruiser grandson Nikita Panteleimonovich Rudnev. He was born in 1945 in France, where the whole family Rudnev had to leave after the revolution. Nikita Rudnev flew to Scotland from France, to behold the pieces of the "Varyag" with my own eyes …
In February 2004, the guided-missile cruiser "Varyag", a small anti-submarine ship "Korean", named in honor of the heroic ships of the Pacific squadron, and BOD "Admiral Tributs" came out of the Golden Horn, where over nine decades earlier vladivostoktsy ecstatically welcomed famous cruiser and headed for South Korea. The ships paid a visit to Incheon, and then the Chinese port city of Lushun, first past century bore the proud name of the Russian Port Arthur. Pacific Fleet visited there to give homage to the feat of Russian sailors.
In memory of this on the shore of the bay Incheon our sailors have established a large Orthodox cross, brought from Vladivostok. Above the bay of early waning reddish sunset. How, then, in the fourth nine …
Meeting with the Russian military lured sailors of attention of the local community. Indeed, to this day, many residents believe Incheon Russian battle cruiser against overwhelming odds the most important event in the long history of their own town. This event has had so strong emotional impact on inchhontsev that some of them converted to Christianity.
The cultural values of Korea according to local regulations may be taken out of the limit only for show and for a period of less than 2-years. Because the flag with the "Varyag" was transferred to the Russian side of the lifetime lease. The head of the Russian state expressed his gratitude to the South Korean authorities for their decision. In his view, during the visit of the Municipal it looked particularly symbolic.