At the end of XX — beginning of XXI century, in the criteria for reduction of naval forces of the United States of America, France, England and Russia, becoming ever more noticeable building process sea power of some countries in Asia, namely China and India. On the one hand, the increased need to protect the integrity of the territories of these states as a result of rapid economic growth, on the other hand, the same economic growth given the opportunity to allocate significant resources to the development of naval forces.
Despite the fact that the international community is more interested in Chinese naval ambitions than the zeal of India to get the status of a great maritime power, particularly from the latter depends not only the development of world politics, and the stability and security in the region. In order to have an idea about the behavior of India on the world stage, you need to Bole detail the brakes on its sea strategy.
The development of the Indian militarysea thinking is influenced by the Anglo-Saxon tradition, traditional theories Mehena Corbett and also contemporary American and British strategists and professionals. But soon there was a significant independent growth and eagerness to adapt to the realities of contemporary politics of state security.
India's maritime strategy was posted in 1988. It was the first document of its kind in the history of the state of the Navy. Since the beginning of the new century, it became clear that its concept is outdated and can no longer be current foreign policy of the country and the international situation. As a result, in 2004, appeared Maritime Doctrine of India, which were set out fundamental principles for the use of naval forces to the merits of the tasks of state public policy. This document was used as a base of the latest strategies, which appeared in 2007 and wore the title "Freedom of the high seas: a naval strategy of India." This document has not been calculated for 25, and a total of 15 years, so Makarov, on the views of its creators, there is a chance to keep the balance between the Short-and long goals. In case of a successful implementation of this strategy by 2022 India will be able to secure the status of the country's biggest sea and at the appropriate level will be able to defend its interests on the world stage.
If you associate the Indian maritime strategy with the Chinese, it is by definition a British professional, is a post-modern and postmehenskoy, as the essential role it plays in international cooperation, security on a global scale, in other words, the tasks of peace.
The main objective of which is put before the Indian fleet — is to ensure dominance in the Indian Ocean, providing easy access to the waters of the oceans. The implementation of these tasks is connected first with the fact that India is a large importer of hydrocarbons. Total energy consumed by the country ranks third in the world, in fact a quarter depending on foreign products. China is, according to the Global Bank, imports about 10 percent of energy.
In addition, India, with more than 3.2 million square kilometers area and about 7.5 thousand kilometers of shoreline, is the largest country in Asia, with direct access to the ocean. Yet, the government has to take into account the impact that has in the same ocean of the United States and China.
It is worth noting that in the Indian Ocean there is a huge number of possible threats to the security of India, as this region is known for having operated here the biggest terrorist organizations, "Al-Qaeda", "Jemma Islamiyah" and "Lashkar Taiba." In addition, the east and west of the Indian Ocean — is the most famous pirate regions in the world. Also, in the same region and are more unstable countries — Iran, Afghanistan, Somalia, Yemen and Pakistan. Well, the number of natural disasters is about 70 per cent of all that happen in the world.
According to the latest naval strategy for India naval forces entrusted with the 4 main objectives: military, diplomatic, police and "soft."
The military role of the Indian Navy involves tasks not only the military, and peace. In the middle of the first mentioned activities aimed at achieving dominance in the ocean, challenging the rule with the more powerful states, as combat operations in coastal areas, namely, conducting joint operations with other branches of the military and amphibious operations.
In peacetime, the Navy must carry out activities aimed at curbing the strategic weapons. Here it should be noted that nuclear deterrence — is only a promising feature of Indian Navy, as the first atomic submarine boat with ballistic missiles Arihant entered service only this year. It should be noted that for the country's military doctrine which involves the use of nuclear weapons only in response to the threat, the creation of the marine component of the nuclear deterrent — is one of the main tasks. In addition, the criteria of peacetime Indian Fleet may also participate in UN peacekeeping operations.
As for the Indian Navy, diplomatic functions, then it is possible to allocate a policy of political pressure, diplomatically development of relations with other states, the embodiment of presence and display the flag. For naval diplomacy India play a great role, and international military exercises.
Police fleet function contains the protection of ocean resources and to ensure the sovereignty of the country, supporting free maritime trade, countering non-military threats, conducting operations to counter piracy, anti-smuggling and drug trafficking, ensuring anti-pollution.
"Soft" function of naval forces of India lies in promoting a positive view of the country in the world, the spread of Indian political and cultural values. Also, this feature is intended to help a feeble powers, the role of a natural disaster, as the provision of humanitarian assistance and aid in the study of the ocean.
According to the latest maritime strategy naval power of the country provided not only the presence of rocket ammunition, and the ability to respond quickly to a variety of configurations in the environment.
In the middle of military threats to India is more topical Pakistan. But not the least concern from the government and China with its own naval doctrine, which involves the creation of the Chinese footprint in the Ind
At present, China has started to work intensively on the expansion and modernization of its naval potential. Such activity is not surprising, as its principles are reflected in the traditional maritime strategy in the criteria for offshore territorial disputes, the concentration of economic growth in the coastal region, and the increasing dependence on sea lines of communications.
China is considered the main East Asian state, which many experts predict the potential role of the new enemy of America. More than 30 years of strong economic growth in China provide an opportunity to conduct all Bole brutal foreign policy. Economic growth for the country with more than a billion population is a guarantee of survival. In addition, the increase requested free access to trade routes and resources, because the Chinese government aims to focus more on maritime policy.
The main term for a Chinese naval strategy is the term "island chain", in other words, a system of fortifications of the Yankees in the American Pacific. First island chain — this is Japan, South Korea, North and South Island archipelago, the Philippines and Taiwan. 2nd — Japanese archipelago, Marshall and Bonin Islands. Another seldom possible to meet the term "third island chain", which includes the Hawaiian Islands. For China, the island chain is a major deterrent inventory of America, with which you can restrict the freedom of strategic maneuvers.
At present, the focus of the Chinese government is focused on the Pacific region, where the Chinese naval forces are trying to make a concentrated presence to counter the presence of the Yankees and, as a consequence, the establishment of parity with them. What's all the same for the naval strategy of China in the Indian Ocean, then the country until there are not enough resources to qualify for positions of power in the region. Because here the main task of the Chinese Navy is to ensure the protection of energy supplies from Pakistan and its support to the creation of the danger to India.
Chinese warships are taking an active part in patrolling the courts to implement their protection from pirate attacks in the Indian Ocean. It does not cause any adverse reactions from the West, as the security concern of the Government's own transport is perceived with awareness. But experts predict that such patrols could be the beginning of China's hegemony in the Indian Ocean. China itself avoids comment on the situation.
All the country's growing naval activity is focused on is to ensure the safety of sea routes that are of fundamental strategic importance for China in terms of transportation of oil from the Persian Gulf, as more than 80 percent of the oil passes through the Strait of Malacca. For the Chinese, for example, large Western countries are trying to make a chain of naval bases in friendly to China and South East Asian countries.
It is worth noting that India has a very effective opposition to China in terms of greater exposure. As a result, China did not manage to consolidate the position of the Maldives, where China is planning to make a base for their own submarines.
More pointedly confrontation India and China felt in the South China Sea, where maritime doctrine faced 2-countries. The Chinese government is very unhappy convergence of India and Vietnam, although the situation is completely natural — so India Makar said for China's rapprochement with Pakistan. Apart from dissatisfaction with the joint Indo-Vietnamese programs from the extraction of oil, China is a very bad takes and military-technical cooperation 2-countries, the rapidly developing over 5 years. India is upgrading and repairing 21 x MiG-owned Vietnamese army also engaged in the supply of spare parts for the Vietnamese ships. In addition, the naval forces of the 2-states often conduct joint exercises.
The deterioration of relations between India and China profitably Government of the United States of America, which for a couple of years a policy of containment of China. But India does not want to worsen the conflict with China. Moreover, in 2011, with 2 between countries were resumed talks on defense issues that involve and joint exercises. In this step, the central challenge for both India and China for a settlement of the situation around the Aksai Chin and Arunachal.
I must say that brand new naval strategy in India defines the country's desire to have a large fleet of ocean equilibrium. At the moment, the Indian Navy is one of the largest in the world, after the example program will be implemented on a large-scale naval construction, India firmly strengthen its position among the 5 most powerful navies in the world.
According to Chinese professionals in 2012, spending on the military branch of India will rise to 39 billion dollars, and this amount will be sufficient to gratify all the needs of the army. Major General Yin Zhuo sure that such cost increases initially linked with the economic growth of the country, as the fact that the government is making great efforts to ensure constant membership in the UN Security Council. Such desires require the possession of a huge military potential, namely, to maintain advantages over Pakistan. This, in turn, has led to the fact that India had to increment the costs of military branch. According to him, India has gone on rather short path and trying, by purchasing foreign weapons to the modern defense industry as well as self-development can take an average of 15-20 years. But such a strategy can only Short term effect. In the long term, India needs more intensively to develop its military branch. The general also said that India's biggest mistake was that the bid was made for the purchase of foreign weapons, resulting in its defense complex remained undeveloped.
Today, all marine construction in India is dependent on imports of equipment from Russia and France. Unlike China, India does not have a strong shipbuilding industry, yet in the last decade the country have gained significant success in terms of building warships. It is necessary to mention the implementation of projects such as the construction of nuclear-powered Arihant, the aircraft carrier Vikrant, designed to change the aircraft carrier Viraat, the only one on today in India. In addition, very well maintained and projects such as the construction of corvettes Kamorta, destroyers, Kolkata and Delhi, the frigates Shivalik. It should also be noted also the joint Russian-Indian BrahMos cruise missile and the BrahMos II.
In addition, great emphasis on India and the implementation of programs for the realization of information awareness in the oceans. To this end, a number of programs to create the tracking system, which will include military satellites, drones, helicopters and AWACS aircraft, 24 patrol aircraft P-8 Poseidon.
By 2020, India plans already have three warships — non-nuclear aircraft carrier. Also, not once appeared information that India can also buy several amphibious ships.
Representatives of the Indian Defense Ministry did not once talk about the need for the creation of a massive fleet. So Makar, 2020 in India can be created modern fleet, which will be composed of three aircraft carriers, 70 corvettes, frigates and destroyers, 30 submarines, six nuclear-powered ships and about 1
5-20 non-nuclear submarines.
What's all the same for China, he is in the last 20 years, developed in accordance with the need of confrontation South American Navy.
By 2020, China plans to build two non-nuclear aircraft carrier, and then start building and nuclear power. Great attention is paid to the carrier-based aircraft. If at first the main aircraft types such was to become the Su-33 Russian production, then later the situation has changed, and China was created by the copy — J-15.
In addition, in the country are being developed AEW helicopter Z-8, which a copy of the Russian Ka-31 and AWACS aircraft, which very similar to the South American E-2 Hawkeye. In addition, China continues to develop and submarine fleet, missile force. As part of Chinese naval forces at this point is about 200 ships and, although most of them are out of date, their have new and more than a vessel not only Russian, and its own production.
Who is stronger? The situation is so makarom that it would be stronger government, that will be able to establish control over the waters of the oceans, while in the long term. But such control may be set only by the naval advantages.