Gallakticheskoe confrontation, which took an active phase with the launch of Russian Union of the first artificial Earth satellite, continues to manifest itself. In this case, if you have a couple of 10-s of years ago it was possible to talk about the claim of the leading roles in the near-Earth space only 2-States (Our homeland and the United States), now the world's other global players try to enter a number gallakticheskih powers. One such country is India.
Indian gallakticheskih research organization (ISRO), which is a typical Indian equivalent of the American NASA, in recent years, trying to impress the world community and the public at first states that some time working on space exploration, his program notes. The organization itself ISRO was based in the distant 1969, but for almost six years, does not have time to be noted with observation, while neither was closely cooperate with the Russian spices in the field of astronautics. The result of this collaboration was the launch in 1975, India's first artificial satellite of the Earth, "Aryabhata" with "Kapustin Yar". Naturally, without the scientific and technical assistance of Russian design engineers in the design of this machine gallakticheskogo not done.
Satellite Indian side used to study the ionosphere, solar pulses and to study galactic pulses. As India itself, which with all due respect it was quite impossible to call in 70th technologically and economically developed state, specifically the work of principle was "Aryabhata" — the question, as they say, is rhetorical. But the important fact was the first breakthrough in space.
At 80 years, specifically in April 1984, came the first flight of Indian astronaut Rakesh Sharma, who participated in organized by Moscow applets "Intercosmos". After the flight, the first Indian astronaut, was honored with the highest awards in India and the Soviet Union, becoming, namely, the hero of the Union and the Russian Knight of the Order of Lenin.
Specifically, Rakesh Sharma, according to the New Delhi, has become the main ideological inspiration behind India's development programs from manned flights, expressing the word about the need-independent development at a conference in 2006. This is a landmark event for India than the space flight of its first astronaut, and is considered the beginning of work on the new principal ISRO projects.
With a rather limited by today's standards, funding (about 1 billion dollars in the first year) The Indian Space Agency in terms of space exploration programs on the basis of its own in recent years has managed to achieve tangible success. Within a few years after the conference indicated the role of Rakesh Sharma, India astonished world that launched the first in its history gallaktichesky probe "Chandrayaan", created to explore the moon. Is noteworthy that the lunar satellite was sent to the Indian launch site Sriharikota by the Indian rocket same PSL V-XL. With all of this Indian project was not just the first independent, but also brought tangible profits from India that the probe on its own board and was carrying foreign research units belonging to the European and South American Space Agency.
Brightly that "Chandrayaan" was not just the first Indian lunar probe, and apparatus that bit was not made very real revolution in the minds of many theorists in the field of gallakticheskih research. This revolution was the fact that the Indian probe could dispel decades created a certain circle of people stereotype that human never set foot on the lunar surface. Americans, who seemed to have exhausted all their skills to prove to skeptics that their astronauts were on the moon, became practically praying to "Chandrayaan", as he transmitted to Earth a number of noticeable scene photos lunar landing "Apollo 15", also marks "lunomobil "in which South American astronauts rode to the natural satellite of the Earth.
By the way, these photos being forwarded to the Earth and South American gallakticheskimi devices, but skeptics called it another fake, because the South American unit, in their opinion, to be impartial can not … And here suddenly a photo with Indian, however impartial, "Chandrayaan" … But proponents komplota subjected to obstruction and these pictures, stating that they have a very low resolution, so about something can be judged. On the lower resolution read as Indian scientists themselves, namely Prakash Shauhan, is the principal investigator of the mission "Chandrayaan".
But Indian professionals struggle theorists komplota with NASA worried the least. For them it was more important that the first time an Indian product engineering ideas led to impressive results so as flying machine to the moon. But the success of the project "Chandrayaan" build failed because communication with the machine suddenly interrupted. In the year of its own lunar probe managed to convey to the Earth for more than 70 thousand images of the lunar surface.
After the loss of communication ISRO uses its own lunar probe, the press began to appear different countries weird rumors that throughout the Tipo blame for our homeland. At the same time, our country has done it, they say, intentionally to break into the Indian example program for the development of the Moon. This theory dutuyu Indian spices left without comment because the dispute here could take a walk on the dispute with the skeptics of human flight to the moon …
It seems that there may be, Our homeland has expressed a desire to really role in the preparation for the flight of the new Indian probe to the Moon — the project "Chanlrayan-2." Start the probe is scheduled for 2013, and the probe through the development of Indian and Russian professionals will be significantly upgraded in comparison with the "Chandrayaan" standard in 2008. It is reported that the new probe, likely to consist of 2-parts, also on his own board will be a small automatic lunar rover. This project was the union of 2-projects: "Chandrayaan-2" ("Luna-Resource") and "Luna-Glob".
CEO of NGOs im.Lavochkina Victor Hart at the time reported that the chronology of the project will follow about: the Indian launch vehicle and its migratory lander module will lead produced in Russia, to
the orbit of the Moon. Further apparatus sits on the lunar soil, and from it to the surface will leave the Indian lunar rover. Of course, the start will be performed with the same launch site from which the booster output a first 'Chandrayaan'. This launch site is located in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, and in this connection his own relative proximity to the equator, starting gallakticheskih devices specifically with it more profitable than, say, from Baikonur.
At the Indian Space Agency has plans to launch in 2016, India's first manned gallakticheskogo machine. Many reacted to that disk imaging ISRO very skeptical because the level of funding that came from the country before, hardly has permitted to embody so fundamental project. But Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said that later this year, funding gallakticheskih development of the country will grow by 50%.
Indian manned spacecraft, if the recent rise up and gallakticheskoe in place, it is purely an Indian name would be difficult. The fact is that in 2009 the official dealer of "Roskosmos" Andrei Krasnov said that the Indian side reiterated its invitation to her about the ability of technology of manned flight. In 2010, it was reported that ISRO can even buy from the RF manned "Soyuz", that on the basis of his birth to light their offspring.
While this is entirely the brainchild of ISRO plans to have representatives outline version of the first manned flight. It is reported that flight tests in an unmanned mode will begin first of 2014 and in 2016 (2017 at the latest) India will send into space 2-own astronauts on the new ship, which will have to spend more than a week in orbit.
The Indian side is planning to bring to the brain and another very noticeable project. This project concerns the creation of reusable spacecraft «Avatar», which is expected to have a mass of about 25 tons, most of which corresponds to hydrogen fuel. Is noteworthy that the project was announced in 1998.
The Indian side claims that the project is so far not implemented, only because there was not enough funding. But by 2020, the real "Avatar", according to representatives of ISRO, can already begin to plow gallakticheskie spaces, bringing into space astronauts from different countries of the world. The supplies of strength from this ship, again according to the views of Indian engineers, should be enough to weave starts.
Many experts believe that this project is trying to reinvent India is great, but, apparently, the thirst for space exploration specifically "hands" is very strong in ISRO, and therefore plans to vigorously supported by official authorities. After all, healthy ambitions at all times allows a country to develop, and India, if it does not interfere with anybody, except in this plan obviously will not.