At present, one can often hear the term "information warfare", but not too far away, everyone understands that this is a concept. Moreover, there is no clear time of occurrence of the phrase, as well as, when someone had the idea to use the information as a weapon. Moreover, if we try to clarify the situation a little, there will be more questions, no answers to find that the essence of the concept of "information war" is not realistic. So, namely, an information war, by what means and how it is conducted, which is similar to the war? Can we assume hackers military action, and if so — how we can respond to them …
If you delve into the essence of the question, it is entirely natural that the information influence has always been. Back in the old days as the first media attacks used mythology. So, namely, on the Mongol-Tatars was glory as fierce warriors inhuman, undermining the morale of enemies. With all of this should also be noted that mental set of defense and resistance is also supported by the respective ideology. So Makar, the only difference between the impacts of the distant past of our time is that if it were not called wars. Explained this lack of technical means of communication.
At the moment, a vast spread of numerous information networks has meant that the power of information tools has been repeatedly extended. Worsens the situation and the event is that modern society seems to be very open, which makes the preconditions for growth in information flows.
It should be noted that no matter what kind of information was based on the events of the world around us. In order to transform into information, these actions must somehow be interpreted and analyzed.
There are several concepts that are based on attempts to define the role of disk imaging in human life. For example, there is the concept of Walter Lippmann, a South American journalist that is based on the use of social stereotypes in advocacy practice. This concept became the basis for the stereotyping of mass propaganda method of thinking. The journalist has analyzed the general consciousness, the role of the media in shaping the received view, with the result that came to the conclusion that the process of perception have a huge impact stereotypes. The essence of the concept Lipman is to ensure that the person taking the world around us on a lightweight model, so both large enough and the reality is very volatile and therefore the person is at first the world around him, and then sees. Specifically, under the influence of event data, and not on the specific observation of reality, humans are added standardized view of the world. But this, according to the views of the journalist, is the norm. Specifically stereotypes cause a person to feel sympathy or antipathy, hatred or love, anger or fear in relation to different social events. With all this Lipman argued that only the press, using information capable of making a false picture of the world that does not correspond to reality. So Makar, the press, in his view, has innumerable manipulative abilities. The impact on the human psyche through socio painted models will always be effective, so as created by the impact of stereotypes — a profound and subtle.
Theorists and practitioners of propaganda not only took up the ideas Lipman on the impact of stereotypes on the ghostly man, and supplement them with the necessity of such action. Because most of them are firmly convinced that the promotion should be directed not to the human mind and the feelings.
One of the followers of Lipman was a French scientist, which engaged in research neuvvyazkami propaganda. He believed that in a certain extent all the prejudices and stereotypes of people are products of propaganda. For all this, the more the audience, the greater the need for simplification of propaganda. In his book titled "Propaganda" scientist gives tips on how to carry out a more excellent propaganda. He notes that you first need to be familiar with the audience and that set the stereotypes that exist in it. Stereotypes are the basis of legends, which were based on no matter what ideology. The press in any society, using steretipizatsiyu, enters into human consciousness certain illusions that are available and help maintain order, nurture loyalty to the existing order.
Do not turn away from the use of propaganda and Hitler, who in his book "Mein Kampf" has caused five principles that propaganda campaign to appeal to the emotions in a human, with all this while avoiding abstract concepts; use stereotypes and constantly repeating the same idea, to use the constant criticism of opponents, use only one side of the argument, highlight the 1st enemy, and constantly "mucky water it.
In order to consolidate control over the masses, used certain ways. These include the epitome of economic control through the creation of artificial monetary crises. To exit from the crisis itself need a loan, which given, usually after a number of duties (which, by the way, are not feasible in advance). Very often used and hiding the real disk imaging, similar to the way a monopoly state-owned. If there is a situation where the real information absolutely hide fails, resort to the use of the information collection, in other words an important reliable information is immersed in a large amount of empty disk imaging. An example of this — unlimited number of silly programs and shows on television. Another example — the head of the country's yearly appeal to the people of New Year's Eve.
Is often used, and such a way, as the displacement of concepts recognized when the term is not used as intended, resulting in a sense of his public perception is changing. In addition, the use and implementation of concepts does not mean anything, that are on the ears, but to explain that no one can.
At the same time, all well aware that for positive information someone needs to pay, but the negative itself implements. Because negative information is often worth comparing with the positive. Therefore possible to see in the press unlimited number of scandalous reports.
Often used and references to non-existent data. Catchy example — ratings. Another example — the bestseller shelves in bookstores. It creates the impression that if some of the books presented there, were placed on every other shelf, they simply would not have purchased, so as to read them unrealistic. But, again, again, people — being public, it is characterized by uncertainty in their own tastes and interests.
And information used taboo, in other words, a certain information, which everyone knows, but which is prohibited by the discussion. In addition, you can often hear and direct blatant heresy, which for some reason is defined as the heresy of salvation. For example, so as not to disturb people bolshennom data about the number of hostages or victims of any disaster is called a very conservative figure.
Information warfare can be used in areas such as industrial espionage, critical infrastructure of hacking and the forthcoming introduction of personal data of people, misinformation, electrical interference in the command and control of military systems and objects, loss of military communications.
For the first time the concept of "information warfare" was used by Thomas Ron Yankees in the report, named "System tools and information war. " And then it was determined that the information infrastructure has become a major component of the U.S. economy, while at the same time turned into an open target, not only in military but also in peacetime.
As the report was published, it was the beginning of an active campaign in the press. The problem as described by Ron very intrigued the U.S. military. This was the result of what happ
ened to the 1980 single realization that information can become not only a goal, but a very effective tool.
After the end of the "cold war" concept "information war" appeared in the documents of South American military. And it began to press heavily consumed after the 1991 "Operation Desert Storm", during which for the first time as the guns had been used new information technologies. But the official introduction of the term "information war" in the documentation took place only at the end of 1992.
A few years later, in 1996, the U.S. military has put the "Doctrine of the struggle with the systems of management and control." It sets out the main ways of dealing with municipal control and monitoring systems, namely, the application of information warfare in military operations. This paper identified the structure, planning, training and management of the operation. So Makar, the first time was defined doctrine of the information war. In 1996, Robert Bunker, a professional from the Pentagon report was launched, devoted to the latest U.S. military doctrine. The document said that the whole theater of combat operations is divided into two components — the everyday space and cyberspace, which is of greater importance. So Makarov was introduced brand new area of warfare — information.
The smallness later, in 1998, the Yankees had a definition of information warfare. It was designated as an overarching impact on the system of military-political government of the enemy, the administration, which in peacetime criteria would facilitate the adoption of appropriate solutions for the initiator, and in time of war — was a precondition of complete paralysis of administrative infrastructure of the enemy. Information war contains a set of measures aimed at achieving the advantages of the information in the process of implementation of the state's military strategy. Simply put, it is the ability to gather, process and distribute information without giving the opponent to do the same. Information gives an advantage of the opportunity to support an invalid for the enemy tempo of the operation, and thus provides the predominance of Makar, the unpredictability and the enemy advance.
It should be noted that if in the beginning in the middle of America's own potential kiberprotivnikov called China and Russia, today more than 20 countries around the world are held and carried out information operations that are targeted against the Yankees. Moreover, some countries that are in opposition to the U.S., including the information war in their military doctrines.
Midst of the countries that have confirmed preparations for information wars, the South American specialists identify, except for China and Russia, Cuba and India. Libya, North Korea, Iraq, Iran and Syria have a lot of potential in this area, while Japan, France and Germany have behaved very rapidly in this direction.
It makes sense to slightly more carefully the brakes on approaches that use different countries in the field of information warfare.
In Russia before nedavneshnego time no definite position on this prepyadstviya that, the views of a number of professionals, and it became a prerequisite for the defeat in the "cold war." And only in 2000 the Head of State signed the Information Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation. But it at the first place was deduced providing personal, group and public security. To carry out the provisions of this document was created by a special body — Managing information security in the Russian Federation Security Council. At the current time developments of Russian methods of information warfare is engaged in several divisions: the Federal Security Service, and the Office of FAGCI "P" in the Ministry of Interior, in the area of possibilities of which goes to investigate crimes related to information technology.
As for China, the concept of "information war" is already quite long since entered the lexicon of the military of the country. At the current time, the country is moving towards a single doctrine of the information war. One can also argue that China is now — this government, in what is a real revolution in the cyberspace. By the way, in the basis of the concept of information warfare in China are views on the conduct of the war in general, which in turn are based on the principle of "people's war". In addition, taking into account the local and ideas about how to wage war on the operational, strategic and tactical levels. Chinese definition of information warfare sounds like the transition from war to war mechanized mind. The country is developing the concept of network power, the essence of which is reduced to the formation of military units of up to battalion level, which included a highly spices in the field of computer technology. Moreover, China has conducted several large-scale military exercises aimed at practicing the concept of information warfare.
In the United States, the main development of the concept began with the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Protection of the infrastructure in 1996. This body has revealed some vulnerabilities in the national security of the country in the field of disk imaging. As a result, there was the State plan for the protection of information systems, which was signed in 2000, and the implementation of which took more than 2-billion dollars.
Americans have made progress in improving the methods and ways of working with acknowledgments of computer crimes. Namely, in 1999, was created by a computer forensic laboratory of the military department, which was created to handle computer evidence in the atrocities in the process of intelligence and counterintelligence activities. The lab also provides support to the FBI. Specialists laboratories participated in such operations as "sunrise", "Moonlight Maze," "Digital Demon."
In order to increment the ability to protect information systems in the United States was created Task Force on Integrated Protection of the Ministry of Defense computer networks. There is also work involved in setting up an alarm system for detecting vulnerability information network. In addition, the database was created, which focuses on the immediate rassredotachivanie disk imaging of the possible danger to every admin system with a short description of response actions to localize vulnerability.
Coupled with the fact if you analyze the information that is available on the Web, it can be concluded that the level of information security nekordinalno increased. As noted by the U.S. Administration, the state system of information security was very clumsy and heavy-handed. Very often the process of transferring disk imaging hindered by bureaucratic delays. Because the appearance of new viruses healing was found in time.
In addition, there is lack of professional staff in the service of information security, as evidenced by the attempt to involve students in the department in exchange for payment of their education.
Something similar is observed in Germany. The concept of information warfare includes the concepts of offensive and defensive information warfare in order to achieve their goals. At the same time, the German definition of a more systematic way, namely, in determining the risk of the country are considered separate from the political parties, media, hackers and other criminal communities, as individuals.
At the same time, with 2 between these definitions — the German and South American — there are some differences. For example, Germany was included as part of the information war over control of the media disk imaging. In addition, also introduces the concept of economic information warfare that explains the likely realization of the potential economic losses, the fact that, in practice, had to experience this loss of France in the field of industrial espionage.
In England, the idea of the information war is actually similar to South American. But for all that the British use and legal laws, which to some extent can be used to cyberspace. One such law was passed in 2000. He means that the sin in the information sphere is equal to the ordinary criminal wrongdoing. So Makar, the government has every right to intercept and read someone else's electric-mail, transcripts of personal data.
At the same time, NATO there is a secret definition of information warfare, which is closed to the press. Because at the conference on the dilemmas of the information war, which took place in 2000, all the participants took advantage of definitions developed in their states. But there are certain prerequisites to believe that NATO definition resembles the South American.
In France, the concept of information warfare is seen in the unity of 2-parts: economic and military. In the military concept of limited means the introduction of information operations, namely in peacekeeping operations. At the same time, the concept of the public sees more extensive application of information technology. Namely, the French do not look back at NATO, America or the United Nations, leaving the belief that an ally may be at the same time and the opponent. The country is working intensively on the structure of the control in cyberspace.
So Makarov, it can be concluded that in almost all countries of the world at the present time there is an active process of creation of secure American information anger and expansion, because the development of this type have become a priority in national security policy. But the difficulties of information security is unlikely to turn out to solve, so as every day or there is more types of information tools, implications of which are unknown, and the remedy for all that do not differ highest efficiency.