In the summer of 1701 the Swedish army of 11 thousand moved to Riga, which is again besieged the Polish-Saxon army. 9 (20) July 1701 Swedes suddenly crossed the Western Dvina and defeated the army of August II. The Saxons at first retreated to the Exchange, then to Kovno, and then — to Kurland. By the end of 1701 the Swedes seized with all the fortifications in Livonia. Karl led his army to Lithuania and Poland and "stuck" there, chasing after Augustus. In the end, Carl made Russia a secondary focus, do not wait the enormous problems there. Defend the border with the Russian government, he left 15 thousand fighter. About 8 million under the command of Wolmar von Schlippenbach placed in the districts of Dorpat and 7 thousand squad Abraham Kroniorta in Ingria and Karelia.
The Russian government has put troops following tasks: to capture and Ingria, first line of the Neva River, providing its own left flank in Livonia. At the disposal of the Russian commander was Sheremeteva to 40 thousand infantry and cavalry: at Pskov direction up to 30 thousand people in the direction of Novgorod and Ladoga 10 thousand Apraksina squad. In addition, 20 thousand Repnina Auxiliary Corps was sent to the aid of the Elector Augustus.
Initially, the two sides were limited to small raids by probing each other. The governor ordered Peter Sheremetiev send cavalry troops in the Livonian area disturbed by frequent attacks of the Swedes, to destroy his food base, gradually priuchivat Russian troops to act against an experienced enemy. Slippenbach winter 1700-1701 years with several hundred square meters of dragoons invaded Pskov land pillaged and burned dozens of villages, then tried to take the Pechersky Monastery, which was defended by the Cossacks, but failed due to lack of artillery. Mutual raids lasted the summer of 1700.
Trying to capture the Archangel
Swedish Vice Admiral Eric Sheeblad (Sheblad) has developed a plan of attack on the Archangel. This northern port was of great strategic importance for Russia, just across the sea has maintained trade links with Western Europe. Capture the Archangel allowed to deprive Russia bringing up European products. Carl has approved the plan.
In the spring of 1701 a detachment of ships Sheeblada came from Gothenburg, it consisted of 4 battleships, 2 frigates and a yacht. To maintain secrecy operations, it was announced that the ships are on whaling to the shores of Greenland. But in reality, the ships were in the snow-white sea. In order to attack was unexpected, ships picked up Dutch and British flags.
When the Swedish squadron came to the island Mudyug, he was stationed near the mouth of the Northern Dvina River, with the Russian coastal observation post made an inquiry about the purpose of the expedition. The Swedes responded that came with commercial interests. It ships boat was sent for inspection of ships, but the Swedes killed the soldier. Left as the only interpreter pilots D. Borisov and vaster I. Ryabov.
June 25, 1701 Sheeblad isolated squadron of 3 ships, they had to enter in the Dvina River and close to Arkhangelsk. But the plan failed, Borisov and Ryabov did feat — they planted the Swedish ships aground at Novodvinsk fortress. It should be noted that the fort at one thousand garrison Peter gave the order to build only at the end of December 1700 — decree was Dvina Governor Alexei Prozorovskii. Work began in the spring of 1701, the fortress was built on a peninsula Lynskey 20 miles from Arkhangelsk. Graduates of the major works in time for the emergence of the Swedish ships.
Borisov was killed by the Swedes, wounded Ivan Ryabov managed to escape — he swam to shore. Grounded Swedish ships came under fire Russian batteries. Throughout the night there was a fight in the end the Swedes were able to refloat a frigate and leave, he moved to the other ships and crews. Two ships — a frigate and a Russian steel yacht trophies. Sheeblad was obliged to leave the Russian waters, plan to capture the Archangel failed.
Engraving Novodvinsk fortress from a book artist and traveler Cornelis de Bruyne "Journey through Muscovy", Amsterdam, 1711.
From the scrum at the manor Rauge before the Battle of Erestfere
Fight at the manor Rauge. After a period of border skirmishes Peter decided to move to a more decisive action. In August, Boris Sheremet was ordered Peter to send troops to search for the enemy and the ruin of his country. 2 (13) September Sheremeteva army came to Pskov-Pechersky Monastery. There he vyznat from local residents that significant enemy forces are at the 3 estates — Rappin (Ryapin), Neu-Kazarits (Vastse-Kazaritsa) and Rauge (Rõuge).
On September 3 the area of Livonia was sent three Russian unit: A unit of BP Sheremeteva son, Major-General Misha Borisovich Sheremeteva (about 11 thousand people, but to the constant forces applied only about 2,400 people, while others were of irregular forces — Cossacks, Tatars, Kalmyks, etc.), a detachment of Colonel Sava Aygustova (about 5 million people), a detachment of steward James Rimsky-Korsakov (3.7 million). They are opposed to 3 million Swedes.
September 5th Squad M. Sheremetyeva stormed the fortified position at the Swedish Rappin, there was a Swedish detachment under the command of Major Anders von Rosen (about 600 people). The Swedes, using a fortified position, successfully fought off a sample of the Russian cavalry to cross the river Boo (Vybovka). Sheremet resorted to crawl — part of the squad ran across the river southwest of Rappin and attacked the Swedish position from the rear. As a result, the Swedish group was scattered: von Rosen and more than four hundred enemies were killed and 80 people were taken prisoner, captured 3 flag, two guns, more guns. Only about 100 people managed to escape.
At this time the clash came at the manor Neu Kazarits. Aygustova squad destroyed the Swedish patrol guard, and then knocked on the hostile post Baron B. Rebinder (approximately 160 people). Swedish commander managed to send a messenger to Schlippenbach, who was in the village of Kirrenpe with the main forces. Troop Rebinder restrain Russian pressure to hike Schlippenbach dragoons, who threw her squad Aygustova abroad (according to H. E. Palli, the Swedes lost 50 people, a Russian fighter squadron 100-150).
Another skirmish occurred at the manor Rauge. There was a Swedish detachment under the command of Captain von Nolken and captain Brusin (250 people). Initially, success was on the side of the unit by Rimsky-Korsakov, but after the arrival of reinforcements, sent Schlippenbach, Russia moved abroad.
Both sides declared victory. In particular went Slippenbach — he declared victory in a pitch
ed battle over the 50000th Russian army (!), With all this, having lost a total of 30 people. The Russian army is, in his report, lost 1.5-2 thousand killed and wounded. Finally, in Europe, have fallen into error, the press caught the winning attitude, so that the Dutch have already written about the defeat of the army of 100 thousand "Russian men."
Sheremet also declared victory. In the Caves Monastery was a festive parade: in front of the banners carried occupied, then carried guns and were victorious shelves. Was organized firing of guns and rifles. He also understated its loss, reporting 85 dead and the wounded. In general we can say that at the tactical level, all were in their own — the Swedes did not allow intrusion into the interior of its territory, Russian conducted reconnaissance in force. But gradually the strategic initiative was to run across in the hands of the Russian army.
Battle of Erestfere. 2 (13) October 1701 in Russia was declared a "general campaign" in Livonia. Prepared a 18-thousand. chassis with 16 guns. December 26, 1701 (January 6, 1702) took the tract housing Vybovka. December 28 was defeated reconnaissance unit Swedes.
Sheremet not give Schlippenbach have to focus all his strength and his battle is imposed on December 29. It happened 7 miles from the town of Dorpat in Erestfer (Erastfer). The fight was stubborn. Initially, success was on the side of the Swedes. They were able to repel the attack of the Russian avant-garde, but with the approach of the main forces brokenfooted situation was in favor of the Russian army. Sheremet repeated the attack, immediately sending a portion of the forces to bypass the enemy. After a 4-hour battle the Swedes were surrounded by the Swedish cavalry wavered and ran, smashed his infantry. It was a success: 8 thousand squad Schlippenbach was completely defeated and fled, the Swedes lost only three thousand people were killed in captivity took 350 people, seized six guns. The loss of the Russian corps — 1 thousand killed.
In Moscow, celebrated this victory. Sheremet was promoted to the rank of Field Marshal, was awarded the Order of St. Andrew (fourth knight of the Order), the officers received a gold medal in denominations of 7 gold pieces (it was the first gold medal in Russia), the men on the silver ruble.
MB Greeks. "Attack of the Swedes Yaroslavl dragoons at the village Erestfer December 29, 1701»
Quest for Gummelsgofe
Within six months after the Battle of Erestfer collision on the location of the boundaries of the Russian and Swedish armies lasted, but did not perceive significant size. Since the summer of 1702, Peter decided to hold a large operation in the Baltic.
12 (23) July 1702 17.5 thousand housing Sheremeteva made from Pskov. Russian corps passed through New Town (60 miles from Pskov), where the regimental carts were left, and took the supplies for the week, Sheremet has sent troops to Kerepetskuyu manor. There he vyznat of prisoners that Slippenbach with 9 thousand squad with 16 guns placed at the manor of Sange. Sheremet turned his body to the manor, but Slippenbach led troops to the manor Plator. Russia began to pursue the Swedish squad, but the Swedes retreated across the river Amovzha (Embach), destroyed bridges than halt the advance of the housing Sheremeteva.
Sheremet gave the troops stay, 18 (29) July exploration was sent three regiments and irregular cavalry (Cossacks, Kalmyks, Tatars). The Russian avant-garde, going to the river Amovzhe, knocked Swedish posts, established a ferry and overtook the enemy within 15 miles of the river near the manor Gumelsgof.
Slippenbach decided to smash cut out of the main Russian forces detachment and stormed it. Initially, the Swedes accompanied success, they even took a few guns. But at this time the main force approached the body Sheremeteva. They struck up a stubborn battle with the enemy. At this time, other parts of the Swedes avoided the flanks. Schlippenbach squad was one hundred percent crushed: he himself barely escaped capture, fled the dragoons in Pern leaving the infantry and artillery. Russian corps lost about 1 million dead and wounded.
The result of the battle was sad for the Swedes: 2 thousand killed, 238 prisoners and seized 15 guns (according to another disk imaging — about 5.5 thousand killed and wounded, 308 prisoners, captured 21 banner, 16 guns, and all the baggage). Sheremet passed across southern Livonia, destroying the building, capturing prisoners and supplies of food.
After the defeat in the battle of Gummelsgofom Swedish command has avoided battles in the open field, and the remaining troops took shelter behind the walls of their own fortresses. The whole countryside was adrift — autumn 1702 Russian troops ravaged Livonia, and the next year and Estonia, "so that the enemy had no shelter and sikurs (help) to submit their towns was impossible." After these events Slippenbach was replaced as chief southeastern strategic direction of Gen. Adam Levengaupt. Slippenbach given the post of vice-governor of Estonia.
Acts of the Navy
Russian army needed support of the Navy, and Peter is aware of. In January 1701, Peter ordered the rivers Volkhov and Luga build 600 plows, at this time began a census of vessels at private home in Ladoga, Onega lakes, rivers Svir, Tikhvin, Volkhov.
But it was not enough. In winter 1702 Sjas on the river (it flows into Lake Ladoga) started to build a shipyard. A year later, the ships were built at the Voronezh River, and in the spring of 1703 shipbuilding work began on the river Svir. Here at Lodeynoye fields were built Olonetsky shipyard — they were one of the main companies in the process of creation of the Russian Baltic Fleet. The first ship, which is built on Olonetsky shipyards in 1703, was the 28-gun frigate "Standart".
A huge favor advancing Russian troops have brought groups of small river sudenyshek (sailboat, boat, etc.), which are used for transportation of goods on the rivers and lakes. To combat operations were put on their team fighter (10-20 people). In May 1702 in the Strait, which connects the Lake Peipsi and Lake Pskov, a detachment of Russian ships met with the Swedish squadron led by Commander Leshern (Loshernom). Fight lasted a day or three. The Swedes have drowned several sailboat, but the Russian did not retreat, stubbornly trying to get close to the enemy ship and engage in hand to hand combat. In the end, the victory remained with the Russian detachment, the Swedes retreated, having lost three yachts — they have boarded. The Russian squad broke into Lake Peipus.
Acts of war and went on Lake Ladoga, there operated a Swedish squadron of Vice-Admiral Numersa. June 15, 1702 Swedish ships were at the mouth of the Crow, the Swedish crew robbed on the shore of the village. The Russian squad struck an unexpected blow, the Swedes retreated. Another battle took place at Kexholm, the Russian squad of 30 vessels attacked the squadron Numersa. The Swedes lost several ships and 300 men killed and wounded.
As a result, Swedish command took his squadron of Lake Ladoga, no longer feel themselves safe there. Swedish ships on the Neva was taken in the Gulf of Finland. The Russian army was a beautiful opportunity to take the fortress Noteburg (Old Russian Walnut) at the source of the river Neva.
Taking the Noteburg
The fortress was strategically important because it closes the outlet of Lake Ladoga in the sea. Pass this fortress could no Russian ship. Swedes are well aware of the importance of the fortress because Noteburg else for a long time before the Great Northern War was transformed into the main base for the control of the conquered territories. On its walls and bastions stood 150 guns, the garrison consisted of 450 people. An additional difficulty was that the fortress was located on a peninsula, and it was believed that it could not take the attack.
In August 1702, Peter personally spoke with the guards of the Archangel (where he was at that time directed the construction of the fleet), by sending an order Sheremetiev the concentration of forces around the fortress. At the end of September, the army took Sheremeteva both banks of the Neva River at the fortress. To close the fortress from the sea, 50 boats were dragged dragged from Lake Ladoga on the Neva. On the banks of the battery installed to bombard the fortress.
Total besiegers had more than 12 thousand fighter specifically at Walnut and over 20 thousand on the near approaches to it, set on the banks of the 51 siege weapon. Swedish commandant Gustav von Slippenbach thought that it would help the Swedish forces chief in Ingria Kroniort and refused to surrender. But the help of the Swedish garrison did not come: shortly before the start of the siege Noteburg 13 (August 24) Apraxin soundly defeated by the river Izhory Kroniorta squad.
1 (12) October 1702 bombing of the fortress was started, it lasted 10 days and partially damaged the wall Noteburg. But this failed to punch holes. 11 (22), stormed the fortress, the walls of the soldier tossed boat. Fight was 12 hours, but the Swedes doggedly fought off all attacks, Russian forces suffered heavy losses. In the end, Peter decided to continue the siege and end the assault. The situation was saved by the initiative of Prince Misha Mikhailovich Golitsyn. He refused to withdraw: "I do not belong to you, sir, I now belong to God alone." And he gave orders to push away from the shore of the boat, so that a fighter will not be tempted to move away (some still ran away, later hanged deserters). Their aid sent a detachment led by A. Menshikov. Sotke fighter led by Menshikov managed to break through on one of the walls. In the end, the Swedes, having exhausted the ability to resist and surrendered. The surrender was accepted with honor criteria (respect for the courage of the enemy), the Swedish garrison was released on all four sides, kept the banner.
Totals. The Swedes lost 367 men killed and wounded. General loss of the Russian army — about 2 million people. Our homeland regained the ancient Russian fortress Walnut. Peter referred to her Shlissel'burg — "key-city 'because it opened the way to mastering the mouth of the Neva River.
In 1703, the Russian army continued its offensive. Having mastered the middle reaches of the Neva, the Russian troops were ready to storm Nyenschantz. This fortress was located at the mouth of the river Ohta (it flows into the Neva River) and shut out of the Neva River in the Gulf of Finland. The fortress was located on Cape Ohtinskom. In Nyenschantz was a garrison of 600 fighter at 75 guns.
At the end of April 1703 Sheremeteva 20 thousand troops marched along the right bank of the Neva River to the fortress. April 25 (May 6) 2 thousand Russian vanguard that was sent on the ships, stormed the Swedish post (150) at the entrance to the fortress and defeated him. On the same day the fortress began to approach the main forces of the Russian army. The fortress was blocked. April 26 (May 7) to Nyenschantz governor arrived on ships with artillery (16 mortars, 48 siege guns), and siege equipment.
Preparations have begun for the assault: dug trenches, ditches, erected batteries. April 30, the commandant of the proposed surrender. After the failure of the bombardment of the fortress. 1 (12), after a 12-hour assault on the fortress surrendered. May 5 two Swedish ships of the squadron Numersa, not knowing that the fortress fell, came up to her and dropped anchor. Peter and Menshikov at the head of the guards on the rowing boats and stormed the Swedes took the ships boarded. On a fierce battle says that 77 people from the Swedish crew were killed 58 people. In honor of this victory was released medal with the inscription: "Impossible is."
Taking possession of the Neva river completely, Peter decided on it to gain a foothold. Already 16 May 1703 on the banks of the Neva laid the Peter and Paul Fortress, initiated the construction of the modern capital of Russia — Saint-Petersburg. Nienschanz sryli. In the same year, a new order to protect the city from the sea began to build a fortress Kronshlot (Kronstadt). In winter, the peninsula Kotlin landed two regiments, began to construct temporary housing and embankments. The commandant of the fortress was ordered to hold the line until the last soldier.
At the end of May — beginning of June 1703 the Russian forces captured the fortress of Yam, Koporye, Marienburg. As a result, the old Izhorskaya land was freed. Kroniorta squad was defeated. He has held a strong position — on the river Sister, which flows into the Gulf, creating the danger of Petersburg from the north. July 9 at the River Sisters Toutselke Peter with 4 Dragoon and 2 Guards regiments broke the 4 th squad Swedes. Kroniort was thrown on the line Vyborg — Kexholm.
This year, the Russian command planned to seize Narva and Ivangorod Dorpat. Swedish command to divert Russian forces from Livonia and returned in their hands the mouth of the Neva River, decided to put a combined blow from land and sea. On the river's sister was focused and delivered to St. Petersburg 8 thousand detachment of General I. Maydell. His advance was found and prepared for defense.
2 (13) July Swedes began shelling Russian positions, after a 4-hour battle, they did not dare to cross the river, and were obliged to withdraw. The Swedes came back on the river. Sister. At this time, the Swedes tried to storm the sea. 12 (23) July KOTLINA came to the squadron of Admiral de Prua 1 thousand landing party. Troops repulsed an attempt, a two-day bombardment of Russian positions did not give the Swedes retreated. At the beginning of August was repulsed another attempt to capture Petersburg Maydell. In the winter of 1704 was repulsed by the new girl trying to capture the Swedish Navy Kotlin.
At this time, 22 thousand army Sheremeteva went to Dorpat. The city was defended by a garrison of 5 thousand 120 guns under the command of K. Sch
utte. Sheremet for previously provided himself from Peipsi — there stationed Swedish fleet of 13 ships under the command of Commander Loescher (she spent the winter on the river. Embach). Count gave orders to General Verdun with several infantry regiments on board to take the mouth of the river and not let out of the river the Swedish fleet. General placed the troops on both sides of the river, where it narrows, ambush, waited Swedish ships and captured their entire fleet.
Before the storm Dorpat fired from 24 siege guns, 15 mortars, howitzers 7. Night 13 (24), the assault began, Russian troops captured the Russian front half moon gate. Fire 6-trapped Russian Swedish cannons destroyed the gate and took the Powder Tower. After that, Colonel Commandant Schutte surrendered. Taking Dorpat (and the subsequent capture of Narva) Our homeland security reasons Chudskoe from the emergence of the Swedish Navy in it and strengthened the Russian presence in the Baltic.
After the capture of Dorpat Russian army moved to Narva. July 14 was besieged fortress. In Narva was 4.5 thousand garrison at 432 guns under the command of Rudolf Horn. In Ivangorod was a small squad, but 128 guns. Peter Horn offered to hand over the fortress. But he laughed at the king, recalling the siege of 1700.
The Swedes tried to assist the garrison. The squadron of Admiral de Prua twice tried to approach the castle and land troops, but the heavy fire of the shore batteries Swedes were forced to withdraw.
The fortress was subjected to a 10-day artillery bombardment. The bombing brought part of the fortress artillery down and blew a hole in the wall of the three bastions. 9 (20) of August at 2 day or the assault began. In the first band went 3 column (1.6 million people) under the command of General Semenov regiment Chambers, Prince Menshikov and Repnina. An hour later the Russian shock tower captured the main shaft. The Swedes retreated to the old town, the commander gave the order to surrender. But drowned out the noise of battle signals the Swedes. The garrison was largely destroyed. Slaughter could suspend Menshikov and Peter a few hours after capture. A week after the fall of Narva Ivangorod surrendered.
A. Kotzebue, taking Narva.
Results of the campaign 1701-1704 years
— In the four years after the defeat at Narva, the Russian army invaded the entire land Izhorskaya (Ingria), cleared the Swedes much of Estonia and Livonia. For Sweden, there were only Revel, of Pernod and Riga.
— Shlissel'burg fortress, Peter and Paul, Kronshlot Iamburg, Dorpat become a strong pillar of the Russian Federation by the Russian army in the occupied territories.
— The Baltic Fleet was laid.
— The Russian army was a unique experience of war with a powerful enemy, capturing perfectly fortified castles.
— The Russian command correctly chose the main line of attack, in turn developed a success. The slowness of the actions of the Russian armed forces in the North during this period of the war was determined by its organizational shortcomings and the stubborn resistance of the Swedes.
Acts of the Russian army and navy in the years 1702-1704.