Piri Reis map of 1513
In 1929, in the ancient imperial palace in Constantinople was detected card, thrilled many. It was drawn on parchment and dated 919 year according to the Islamic calendar, which corresponds to 1513 of the Christian era. It was a signature Piri Ibn Haji Mammadov, the Turkish Navy Admiral, now known as the Piri Reis.
At the time, Piri Reis made other interesting statements about the sources from which he drew his information. He used about twenty cards, mainly the time of Alexander the Great, and the maps drawn on a rigorous mathematical basis, scientists studying his map, discovered in 1930, could not be accepted with confidence this recognition. But now it turns out to be true.
After some time the card was extinguished the public eye, and scientists have rejected it as analogous to "map of Columbus." On it was not heard until 1956, when Washington by flukes it erupted again interest. Turkish naval officer gave a gift card to American naval hydrographic office.
Map was then directed MI Walters, cartographer Naval Staff.
It so happened that Walters handed his card to a friend, a specialist in ancient cartography and initiating new research directions at the junction with archeology. It was the captain Arlington X. Melleri. After a brilliant career as an engineer, a specialist in the navigation business, archaeologist and writer, he devoted several years to the study of old maps, especially maps Vikings in North America and Greenland. Take the card home, he came to a curious conclusion. In his opinion, it displayed the southern bays and islands of the Antarctic coast, specifically the Queen Maud Land, now hidden beneath the ice. Therefore, someone has already charted this territory when they were free of ice.
These allegations were so incredible that they could not be taken seriously by most professional geographers, although the Walters felt Melleri must be right.
Neither the medieval masters, no known ancient Greek geographers could not draw these maps. Their characteristics indicate the origin of the culture with a higher level of technology than that which has been achieved in the Middle Ages and antiquity.
According to the most Piri Reis, it was a map of the "seven seas" and provided it is still in Africa and Asia, as well as the northern part, in addition to the well-preserved piece.
Found that the position of some points on the Piri Reis map was very accurate, others proved not strictly fixed. Gradually we realized the cause of such errors. It turned out that the card was made up of smaller cards separate areas (perhaps, drawn at different times and by different people), and the errors accumulate as it is created.
Component maps that came from distant antiquity, are more accurate and reliable than the later image the Earth's surface. And it says about the decline of science, from ancient times to modern times.
Longitude and latitude of the coastline is determined accurately. This is true for the North Atlantic islands, with the exception of Madeira. Accuracy of longitude African coast, where it is greatest, can be attributed to our assumption about the center and radius of the projection, but with some amendments.
Portulana of a modern grid shows that the coast, separated by the Atlantic Ocean, are approximately correct corresponding longitude relative to the center of the projection on the meridian of Alexandria. This leads to the conclusion that the first compiler must have defined the correct longitude all the way from Alexandria meridian until Brazil.
It is also important, as most of the islands located in the true longitude.
Accurate binding islands suggests that they were on the old map, which was used by Piri Reis.
Piri Reis, in all probability, had before ancient maps, while in Constantinople, and it is quite possible that some of them ended up in the West long before him.
In 1204, the Venetian fleet, making a crusade to the Holy Land, attacked and captured Constantinople. And within 60 years after the Italian merchants were able to redraw the map of the Byzantine collection.
We have reason to believe that a good map of the St. Lawrence River has been available to Europeans before Columbus' voyage in 1492. It marked even islands near the mouth. Compiled by Martin Behaym this card and put it on a globe, which created shortly before the return of Columbus from the maiden voyage.
Historian Las Casas testified that Columbus was a world map, which he showed to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, after which they were convinced that the idea is not hopeless.
In a number of world maps XVI century shows the Antarctic continent. As will be seen later, Gerhard Mercator believed in its existence. Combining all of the cards, you can select only one or two groups, depending on the different projections. According to them, Antarctica copy or recopy only with amendments different cartographers.
Mercator map of Antarctica
Gerhard Kramer, better known as Mercator, as the most important cartographer XVI century. There is even a tendency to lead the beginning of scientific cartography in his name. And yet there was a cartographer, more interested in antiquity, more restless in search of ancient maps or related with great respect to the study of long-gone eras.
If the Mercator believed in Antarctica, it would be clear why he did not include a map to your Finausa A. Atlas. He did not published a book of fiction. But we have good reason to believe that he can assume probability of the existence of this continent: Antarctica on maps plotted them personally. One of her image appeared on page 9 in the Atlas 1569 edition.
Mercator projection on the map of Antarctica is just the one that was named after him. Meridians go from pole to pole in parallel, and it is, as mentioned, a very exaggerated size of the polar regions
Earlier, in 1538, drew a Mercator world map, and also to Antarctica. Its similarity with the product of A. Finausa amazing, but there are also significant differences. In Mercator Antarctic circle is inside the continent, as well as at Finausa, but not at the same distance from the pole. In other words, it seems that Mercator zoomed.
Map Finausa, as has been shown, the so-called "tsirkulus antarktikus" mistakenly issued for the 80th parallel source. Mercator has violated the original scope, so we can not reconstruct the grid latitude on the map, as we have done in other places. The value of the longitude is exceptionally accurate.
The impression is that Mercator constantly used by the ancient primary sources that were available to him. What happened to them afterwards, we do not know, but their influence can be detected, at least in those cases where the Mercator lacked the information comes from contemporary travelers, and he depended on earlier material.
As for the map of South America in 1569, there pops up a number of interesting details.
First of all, with respect to the northern coast is clear that prevailed over Mercator ancient maps, as well as materials of contemporary expeditions. He incorrectly placed the Amazon to the equator, as it was on the Piri Reis map. But that's true for the river, with a number of bends — meander. Marajó island properly attached to the equator on the projection of the Piri Reis, here confused with the island of Trinidad in the mouth of the Orinoco. Trinidad And so exaggerated in size by half. The south-east coast of South America from the Tropic of Capricorn to Cape Horn at the draw very bad, obviously, as reported by mariners, while the West Coast and in shape is distorted.
And yet, on the map in 1538, that is, a few years earlier, Mercator has already shown more regular outlines the western coast of South America. In what is the reason? We can assume that, in its first map it is based on ancient sources, whereas in 1569 already used materials traveler of his time, who could not correctly determine longitude, just show the general direction of the coast.
World Map Aranteusa Finausa, 1532
Found other portulany Middle Ages and the Renaissance, which can be shown to Antarctica. Showed a number of these cards, because, as mentioned, many cartographers XV and XVI centuries, believed in the existence of the southern continent.
"At the end of the Christmas holidays in 1959 Charles Hapgood was researching Antarctica Reference Room of the Library of Congress in Washington. For weeks on end he worked there over hundreds of medieval maps.
"I found / He writes / lot of amazing things that you did not find the suspect, and several maps depicting the southern continent. Once I turned the page and was dumbfounded. My eyes fell on the southern hemisphere world map, sketched Oronteusom Finiusom in 1531, and I realized that he was a genuine, real map of Antarctica!
The general outline of the continent's remarkably similar to what is shown on modern maps. Almost on the spot, almost in the center of the continent, was the South Pole. Mountain ranges bordering the coast, reminded numerous ridges discovered in recent years, with enough not to consider it as an accidental outcome of imaginative play cartographer. These ranges have been identified, some — coastal, some are in a remote. Since many of these rivers flowed to the sea, very natural and convincing blend into the folds of the terrain. Of course this assumes that at the time of drawing maps of the coast was free of ice. The central part of the continent on the map free of rivers and mountains, which suggests the presence there of the ice cap. '"
"Charles Hapgood taught history of science in the College of Kinski, New Hampshire, USA. He was neither a geologist nor an expert on the history of the ancient world.
"Examining the map of Antarctica on the grid parallels drawn by Aranteusom Finausom, we found that the Antarctic Peninsula, he pulled too far to the north — 15 °. Initially it was thought that he just moved in the direction of the entire continent of South America. Further work, however, showed that the Antarctic coast abnormally stretched in all directions, in some places even go to the tropics. The problem, therefore, was to scale. Using some lengthy card compiler had to stretch the Antarctic Peninsula to Cape Horn, almost completely replaced the Drake Passage. Moreover, this error was made much earlier, because we found the same distortion at all Antarctic maps of the period, including portulan Piri Reis. It is likely that this error allowed in ancient times on the map-the primary source, missing much of the South American coast: in fact she did not have to free space. "
See the map shows the lack of ice at a considerable distance from the coast. This Queen Maud Land, Enderby Land, Wilkes Land, Victoria Land (east coast of the Ross Sea), Marie Byrd Land. Greatly missed points with the same coordinates (with a modern card) for the western coast of the Ross Sea, Ellsworth Land, Land Edith Ronne.
Comparison maps Aranteusa Finausa the map subglacial topography of Antarctica, composed services in various countries during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1959, explains some of the shortcomings of the medieval work, and also sheds light on the extent of glaciation in the time to create maps of the original.
IGY expedition using seismic sounding recreated form the earth's surface, the hidden current ice cap. And it turned out that the western coast of the Ross Sea in general, no, more than that, the bed rock of the continent lies below sea level just between the Ross and Weddell seas. If the ice melts, the same land Ellsworth will not land, ocean and shallow waters.
If the west coast of the Ross Sea and the coast of the Earth Ellsworth are fictitious land, then it becomes obvious absence of certain physical and geographical characteristics of the sector on the map A. Finausa. But it seems that the ice cover, at least in West Antarctica could have existed at the time of mapping, as inland waterways connecting the Ross Sea, Weddell, Amundsen, not shown — it was all ice-bound.
Of course, keep in mind that we had to go through the millennium between the early and late compilation map-schemes of different parts of Antarctica. Therefore we can not definitely conclude that there was a time when East Antarctica ice abounded, and it was absent in Western. Map of East Antarctica in fact could be drawn millennium after the other cards.
Boucher, a French geographer XVIII century, has left to posterity a map that shows the continent at a time when there was no ice at all … If you get rid of the obvious errors in the orientation of Antarctica in relation to other land masses, it is easy to imagine that this map shows the river connecting the Ross Sea, Weddell, Bellingshausen.
In studying the mysteries of ancient maps of Charles Hapgood visited the idea that current theory and timing of the ice ages may be different. Born pole shift hypothesis. Not gradually but abruptly.
Albert Einstein was among the first to recognize this when he decided to make the author of the foreword to the book, written by Hapgood in 1953, still a few years before the latter began exploring the Piri Reis map:
"I often get correspondence from people who want to know my opinion about their unpublished ideas. Clearly, these ideas are very seldom have scientific value. However, the first message that I received from Mr. Hapgood, literally electrified me. His idea is original, it is very simple and, if confirmed, would be of great value to all associated with the history of the earth. "
These "ideas", stated in his book, Hapgood in 1953, are, in fact, the global geological theory that elegantly explains how and why large parts of Antarctica were free of ice and 4000 BC, as well as many other anomalies in Earth science. Briefly his arguments are as follows:
1. Antarctica was not always covered with ice and was once much warmer than it is today
2. Warmer than it was because while physically located at the South Pole, and was located about 2,000 miles north. This "removed it beyond the Antarctic Circle, and is placed in a zone of moderate or cold temperate climate"
3. Continent moved and took his current position within the Arctic Circle in the so-called "displacement of the earth's crust." This mechanism, which is not to be confused with plate tectonics and continental drift, associated with periodic movements of the lithosphere, the outer crust of the Earth as a "round the soft inner body, much as they might have to move around the orange peel pulp, if the connection between them is gone '
4. In this process of "travel" to the south Antarctica are cooling, and on it little by little, but surely grow for thousands of years, the ice cap has not yet acquired the present shape.
Einstein summed up the opening so Hapgood:
"The polar region is a constant accumulation of ice, which is located symmetrically around the pole. The earth's rotation acts on these asymmetric mass, creating a centrifugal moment that passed the rigid crust. When the magnitude of this moment exceeds a certain critical value, it causes the earth's crust relative to the location within the body of the Earth … "."
"The only ice age, having an adequate explanation, that the present glaciers in Antarctica. It is perfectly explained. It is clear that it exists simply because Antarctica is on the pole, and more over nothing. This fact is independent of variations in the amount of solar heat, or from the galactic dust, or from volcanic activity, or from the currents flowing under the bark, and in no way linked to the rise of land or ocean currents. Hence the conclusion that the best theory to explain the ice age, the one that says, because this place was a Pole. Thus, it is easy to explain the presence in the last glaciation in India and Africa, but today these places are in the tropics. In the same way one can explain the origin of any continental-scale glaciation. "
What kind of data is that Antarctica was not always icy continent?
In 1949, in one of Byrd's Antarctic expedition of Sir from the bottom of the Ross Sea were sampled sediments. It was produced by drilling. Dr. Jack Hoof from University of Illinois took the three cores to study the evolution of the climate in Antarctica. They were transferred to the Carnegie Institute of Washington (DC), which used a new dating method, developed a nuclear physicist Dr. W. D. Uri.
This method is called for short ionic. In this case, operate the three radioactive elements in sea water in certain proportions — uranium ionium, radium. However, during the collapse of their differences, and this means that a roll in the bottom sediment and the cessation of the hydrological cycle of these radioactive elements is reduced, but not to the same degree. Therefore, in the preparation and examination of benthic samples in the laboratory can determine their age to change the proportions of these elements in marine sediments.
The nature of the bottom sediments varies greatly depending on the climatic conditions prevailing at the time of their formation. If they were brought out by rivers and deposited in the sea, then they are well-sorted, and the better the further fall of the river mouth. If they are stripped from the surface ice and made the sea iceberg. Then their character matches coarse material. If the river has a seasonal cycle, occurring only in the summer, most likely, from the melting of glaciers in the inland areas, and freezing every winter, then the precipitation will form layers like the annual rings of trees.
All these types of sediment were found in benthic cores. Ross Sea. The most striking was the presence of a number of layers formed of well-sorted sediments brought to the sea by rivers of ice-free land. As can be seen from the core, for the last million years, Antarctica was at least three times a temperate climate, when the banks of the Ross Sea were to be free of ice.
Time of the last warm period in the Ross Sea, a certain Dr. Uri, was huge for us. All three cores show that warming ended about 6,000 years ago, or in the fourth millennium BC This was when the glacial sediments began to accumulate at the bottom of the Ross Sea in the next ice age to us. Kern convinces us that this was preceded by a longer warming.
Thus it appears that the ice-free Antarctica was already in existence of ancient civilizations, not the hundreds of thousands of years ago, as it was previously thought.
Alfred Veneger-founder of the theory of glaciation, apparently was aware of the mechanism of "ice watch", but did not dare to disclose their knowledge. Official science during the life of a genius after mocking him. It poisoned everything, only not quite so lazy "kicked" him. He was cautious, and suddenly became addicted to travel to Greenland, where eventually died tragically.
Such is the brief history of the emergence of the theory of tectonic catastrophes in the nation went under the name of "pole shift."
But it follows many of the conclusions. Once there are old maps, which shows Antarctica without ice, then we can assume the existence of an advanced civilization that could produce such mapping is before glaciation. But where this civilization is gone then?
The fact that the shift will cause the Earth's crust shifts of water in the oceans, similar to that which occurs in a sharply move the plate. It is this theory can explain the biblical Flood. But such an event does not bear any civilization. After such people survived slide into barbarism and civilization have lost many achievements. This also works for the understanding of where lost Atlantis. It will not go away. After the wave destroyed her set life, she became covered with ice. Now we know it as Antarctica. Hardly possible archaeological research under the ice thickness over a kilometer. Part of the knowledge that civilization has survived to our time in the form of maps, repaint with a more ancient astronomical concepts crafts. No wonder many people have stories about people who have come from overseas and teaching them crafts, writing, and lots more.
That's the story. There is not a preponderance of evidence of its correctness. But available not allow to ignore.
Category: Mystery stories