Manipulation: The infusion of false memory


Sometimes, watching TV, we wonder: does anyone believe this nonsense? Alas, they believe.
Virtually every invention finds some part of the audience uncritically receptive all she inspired.

But it seems that the situation is even worse: it turns out human memory is arranged in such a way that it can be made even distorted information that the person knows himself, in person, and he will be unable to distinguish the real from the fictitious incident.

The first experiments on the implantation of false memory held in the 90's of last century, Elizabeth Loftus. She handed out 24 participants in the experiment brief (one paragraph) description of the four stories that happened to them at the age of 4 to 6 years old — and three stories were true (they told relatives of participants), and the fourth devoted to how party lost a child in a supermarket , was completely fictional. Participants were told that they were involved in an experiment to study the possibility of a detailed reconstruction of childhood memories, and asked to write the first, and a week later to tell the details in an interview given to them four stories as they remember them.

Six out of 24 participants not only "remembered" as they were lost in a supermarket, but also told the episode in colorful detail, although it notes that the memories of it a bit more vague than that of the other three episodes. However, an observer could not talk to them to determine which of the four events is false. Subsequent experiments showed that, depending on the initial conditions, in one form or another implantation of false memory in a similar experiment conducted by Loftus is achieved in 20-40% of participants.

The greatest success achieved Kimberly Wade in 2002. In the experiment, she used not to describe the history and fabricated picture balloon flight, which allegedly previously committed participant experiment. As a result, about 50% of the participants to form a full or partial memories of the flight — which has never been.

Most famous was the case with Paul Ingram, the prosecution's own children in the fact that he regularly raped them when they were between 4 and 12 years. Was charged years after the alleged events, so no physical evidence was not. Ingram denied everything, but after five months of interrogation, under pressure from the police suddenly confessed literally all sins, including not only rape their own children, but also participation in satanic rituals, including the murder of 25 children. The psychologist Richard Ofshe, an interest in this case, decided on the original experiment: he knowingly prepared a false story to the effect that children Ingram also claim that he forced them to have sex with each other. Ponalachu Ingram denied the event, but after a few hours gradually began "remembering" Ofshe described events, and as a result has written a three-page written confession. When, later, Ingram reported that these events were completely fictional, he refused to believe it. This case shows that can be implanted almost any false memories, including a sharply negative. And, of course, we are talking not only about false memories of the Ingram, but probably about false memories of his children (as indicated by the fact that they thought of the alleged violence perpetrated by their father as adults, and that that during the trial they remembered more and more details.)

Another interesting experiment is on the accuracy of memories of real events, set Ulrich Neisser. In 1986, the day after the disaster of the "Challenger", he interviewed a number of people where they were and what they were doing at the time, when we heard about the disaster — is that the memory is clearly imprinted on the circumstances in which a person experiences severe emotional distress. After a while gonorrhea repeated the same survey among the same people — and almost none of them later did not coincide with the early, in fact, when they were shown a record of the first version of their responses, people just did not believe in it. It's funny that the same thing happened to Neisser himself: he says he remembers very clearly that of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, learned during the broadcast of a baseball game — though absolutely certain that there are no broadcasts baseball games in that day was not simple.

The progress of science is not static, and is now "researchers" have achieved even more. According to some reports, are already known structure of the brain responsible for the replacement of the real memory will come up, and control the activity of these structures during the process can be checked — acted "brainwashing" or not, the subject believe in false memories or just pretending.
Ten strategies for psychological manipulation media

1. Distraction

The basic element of social control is the strategy of distraction. The purpose — to divert public attention from important issues to be solved by political and economic elites, with the help of technology, "flood" or "flooding" continuous distraction and little information.
The strategy of distraction is important not to give citizens the opportunity to receive important knowledge in the field of science, economics, psychology, neurobiology, and cybernetics.

2. Create a problem — offer a solution

This method is also called "problem-reaction-solution." It creates a problem, "situation", causing a reaction of the public — that people have started to desire her decision. For example, to allow the growth of urban violence, or arrange for bloody attacks that citizens have demanded the enactment of laws to strengthen security measures and policies that restrict civil liberties.

3. The strategy of gradualism

To implement unpopular decisions, you just need to apply them slowly, drop by drop over the years. That's what was imposed entirely new socio-economic conditions (neoliberalism) in the 80's and 90's: limited role of the state, privatization, precariousness, flexibility, mass unemployment, wages, which no longer provides a decent life. That is, all those changes while implementing would cause a revolution.

4. Postponement strategy

Another way to take unpopular decisions, is to present it as "painful and necessary" and to achieve at the moment the consent of citizens to implement them in the future.

5. Baby talk to the people

Most advertising, aimed at the general public uses the language, arguments, characters, and especially the intonation that appeal to children. If the viewer a very young child or has mental retardation. Why? "If you go to the destination, if he 12 years or less, according to the laws of perception is likely that it will respond or react uncritically — as a child."

6. More emotion than thought

Using the emotional aspect — is a classic technique for blocking the rational analysis and critical abilities of individuals. In addition, the use of human emotions opens the door to the subconscious to bring back thoughts, desires, fears, fear, coercion or desired behaviors.

7. To keep people in ignorance and mediocrity

Creating a related company, incapable of understanding the technologies and methods of social control and oppression. "The quality of education for the lower classes of society, should be as meager and mediocre to ignorance gap between lower and higher social classes remained and could not be overcome."

8. Encourage the mass carried away mediocrity.

To introduce the idea to the masses, it is fashionable to be stupid, vulgar and rude.

9. Reinforce a sense of guilt

To make sure that individuals believed that they are to blame for their problems and failures due to lack of intelligence, ability, or effort. Thus, instead of rebelling against the existing system, individuals feel helpless, do samoedstvom. This leads to depression, is effective in containment of human actions.

10. Know about the people more than they currently

In the last 50 years scientific advances have led to the rapid growth of the knowledge gap between the bulk of the society and those who belong to the ruling elites, or used by them. Thanks to biology, neurobiology and applied psychology, the "system" uses advanced knowledge of the human being, physically or psychologically. This means that in most cases, the "system" has more control and more power over the individual than the individual over himself.

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