Astronomers could not understand what had happened to our luminary in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Sunspots while almost completely disappeared, solar activity has fallen below the levels recorded in the last century, the sun's magnetic field weakened, respectively, in the upper layers of Earth's atmosphere, too cold.
In the latest issue of the journal Nature published an article revealing the causes of this phenomenon. An international team of astronomers led by Professor Dibendu Nandi (Dibyendu Nandi) from the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, conducted computer simulations of the processes occurring in the Sun, and came to the conclusion that the failure occurred during the plasma flows inside the star. They interfered with the formation of sunspots and prolonged the period of minimum solar activity.
Schematic representation of the processes inside the Sun
Sunshine manages Conveyor Belt — meridional plasma flow loop, something resembling our Gulf Stream. They move along the surface of the equator to the poles, the poles dive to 300 thousand kilometers down again to emerge at the equator. While diving, they capture with a sun spots, which by that time begin to disintegrate and lose a magnetic field. Solar dynamo in the center of the star, which gives the sun its magnetic field, the newly revived magnetize and sun spots, and then they pop up on the surface like a cork out of the water.
Nandi group first took into account in the computer model, all these circumstances, and found out that it all started in the last century, at the end of the 23rd solar cycle. In the last years of the twentieth century conveyor belt sped up too quickly dragged into the remains of sunspots for the next resuscitation. Because of the high speed spot slipped zone resuscitation before had time to gain traction, and ceased to float to the surface. Now the cycle gradually restored, but still expect delays beginning of the 24th solar cycle.