In 1900, near the Greek island of Antikythera was found a unique find, which 100 years later, was to become a sensation. This is the so-called Antikythera mechanism. Portions of this, scientists believe the device was found near the wreck in 65 BC ancient ship, which according to some versions resulted from Rhodes to Rome. Amazing discovery — a few strange-looking parts — along with numerous amphoras and statues were placed in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. It is possible that fragments of the device, covered in limestone, at first were considered as a piece of the statue. Anyway, forget about the unique artifact exactly half a century …
In 1951 he took up the study of artifacts English science historian Derek de Solla Price. It was he who first suggested that found at the bottom of the Aegean Sea debris — is part of a mechanical computing device. He also conducted the first X-ray of the mechanism fragments and even was able to build his scheme. Price's article in the magazine Scientific American, published in 1959, sparked interest in ancient artifacts. Perhaps due to the fact that for the first time dared Price mechanism called "old computer."
In 1971 he was drafted complete scheme Antikythera mechanism, consisting of 32 gears. However, despite all efforts to the study, the instrument has remained a mystery to mankind for many years. While for his study did not come from modern scholars.
In 2002, an expert on mechanical devices from the London Science Museum Michael Wright created his own reconstruction of the ancient instrument. Wright also surmised that the mechanism could create the movement of the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Saturn and Jupiter. And three years later, in 2005, launched a joint Greek-English project Antikythera Mechanism Research Project, which is to undertake a detailed study of the mechanism. At the same time, scientists announced the discovery of new, previously unknown fragments.
By 2006, scientists have been able to read about 95% of the inscriptions found on the fragments of the ancient device (about 2000 Greek characters). At the same time confirmed the hypothesis expressed earlier by Michael Wright: using Antikerskogo mechanism could indeed simulate the motion of the Moon, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, Mars and Saturn. In the same year for the first time introduced a new reconstruction, which consisted of 37 found the sunken Roman vessel of bronze gears, 30 of which were kept in a museum before, and 7 others were "hypothetical" missing. In total, the mechanism consisted of about 82 pieces.
July 30, 2008 in Athens, was made public the final report of a study Antikythera Mechanism Research Project. Now, scientists have found the following:
1. The device could perform addition, subtraction and division. It follows that this is a — a sort of ancient calculator.
2. Antikythera mechanism is able to take into account the elliptical orbit of the moon.
3. The reverse side of the mechanism, heavily damaged, was used to predict solar and lunar eclipses.
4. The text on the device is a common instruction manual.
"The texts are the usual instructions on using the device, which lists the parts of the mechanism, — says Yanis Bitsakis. — It became apparent that with the device could determine the distances between the planets. "
Of instructions (if indeed there is one) may indicate that the device was originally manufactured in Rhodes unknown (?) Master, intended for use by those who were not familiar with any technique of manufacturing machinery, nor to the basic principles of instrument operation. Put simply, the manufacturer and the consumer — not the same person.
Another problem faced by the researchers was to determine the exact date of the creation mechanism. Radiocarbon analysis by a few decades ago, carried the remains of a Roman ship to 65 BC, but thanks to the X-ray equipment used by experts from the Antikythera Mechanism Research Project, dating has been completely revised. It turned out that the "old computer" was created in 150-100 years. BC
It also raises another question: who should be considered the author of such an unusual inventions? Of course, such a "profitable" discovery could not use proponents paleocontacts. According to the extended version, Antikythera mechanism — a unique evidence of presence on Earth more advanced civilizations extraterrestrial origin that the goodness of his heart, only for altruistic reasons, our ancient ancestors were taught what's what. The result of this "study" allegedly became "Greek Computer". However, we will consider only plausible version.
Some researchers tend to attribute authorship of the Antikythera mechanism philosopher Posidonius, and cited as evidence the words of Cicero. Roman politician and philosopher, in his book "On the Nature of the Gods", wrote:
"If the Scythians or the Britons showed sphere, which was recently made by our friend Posidonius, which rotates and shows the movement of the sun, moon and five stray light during the day and night, just as it is in heaven, do even one of these barbarians are not realized that it is a creation of the thinking mind? "
True, the "sphere" Antikythera mechanism, even with a strong desire, can not be named. According to scientists, the device was mounted in a wooden case size 32x16x10 cm
Other researchers attribute authorship mechanism great Greek mathematician, physicist, and engineer Archimedes of Syracuse (287 BC — 212 BC). In this connection, it should seek to work S.Zhitomirskogo "Archimedes" in which he suggests that the Antikythera mechanism may be one of the options for so-called "Archimedes globe." Globe, with which it was possible to observe the motion of the moon, sun, planets and constellations was first mentioned in the I. BC
In the work of Cicero "On state" one of the participants described the conversation globe, invented by Archimedes:
"I remember how I once with Gaius Sulpicius Gallus, one of the most learned men of our country … was a guest of the Marcellus … and Mark Gill asked him to bring the famous" sphere ", the only trophy that Marcellus grandfather wanted to decorate the house after taking Syracuse, a city full of treasures and wonders. I have often heard tell of this "field", which is considered a masterpiece of Archimedes, and I must admit that at first I did not find it anything special. More beautiful and more famous among the people was another area, created by the same Archimedes, which the same Marcellus gave to the church of Valor. But when Gill began with great skill to explain to us the unit of this device, I came to the conclusion that the Sicilian had a talent more than the way in which a person can have. For Gall said that … solid void-free area was invented a long time … but, — said Gall — a sector, which would be represented by the movement of the sun, moon and five stars, called … wandering, could not be created in the form of a solid body; Archimedes amazing invention by the fact that he thought of how, with disparate movements during one rotation preserve unequal and different ways. When Gall brought this area to move, happened so that this ball Bronze Sun Moon was replaced for the same number of turns, how many days it was replaced it at the sky … ".
Of course, we should not exclude the fact that Antikythera mechanism could be improved versions of "Archimedes globe." Zhytomyr himself puts it this way:
"The fact that Archimedes were successors, is testified by the remains of the astronomical clock (astronomical calendar or mobile), I related to. BC Parts of the device were found in 1900 on the raised from the seabed near the island Antikitira ancient ship. These parts were covered with a thick layer of sediment. Laborious work began on clearing and reconstruction of the device, which lasted more than a decade and has not fully completed yet. The device consists of a bronze box that housed several disks connected complex system of gears. The disks are traces of zodiac signs, months, gradings. Antikitirsky device may be a "flat" version of the Archimedean globe. Archimedes' book about the device celestial globe, containing a description of its mechanisms, has been known for a long time. So it is likely that much of the design of mechanical watches, which is the birthplace of Byzantium, was inspired by Archimedes — creator mechanical celestial globe. "
One way or another, but if we assume that ancient mechanism found in the Aegean Sea in 1900 — an advanced and refined model of the "Globe of Archimedes", the mystery shrouding many decades Antikersky mechanism dissipates like fog. Alas, there is no space alien technology, and certainly it would be naive to believe that the famous inventor of Syracuse came into contact with other civilizations, who shared with him "secret" knowledge. And the "Globe Archimedes" is probably one of the most compelling arguments against the army of hunters and skeet aliens from other worlds, because clearly demonstrates the potential of the ancient scholars, knowledge and technical achievements of the culture, whose members, according to the proponents of the theory paleocontacts not could own, without someone's help, to create "so complicated that time" mechanisms.
On the other hand, a number of researchers (among them historians) still doubt the possibility of Greek science II. BC Greeks, they say, could not have the necessary knowledge and, most importantly, the technology that will allow you to create such a complex instrument, which is the Antikythera mechanism. For example, for the manufacture of gears at first had to learn the technique of metal and use even the simplest, yet the lathe.
We should not discount the possibility that the ancient Greeks could borrow the technical achievements of other cultures, in the first place — the Babylonian and Egyptian. The Babylonians, for example, used astronomical calendars in the V century. BC, the Egyptians had a vast knowledge of astronomy. But this is no more than a guess, which, incidentally, is not a step closer to unraveling the main researchers "secrets" Antikythera mechanism, why the ancient technology of the device has been lost? A clue to this fact can be quite simple.
If the finding is really dates back 150-100 years. BC, as in this case can be explained by the fact that similar devices have appeared only in the XVIII century.? In other words, why technology and knowledge applied in the creation of a mechanism Antikerskogo was lost and remained unknown to science until the XVIII century? Was made mechanism in a single copy, or not? If not, why did not detect other similar devices? Some researchers suggest that the bronze of which were made such arrangements represented in those times of great value, and, of course, can not be allowed to divide the precious material. In short, the instruments were to be melted. And it's a miracle that Antikersky mechanism still preserved to this day.
"Of fundamental importance can be considered that the only example of a mechanism by which we now have, fell into our hands from the wreck — which is why he was not melted," — said Mike Edmunds.
That is, it is "due to" the shipwreck of the Roman ship carrying Antikythera mechanism, modern scholars now have an outstanding unique artifacts directly related to the ancient science. However, not everything is as simple as it seems at first glance …
"What if this is an item conventional steam machine or ship engine? — Says Doctor of Sciences Viktor Tikhomirov. — Why not, as in the port bays Aegean this good by the thousand. "
Indeed, a rather interesting version. But what of the inscriptions found on the parts of the device, which, according to scientists, is a description of work and rules of operation of the device?
Bold enough is another hypothesis, totally rejects the existence of a complex mechanical device that can perform arithmetic operations and to calculate the dates of solar and lunar eclipses. What if scientists simply wishful thinking? Is not it a mistake to separate the gears found recognition component parts of one whole mechanism? It is not excluded after all, that the 7 "hypothetical" elements added by the experts during the last reconstruction, are just finalizing some of the simplest mechanism for the Greek? In this case, we are not dealing with an "extraordinary device", as described by Mike Edmunds, and with a false reworked by modern scholars of ancient Greek model of primitive mechanics. An indirect confirmation of this is the complete absence of any unique Antikythera mechanism in history, the absence of his images and descriptions. Of course, one would assume that the device was still made in one piece, but this explanation does not relieve us of the question posed earlier: Why no mention of the device in the written records of the time and why the technology of the mechanism has been lost? Perhaps no technology existed?
Numerous sources, particularly susceptible to different sensations, prefer to call Antikythera mechanism is an ancient computer. Here's what he wrote, for example, the magazine "Results" in 2007: "The conclusion reached by the experts, the bizarre: the device, raised from the bottom of the Aegean Sea and constructed more than two thousand years ago, can be considered the prototype of the modern computer."
Even Mike Edmunds, a professor at Cardiff University, who led the Greek-Russian project to study Antikerskogo mechanism firmly believes that the ancient device is the astronomical clock, not embarrassed at the same time called the device "calendar computer."
Of course, you can arbitrarily long talk about the complexity of the mechanism, arguing about its origin, to attribute authorship of the instrument to a particular old inventor, but one thing is clear — this is not a computer and certainly not an invention of extraterrestrial aliens, since the mechanism was created using completely " Earth "technology and using all available knowledge at the time. Thanks to the latest research of modern scientists today, we can say with confidence that the hypothesis of an extraterrestrial origin Antikythera mechanism, which some proponents advocate paleocontacts — myth.