In the 1938-1939-th years, there was one of the greatest discoveries of the world's population — the possibility of spontaneous fission of uranium. Immediately after that was held in Kharkov, a special conference, which concerned the practical application of this discovery. The prominent Russian scientists have ideas about that on the basis of the theoretical developments could make some machine that can be used for certain purposes colossal, as it turns out, the energy of the atomic nucleus.
Since 1940, an active work to translate theoretical principles into real practice. In the middle of the scientists who began to find ways to solve this prepyadstviya were Ioffe, Kurchatov, Zel'dovich, Yu.B.Khariton, GNFlerov, K.A.Petrzhak and others. With all of this, many scientists realized that the practical side of using the internal energy of the nucleus of an atom can be realized in the form of an unprecedentedly massive guns, capable, as said at a meeting of Kapitsa, not even damage the street, and a multi-million dollar city. Russian control, realizing that the work on the nuclear fission of uranium is a very promising character, intensely supported the work of this dilemma.
First a hypothetical version of the bomb explosion in the database which was to be used nuclear energy, appeared in works V.S.Shpinelya and V.A.Maslova. They suggested that there are two parts to the subcritical uranium weight in a certain capacity and divide their wall made of an explosive. At some point in time bulkhead blew and sub-critical mass needed to unite and transform into a single mass, capable, in their opinion, be undermined. But Maslov and Spinel have not considered a number of substantial opposition, which would have prevented the compound 2-masses in the quantities required for a nuclear explosion. The project, of course, was not implemented.
Once started majestic Russian project to develop nuclear fission of uranium was rolled. But many researchers have tried to convey to the management of the country that such work can not be interrupted, because in this case the Soviet Union can significantly lag behind the Western states, where a work in progress (it is first the United States and Nazi Germany). In December 1941 V.A.Flerov in a letter Kurchatov portrays own mock bombs, according to which it should be the iron cylinder, in which the cavity with enough acceleration to enter the assembly of uranium -235 in a special envelope. Need to see that the idea of using uranium -235 in fact belonged to the British and South American physicists who came to the conclusion that this particular element has unique qualities very effectively splitting. This kind of information was due to the wealth of Russian scientists will arrive from London intelligence.
The challenge was to make a dynamic setting, which would allow uranium into the cylinder charge at a rate of up to 3 km / s.
In 1942, under the pressure of Russian scientists, and eventually read the data on the Russian exploration work on the problem of nuclear fission of uranium in the West, Stalin takes the decision to resume the activities "of uranium." You can imagine for yourself how the country's standing, perhaps on the verge of crushing military defeat, it was hard to conduct scientific work. Stalin ordered that Russian scientists were involved in "the work on uranium" in Kazan. Has been allocated for this particular laboratory and provided all necessary for normal activity of Russian professionals.
With all of this participant in the dilemmas of uranium Dr. Kurchatov wrote a rather critical letters to the address Russian control with calls to strengthen the "uranium" work, that the Soviet Union was not behind the U.S. and the UK. And the gap could be significant even as new intelligence showed that the British had already experimented extensively on the atomic bomb, calculating the ratio of the masses of uranium-235 in different parts of this kind of tool. To the letter of Dr. Stalin treated with the utmost seriousness and ordered to make a 2nd lab to address the problems of nuclear weapons.
Since March 1943, the 2nd lab starts its activity. But still the Americans ahead of Russian physicists in terms of practical use of nuclear fission of uranium-235. In December 1942, Enrico Fermi in Chicago makes the first nuclear reactor in the world to uranium-graphite base. This spurred Russian physicists for more active work. Specifically, in 1943 the USSR receives data from its own British agents that the West learned that the analogue of uranium-235 in the development of an effective nuclear weapon could be some 94-th element of the recurring system which received the title of plutonium-239. "British" data in the same time period suggest that Western scientists have confirmed experimentally by the spontaneous fission of uranium, which, incidentally, was opened Russian physicists Petrzhak and Flerov.
In 1943 Kurchatov based on their work and the survey data identifies important thesis that the subsequent acts in the direction of nuclear fusion will make a nuclear weapon.
1944 th and 1945 th years were, in fact, a turning point in the development of practical aspects of using nuclear fission of uranium in the Soviet Union. At the highest level has been entrusted to shop for the heavy water plant also work on uranium hexafluoride, which is the raw material for devices for the separation of uranium isotopes. Before that Kurchatov asked permission to verbovanie "uranium" Landau calculations.
In May 1944, Kurchatov provides the latest scheme for the structure of the atomic bomb. In this scheme shows that the aviation atomic bomb — is a cylindrical shell at both ends of which shall be the working substance (or uranium-235 or plutonium-239). The bomb driven by the explosion of a powder charge that promotes rapprochement 2-broken masses of the working substance. But — the new girl the problem: getting a sufficient amount of uranium-235. At this time, an important intelligence comes from the U.S., which sheds light on the procedure for the preparation of a suitable amount of nuclear fuel.
To increase the intensity of the 2nd lab with the filing of the decision of Stalin M.G.Pervuhina Kurchatov and it was decided to raise the status. In the end, the laboratory was specifically monitored only senior bureaucrats and the Soviet Union, namely, Beria.
In 1945 the 2nd laboratory were tasked to make a factory project to obtain 75-grams of uranium-235 per day. However, these amounts should have been created only only one section of the plant. In addition, the lab plans to obtain uranium was listed boilers and technical specifications for the design of the atomic bomb.
In February 1945, the United States received intelligence from the analysis of which it was found that there is also another method for the creation of the atomic bomb in contrast to the approach developed by the method of the radioactive substance. In addition, began to receive detailed data about the success of German physicists in terms of the creation of the atomic bomb on a good representation of the Russian physicists plans.
Creation of the atomic bomb in the USSR went the other
way, which bears the title with internal implosion of rapid neutrons. It can be concluded that the Russian physicists refer to intelligence from the United States, Britain and Germany, with the utmost seriousness. With all of this, all data carefully analyzed and added to the Russian operating time, which greatly accelerates the workflow.
In the middle of July 1945, the Americans had a first in the history of nuclear weapons testing, and in August of the same year stormed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. By the way, on test at Los Alamos Russian intelligence reported higher management of the country exactly 10 days before the start of the tests. Stalin reacts immediately to the use of nuclear weapons by the United States and puts the development of this kind of weapon in the USSR priority.
Dr. IVKurchatov continues to convince the higher authorities that the theoretical development of Landau can speed up the process of creating nuclear weapons in the USSR. Landau begin to work actively.
Appeared and own the South American equivalent of Los Alamos in the town of Sarov, or Arzamas-16. In 1946, for work on the development of atomic weapons was refocused several plants in different regions of the USSR.
This gave the results: in December 1946, was launched first in the USSR boiler uranium-graphite base. In June 1948 took place the first launch of a nuclear reactor in the USSR. A little more than a year (in August 1949) at the Semipalatinsk test site was tested first Russian atomic bomb RDS-1. Speaking of which, so far it is not clear why Stalin refused to approve a resolution on testing nuclear weapons.
After the report on successful tests of nuclear weapons Stalin decided to award all participants of development. With all this IVKurchatov received the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, was awarded the Stalin Prize in the amount of 1 million rubles, the ZIS-110, cottages and mansion-house with the whole situation. In addition, the Kurchatov along with his wife had the right to freely use what ever means of transport in the area of the USSR. Academic Yu.B.Khariton received a similar appreciation from the top management of the country. Apart from the Kurchatov and Chariton received the highest merit further 30 scientists, among whom GNFlerov, and APVinogradov and Zel'dovich. Were awarded the Order of Lenin Landau, APAleksandrov and a number of other scholars.
In his own memoirs Yu.B.Khariton states of the team to build the atomic bomb as an unprecedented feat in the languid years for the country.
We should not forget that while the South American physics were relaxed to address the difficulties of creation of nuclear weapons, the Soviet Union was a majestic Russian war. The fate of the people and the country hung in the balance, and at this time the professional Russian physicists do not turn away from the problem, literally, no of days, nor NIGHT MODE. Yes, they got valuable intelligence on the progress on the nuclear weapon in the West, but it can not be regarded as outright plagiarism. After all, the same can be accused of plagiarism, and then the very first creators of the atomic bomb-Americans who used the theoretical base formed by Russian physicists in the 30's. Because nuclear tool — The embodiment of thoughts and Huge labor, no doubt, excellent academics and the Soviet Union, the U.S. and Germany.