Today, hardly anyone remembers that last button was an important magical amulets designed scare forces hostile to man. In the hollow pellet placed buttons, a piece of tin or round stone produced when moving muffled noise like the sound of bells. So the buttons turned into lore.
Among various kinds of charms — embroidery, stones, beads, magical images, etc. — Widely used in the "noisy" jewelry, for example, bells, was placed on the collar or on a chain.
The excavations in Novgorod was found a shirt a young merchant, on the collar which contains the large wicker red button that does not close and is unlikely to be a decoration. Given the fact that the red color of the Slavs vested property scare away evil spirits (and therefore was very popular), it can be argued that the red button served as a talisman. The principle of weaving buttons to these days, Chinese buttons in the form of a "monkey fist" and similar woven knots "Josephine" in France — nothing but an echo of the old magic motifs.
Old Russian buttoned-weights
Magical nature was determined in two ways:
+ drawings (patterns, etc.) on the button, and
+ form (for example, the shape of an egg or an acorn is a symbol of fertility).
According to the beliefs of our ancestors, the gates of clothing — a very important detail in mystical terms: for the most vulnerable to the evil forces are the most exposed parts of the body — the neck and face. Evil spirits can not be allowed through the human body. In this regard, the first button placed on the collar and sleeves and decorated Blessed patterns, designed to scare the owners of clothing evil spirits.
Indeed, the very frequent archaeological finds are old Russian buttons "weights" that decorated collars peasant shirts. Almost all of them have expressly magical significance. Are the most common symbols of the sun — a spiral or circle with a dot in the middle. This is understandable: the sunlight drives the forces of darkness. Less common signs of land and planted fields.
Buttons on coats. About X century.
Absolutely wonderful history associated with the magic buttons, leading academic B.A.Rybakov in his book "Ancient Pagan Russia". Onega epic "On Duke Stepanovich CHURILOV Plenkovic", written in the late nineteenth century, refers to the magic button on his coat Duke Stepanovich, through which he urged his magical helpers — "beasts rykuchih" "birds klevuchih":
A young lord Duke S.
Became pletochkoy povazhivat on buttons,
Buttons on the button of tinkling.
As of buttons was yes to buttons,
Klevuchie birds flew here,
Naskakali rykuchie animals here …
Buttons in the archaeological finds dominated bronze and copper, but the researchers believe that the metal was simply the best preserved in the ground. In life, certainly more common made of simple scrap materials — wood and bone. Also characterized by the presence of jewelry from buttons themselves (in the form of brushes).
Buttons. Silver and enamel. XVI-XVII centuries.
The belief in the mystical power button was still alive in the people still in relatively recent times. In 1931, the London Sunday Time newspaper publishes the article "Button murdered king," which says that in Ufa province security officers arrested the farmer who owned the "magic buttons", as if belonging to Nicholas II. The farmer had treated the royal button of all patients Ufa. According to him, a week before the assassination of Tsar in Yekaterinburg button was given to him with the Red Army, stood guard at the Ipatiev House. Doctor assured naive Bashkirs, that button is endowed with miraculous power, enough to make it to the affected area to heal. The most amazing thing is that the Bashkirs really recovered …
"Buttons" in the Russian language closely related with the words "scare", "scared", "pop gun." Perhaps this is due precisely to the fact that the protective and daunting function buttons have long been leading the Slavs. There is also the name of "pugalka," which, according to the dictionary Dahl, persistent in some Russian dialects (called the bell is placed on the collar or on a chain).
Buttons with dining royal coats
In the pre-Petrine Russia buttons on clothing was a sort of "calling card" of the owner. Their number, form, available at the patterns and marks they could tell about the situation of a person, his services, proximity to power. For each type of dress was supposed to a specific number of buttons: the caftan was sewn on 3, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13 or 19 buttons, a fur coat — 8, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, etc. The largest number of buttons were supposed to have on Tigil (Quilted coat with short sleeves, worn by warriors).
In the future, indicating the role of the buttons is very developed — and the king's, and Soviet, and in our times, uniform buttons professional, military, educational institutions, the media talk about the accessories.