Peruvian city of Caral — cradle of civilization

More than a century ago, American archaeologists discovered in Peru, near Lima, a few fragments of pottery utensils, which was not less than four thousand years. Despite such advanced age, the findings were quite primitive and well forget about them. But in 1994 these places was a powerful Pacific storm, flushed with a layer of sand area near the village of Kara. Below it, as it turned out, had been buried for centuries the mysterious ruins.

The first find of interest Rashio Professor Carlos Vecchio, representing the National Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology in Peru. Specialist remembered local Indian legend of the beautiful city of sun-worshipers, in which stones, lit by the sun, turned to gold. But the moment a person reach out to jewelry, they light up and evaporate.

Stories about the beautiful city preserved and local farmers. Despite the fact that officially they appear Catholics, their religion has kept many pagan customs. The Indians believed that these places used to be buried under the sands of the city of their ancestors, who were sun-worshipers. Therefore, they often come to this place to talk to the spirits of ancestors. They also believed that the ruins of the city still burns an eternal flame.

Professor found another local legend, written in the 18th century by Spanish missionaries, who claimed to be an eternal flame was a reliable protection of the city where there was not even the walls. However, residents of the legendary city, apparently, were wrong: wild warlike tribes destroyed the ancient city in ruins temples, huts of peasants and artisans, altars and stelae. During excavation of Peruvian archaeologists have found evidence of fires and damaged the pyramid.

Carlos Rashio started digging immediately, but then I realized that on their own (and subordinate to him was only 7 people), he will not be able to release from the great mass of sand ancient ruins. The scientists first asked for help from their U.S. counterparts, but because of prevailing at the time of political tension between Peru and the United States, has been denied. Instead, the professor made available to the whole regiment of soldiers. And work began.

By April 2000, Carlos Rashio managed to clear the temple complex and six pyramids. Scientists realized that faced not only with the ancient city in South America, and the center of an unknown Native American culture, which, in the name of the town, which is located nearby, named Kara. But according to another hypothesis, Caral was the center of ancient civilization Norte Chico.

Failed to establish that long-time residents hastily left the ancient city. In urban areas were found by archaeologists only burial, He rested skeleton boy with a damaged skull. Another archaeologist Ruth Shady, it has been suggested that the ancient Indians fled their homes because of the disasters caused by the coast of Peru, brought by a warm sea current "El Niño", the rain, the catastrophic floods and landslides.

Trying to determine the age of the ancient city, the researchers used different methods and various artifacts. Specialists from Lima was a figure — about 5000 years. This means that the stone has Karal older than the pyramids of Egypt, the ancient temple complex of the Incas, Aztecs and Mayans.

Next Rashio, its employees and the military began clearing the huge pit with wide stone steps. It was a cleverly constructed amphitheater, which reaches more than 60 meters in diameter. At its center stood a monolithic altar, covered with thousands of years of soot. Apparently, in this place centuries burning an eternal flame, which was mentioned in legends. In addition, it also proves that the people of Karala were sun-worshipers.

Under the altar was also discovered a network of underground channels of unknown function. Over time, the military and archaeologists have suggested that the channels were tactical cunning local priests. In ancient legend tells that in the days of the great wave of the hand holidays priests made an eternal flame burning is particularly strong and high. Apparently, for these channels and the incoming air to the altar. It seems that the priests have learned well calculate exactly when the ocean will rush of air flow.

Researchers have been able to make a plan of the sanctuary. At its center stood an amphitheater with an altar, around him were erected pyramids and temples. One of them was built on a monolithic foundation, each of the blocks of the monolith reaches more than half a meter wide and a little less in height. It seems that this was considered the main temple. The largest of the temples located on the edge of the complex. Close by was neighborhoods in which they lived and worked by craftsmen. They produce everything you need — accessories for priests, musical instruments, axes, hoes, ceramic tableware, decorations for churches. It is noteworthy that during the excavation was not detected in either precious stones or articles made of gold. Similarly, no damage was found, even primitive weapons. The number of inhabitants in the city is at least 7,000 people, although the valley, surrounding Carano, was out of the 20,000 population. Outside the temples were located settlement of gardeners. All in an area of 80 square kilometers was discovered 19 pyramids around Kara.

Even scientists have established that the inhabitants of the ancient city were fed corn, fish, shellfish, fruits, peppers of different varieties, sweet potatoes, beans, squash, cucumbers, and herbs. The city had a perfect irrigation system, later destroyed by the invaders. Completed the destruction of the sand, to many thousands who escaped punishment from prying eyes.

Reflecting on the plan of the temple buildings, the location of districts and villages, scientists from Peru and the United States put forward the hypothesis that the entire life of the ancient Karala ruled by priests. They acted as judges, administrators, organizers of the festivities, the astronomers. Their pyramids were built to watch the sky and make the calendar cycle for the needs of agriculture. And it seems that the pyramids are examples Karala other, later Indian civilizations. Unfortunately, the tops of the pyramids of the ancient city of barbarians destroyed, so science can not study his observatory.

One of the secrets revealed Karala journalists from Germany, photographed city with paragliders. They were able to examine rock carved human head with flowing hair and open mouth. Its size — 24h40 meters — did not yield figures Nazca. One hypothesis states that the bas-relief — a symbol of farewell karaltsev to leave the country.

Interestingly, scientists could not find a single character, the pictographic signs or samples of other types of writing. Although, judging by the level of development, writing, there must have existed. Maybe all that was valuable was blown by the priests, and their knowledge and experience to use the Maya, Inca and Aztec. At least pyramid Karan and later Indian settlements are strikingly similar.

But still remains the question of why there was such a large time interval? Before the discovery of Karala most ancient civilization on the continent saw the Olmec culture, which flourished in the VI-IV century BC But even the Olmecs from Kara separated nearly 2.5 millennium. Perhaps the professor Carlos Rashio between them should always be a number of intermediate civilizations yet, alas, do not open.

To date, scientists have completed excavations at Caral. Archaeologists completely cleared of sand blocks, an amphitheater, but so far due to lack of funds did not learn of the pyramid. First Peruvian authorities withdrew the military from the excavation, then do not become public and university funding.

Carlos Rashio laments that once the scientists left Karal, many clandestine grave-diggers started here engaged in unauthorized excavations. Their findings can be considered ahead of time is lost to science, at best, they will settle in private collections. But it is about uncovering the mysteries of the human civilization that may or will ever be solved.

Category: Mystery stories

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