"Slavery — historically the first and the most serious form of exploitation, in which a slave along with the means of production was the property of his master-slave owner. … "
"Slavery — the state of society, which may be possible to find some people (called slaves) owned by other people. Mr. entire personality of his own slave's ownership. Being the property of another, the slave does not belong to himself and is not entitled to dispose of. "(Wikipedia)
But first things first.
A bit of history
Slavery, historically the first and the most serious form of exploitation, in which a slave along with the means of production was the property of his master-slave owner. People caught in slavery, had no rights, and deprived, in addition, the economic stimulus to work, it only worked on direct physical coercion. Very often, a "special" status of slaves stressed external signs (brand, collar, special clothing), as slaves were equal to things and no one imagined that the "thing" can change their status and, thus, get rid of these attributes.
Slavery in the modern world
Originating on the state of decomposition of primitive society, slavery. formed the basis of the slave system.
Basically there were several "stable" sources of slaves — the foreigners, captured during the war or to this end the raids, tribesmen, slavery for debt or as a punishment for their crimes, the natural increase of slaves, the slave trade.
Initial form of slavery was the so-called "patriarchal slavery" when the slaves were part of the family which owned them as its members have no rights: they usually lived under the same roof with the owner, but performed more hard work than the rest of the family, most often it was due to natural view of the economy. "Patriarchal slavery" existed in varying degrees, in all the world's people in their transition to a class society.
It dominated the societies of the ancient East, as well as in the ancient Greek states and Rome, to a period when the rapid development of the economy helped to make it out in the ancient patriarchal. For late Roman Republic patriarchal slavery developed into a classic classical slavery related to retailing, with a maximum degree of expropriation individual slave, which is equivalent to its complete lack of rights, to turn it into a "speaking tool." In addition, very often the case, especially in rich houses that slaves were purposely cut languages, making them thus in a silent weapon.
The flowering of the "classical" slavery was relatively short-lived, as in the nature of slave labor were laid cause its inevitable decline and rebirth, disgust slaves to their work and oppression could not lead to economic inefficiency of slavery and relentlessly demanded in the best case, the fundamental modification of bondage.
Historical factors, such as the reduction of the inflow of slaves, slave rebellion continued, etc., along with the economic act, which in turn encouraged slaveholders to find new forms of exploitation. It is evident that, to some extent interested in direct producer-slave in his work, and so, to increase operational efficiency. Many slaves are attached to the land and gradually merge with the colonies. Historically, this change, due to economic reasons, led to the virtual blur the distinction between the columns and the slaves.
In the early Middle Ages to have arisen in the Roman Empire "barbarian" nations, especially in the state of the Ostrogoths in Italy, and the Visigoths in Spain, slavery, as such, played a significant, but not a leading role in the economy. Much of slaves sitting on the ground, paying dues to Mr. and gradually merged with the impoverished layer communal peasants in a group of feudal dependent peasantry. By the 13th century in most of Western Europe slavery virtually eliminated, but in the cities of the Mediterranean extensive slave trade (resale them from Turkey to North Africa) continued until the 16th century. In the process of overcoming Byzantine slave relationship has been much slower than in Western Europe, in the 10-11 centuries slavery maintained a more economic value. But at the end of the 11 — 12 centuries. and Byzantium almost completed the merger of slaves with the dependent peasantry. Do Germans and Slavs, slavery was found mainly in the form of patriarchal, in Russia it existed in 9-12 cc. in the depths of a developing feudal society. Gradually slaves (in Russia they were called slaves) joined the ranks of the feudal-dependent peasants, becoming mostly in the yard, however, the situation of certain groups of serfs (engaged in heavy oil fields — working in the mines) is not much different from that of slaves. In the ancient states of Central Asia, the Caucasus and slavery has existed up to 4-6 cc. Its vestigial form continued into the Middle Ages.
In the major countries of the East — China, India and others — slavery, in its patriarchal form, save it until the development of capitalist relations, and sometimes there and along with them. The main source of slavery in the Middle Ages, it was debt slavery. China was widespread sale into slavery impoverished peasants of their families. In addition, one of the sources of slavery in China throughout the Middle Ages was the transformation in the public servants of criminals or members of their families. Fairly widespread acquired slavery in Muslim countries of the Middle East. Since Islam forbade enslaved Muslims, the main source of slaves in Muslim countries was to take them during the wars with the "infidels" and the purchase in the markets of Europe, Asia and Africa. Slaves in Muslim countries hack — in the mines, in the army of Muslim rulers (Mamluks — completely out of the slaves, after the service they can "grant" freedom, but, as a rule, up to this point no one is living out), in the household and personal servitude (including harems and serving their staff).
The new stage of dissemination (16 c.) Slavery in Asia, Africa and America related to the process of so-called primitive accumulation of capital, the colonial enslavement of those countries. Wide dimensions and the greatest economic importance of slavery in the colonies acquired in the Americas. This was caused by abnormal development of the colonies in America: labor shortage and availability of land, suitable for a significant part of a large plantation. And also the fact that the New World, the Pilgrims went normally and criminals, which in turn would only have the land, and not work on it.
The resistance of the Indians, and their extinction, along with a formal ban kings of Spain and Portugal to pay the Indians as slaves, led to the Spanish and Portuguese, and then the North American planters began to import black slaves from Africa. The widest scope slave reached in 17-19 centuries. The total number of Negroes imported to the Americas, was, apparently, more than 10 million people. In the areas of large-scale plantations in the southern U.S. states, the West Indies, as well as in Brazil and Guiana negros slaves in the late 18th century. the majority population. Treated with blacks on the plantations is very cruel, they have been relegated to the status of draft animals. In a somewhat better position the only group of slaves, serving households planters. Marital ties with the slave-concubines black woman led in some countries to the emergence of numerous layers mulattos. New impetus to the development of plantation slavery in the United States at the end of 18 — the first decade of the 19th century. gave the industrial revolution, which caused a sharp increase in the demand for cotton and other industrial crops.
The French Revolution proclaimed the abolition of slavery. However, the French colonies the act was put into effect essentially only in the 40's. 19. UK legally abolished slavery in 1807, but in fact up to 1833 slaves in the British colonies remained. In the 50-ies. 19. announced the cancellation R. Portugal, and in the 60's. Slavery was abolished by a majority of the American continent. In the U.S., slavery was abolished as a result of the Civil War 1861-65 between North and South (slave) states. However, the continued existence of forced labor, a little more than slavery. In a number of colonial and dependent countries the institution of slavery continued to persist for a long time. Particularly widespread was slavery in the Portuguese colonies in Africa as a plantation and in the home. The Arabs of central and southern Arabia and in some countries in Africa slavery persisted until the 50's. 20.
International legal regulation of the fight against slavery began in the 19th century. However most documents condemning slavery, was formal, even more informative. In essence, the first international convention against slavery was concluded in 1926 in Geneva as part of the League of Nations. Adopted by the UN in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaimed (v. 4), that slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. In 1956, a conference was held in Geneva, representatives of 59 countries on the fight against slavery, which adopted the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery. Just for him equated forced labor.
According to the UN, the U.S. State Department and the European Commission for illegal immigrants in the world today, there are 27 million people. These are the results of a study of data agencies and human rights organization Anti-Slavery International.
I think many more will remember more than a million illegal immigrants march through the streets of Los Angeles, when the U.S. government decided that they treat all illegal immigrants to criminals.
What makes people become illegal immigrants, and sometimes slaves?
It is believed that in the modern world a fertile ground for slavery create:
1. poverty — I am sure that many will remember as the three adult males, for the sake of rewards in 1000 Kenyan shillings (average wage — 1 shilling per day), drowned in a pit of excrement, and then after the police intervention;
2. imperfect legal system — there are countries where the legislative level is not fixed such a thing as "slavery";
3. traditional — there is also a place (often in Muslim countries), where the wealthy family must (!) have at least one slave, this despite the fact that the slave should not be of the same faith with the owner;
4. lack of political will among the leaders of a number of countries — there are cases where the super-presidential republic had a direct part in the organization and control channels to transport slaves and illegal immigrants.
Today, there are a few "core" areas for the slave trade:
1. Men — for the hard work — the builders, stevedores.
2. Women — usually it's prostitution, but also to rent a house workers;
3. Children — prostitution, begging, selling children's organs.
In addition to the forced slavery is still on the "voluntary" slavery:
1. Labor — is associated with polucheniemdobychey resources in the world. Very well developed in the West. When an employee, even a professional in their field for a long time working in the same company and are not in a position to carry out not horizontal or vertical mobility, ie employee does not move nor the corporate ladder, or from department to department, making it the proverbial "office plankton" professional, but at the same time unnecessary labor. Just when one of the relatives who are dependents (mostly elderly), work at home, etc., as they can not participate in obtaining material goods because of their age and physical ability, but can not participate in the reception and processing of information, due to the weakening of mental activity, and other factors, thus they unwittingly become prisoners actually slaves — living roof over your head and food.
2. Homemade porn — so for the most part dominated by the West, but it is already showing signs in our society — a situation where a man (rarely a woman) work by inhibiting the partner (directly involved in obtaining resources), guided by concern for the alleged mental and physical state of its partner thus disguising themselves as "breadwinner" in the family, which in turn is a humiliation for a partner, "indications" of his place in life and in a society, as a consequence of the emergence of domestic violence.
3. Conscription slavery — is common in the former Soviet Union and the present CIS — performance problems of bullying, and the commanders receive remuneration, it often happens that the soldier sold into slavery, as documented soldier declared missing in action or a deserter.
4. Penal servitude — is found everywhere — the use of prison labor, as persons in a "prison" is only partly the citizens of the state (the right to "withdrawn" at the time correction), which in turn allows us to use the cheap and free labor. There was a precedent when the prison for a few years "sold" into slavery all the prisoners, and then, with those obtained from the sum of the transactions — has disappeared.
Slavery in the modern world
VyvodSegodnya any developing country requires as much labor. The employer does not want to "complicate" his life, taking care of health, spiritual, psychological and material state employees. The most effective method of keeping a slave in the workplace is usually compulsory seizure of identity documents, or physical abuse. But most often, both.
Othmer slave system many years ago, after he saw the story and tyranny and empire and republic, anarchy, democracy, socialism, fascism, capitalism. Could mankind developed before that comes back to basics. The only thing is that, given the dynamics of the world and the transience of time, slavery can take threatening consequences. Apparently the story is actually moving in a spiral.