Vremyaischisleniya system that existed in different nations, according to the doctor of historical sciences, professor R. Simonov — very interesting topic. However, the question of what was the calendar of the Eastern Slavs, still remains open. The author of the article "Solar Kolo" brings the original hypothesis that he was ordered fundamentally different than the modern calendar with a seven-day week and twelve months. According to Valery Baidina in IV-X centuries in the pagan week was 9 days, and in the months — 40. These modules are, of course, must be reflected in the score. Indeed, due to magpies and ninety lived to XVI century, as, for example, wrote the German diplomat S. Herberstein, who visited Muscovy at the time. B. Baydin provides convincing proof system of archaeological and linguistic. His reconstruction of the ancient calendar VIII-X centuries of interest to a wide range of readers.
"Old time we scored forty and ninety" — this saying, here's Dictionary by Dahl, is consistent with another, no less significant, "What nine forty, four ninety — one." Should be reflected here counting tradition of considerable interest because of its origins date back to ancient times, to the pre-Christian solar calendar. The science of history has long proved the existence of the eastern Slavs solar era. But so far it is not clear what was the device of the ancient calendar. The proposed reconstruction, as well as to the earlier, of course, not intended to be definitive: it is just one of the phases of work related to the systematization of the existing knowledge and comprehension.
Even a cursory glance it is clear that "nine times forty" or "ninety-four" in the archaic calendar of 360 and are equal to the number of days in the year of the Ancient World. This scoring system has been extended in many nations. (You may go from here, and the division of a circle of 360 °, and ancient Babylonian sexagesimal number system.)
Slavs seem to have inherited the tradition of ancient European accounts: it unlike ordinary, decimal, due to the "Magpie", "ninety" and "Ninth" is sacred.
If in ancient Rome "Kalends" — close to the time of the initial days of the New Moon of each month — have been linked to the lunar days and the score gave the name of the modern "calendar", the East Slavs of the word "circle", "colonies" were directly related to the annual reckoning — "kolovrascheniyu" sun and, of course, to religious beliefs. The basis for these beliefs was the original monotheism — the cult of the natural elements, the deification of "shining sky" and the Sun. Presiding deity favored for centuries by different names: Svarog, Svetovid, Glee, God, grant me the god, Perun … create the open, often on the tops of hills, Slavic circular sanctuary had a clear mission calendar (their form is a case in point), and division of the circle by 2, 4, 8 pieces with the right orientation to the cardinal reflected division of the year by the phases. Such a division of the Indo-Europeans had known since the Neolithic era and survived the "megalithic observatory» IV-III millennia before PX Until recently, traces of this ancient calendar kept Lima area residents in northeast Albania — they divided the year into eight 45-day periods.
If you configured the solstice and equinox days in north-west Europe (England, Scotland, Normandy) have long been used giant stone cromlechs, then almost devoid of stone wooded east of the continent this goal were earthen sanctuary, for example, Perynskoe (IX-X centuries) in Novgorod Zbruch and (VIII-IX centuries) in the upper reaches of the Dniester. Archaeologist V. Sedov describes open them in 1952 Perynskoe sanctuary: it was a circle, surrounded by a moat, the exact center of the circle is the pit from pole and ditch had "eight arc-like protrusions located correctly and symmetrically. In each such protrusion on the bottom of the pit fueled ritual fire, and in one of them, the eastern, judging by the amount of coal and calcined mainland burned "unquenchable fire." All other fires were focused strictly on the compass. A central pillar allowed, like Gnomon ancient Greeks, to determine the angle of incidence and the length of the shadow from the sun and the phases of its annual daily traffic.
It is likely that the annual range octopartite division was reflected in Indo-European name of "eight» (okto (u)), which, in the opinion of the famous linguist M. Vasmer, corresponds to the "dual" of the numeral "four" and "evidence of the ancient quaternary account" . Obviously, as a cult along with the usual "fingertip" account (quinary-decimal) there was a fourfold-octal account. In most Indo-European languages Protoform newos is common for the words "new" and "Nine." The only exceptions are the Slavic and Baltic languages, in which the basis for the numeral "nine" other: apparently, the ancient Slavs number devet perceived not as "new" as well as "devoted to the sky, God," as evidenced by his closeness to the Indo-European root deiuo «heavenly shining, the divine, "which became the source of later words attributed to the concept of" God ": the Latin Deus, Greek Deos, Slavic -" Dyj "," Wonderful. "
This assumption is confirmed by the wide distribution in Eurasia worship sacred nine, which was due more to the religious myths and rituals, "navagva" — 9 and the first ancestors of donors in the ancient Hindus, the Greeks nine Muses, nine worlds and the roots of the world tree from the Scandinavians, 9 hypostases Lithuanian Thunder, known particularly important number nine and shamanic cosmology. Unusually well represented in the worship of the nine culture of the Eastern Slavs, where there was even a special nonary account — a measure of a mythological sacred time and space. If we assume that in the calendar practice, the transition from the Slavs to vosmeritsy devyateritse days of octopartite devyatichastnomu to divide the year, in the sanctuary perynskogo like a change of rhythm would have been quite natural: it presupposes the very existence of the center, the ninth of the structural element. But, apparently, at the initial stage of the ninth day of the week does solar taken out of the account, as the novice celestial deities. Together, the "Nine" days were in this calendar exactly forty days, that is the ninth of the year. This, perhaps, was that ancient "Deviatiny" — a sacred part of the annual time and human life itself, to give an offering to God. It is easy to see that, there were only forty nine-weeks, while the remaining five days, as in many other ancient calendars, counted separately.
But how can practically count of days was carried out in the sanctuaries of this type? As one — East fire burning constantly, day, when all other lights were extinguished, was considered the first (see Figure 1, position 1-1). On the second day following the course lit a fire of the sun, while the first continued to burn (to 1-2), this alternation lasted for eight days (positions 1 — 8). On the ninth day of the fires were lit all eight at once, that meant a symbolic sacrifice "holocaust" heaven itself "shining sky" — "miracle" or Slavs deiuo Indo-Europeans.
Solar calendar explains why in ancient Russia, along with the "ninth" most revered number forty. It retained its name and in the Christian era, pushing book "chetyredesyat." Perhaps the main reason for this was seemingly surprising compatibility of forty, with a calendar account, in 360 days, the sacred nine. Combined and variants of these two numbers are multiples of ten: ninety-four. Ninety days were counting quarter ("chet"), and almost exactly one solar noted offensive phase after the other.
Hence the special importance and that number also uderzhapshego its old name of "ninety" as opposed to Church Slavonic "devyatdesyat."
Along with Deviatiny period of forty days was the Slavs meaning sacred ritual life, which was enshrined in the language: the word "forty", apparently, is only of late that has arisen in the XIII century, the Russian variety of Slavic srok — "term vow covenant, agreement, a sign. " No doubt the forty-day period of the sacred has been well known in the ancient world. This tradition dates back to the funerary cults of Egypt, forty days and forty years were considered a time of "priugotovleniya" (purification, sacrifice, testing) in the Bible and the Koran. Forty is the number of completeness, perfect set, occurs not only in Slavonic, but in Armenian, Turkish, Mongolian epics. Traces veneration of "forty" are in the archaic account twenties (polusorokami) in French and English.
But what was combined annual expense of time "forty and ninety" with octopartite design Slavic shrines calendars? Because the solar calendar had celebrated four annual phases of the sun, due to their definition is "ninety", and only within each such period were located in cycles 40 and 9 days. This breaks the strict symmetry of the ancient calendar, which took eight equal parts by 45 days, and introduced a new, more complex rhythm: two "forty", the next row, add one "ninth", which was equal to 89-days, the last ninety was a day of celebration, coinciding with the onset of the next solar phase.
Obviously, the "ninth" sacred "time", only gradually was compiled throughout the solar cycle. It can be concluded that after the rejection of the previous year octopartite solar astronomical calendar Indo began to turn into ritual, and ancient observational astronomy gradually replaced by computer, purely ritual: they not hence ancient kinship terms "consider" and "honor", combines the word "honor "? For Slavic tribes appeared on the vast plains of the north-east of Europe, in an area of high clouds and the hidden horizon line, transition to a calendar it was probably inevitable, and he said, according to the data of astronomy, in the IV century.
Rhythmic structure of the ancient solar calendar is confirmed as it may seem, the Julian church calendar and related folk medieval church calendars, calendar. In the arrangement of the most important Christian holidays, non-mobile lunar and solar Paschal, there is the same alternation of 40-day and 9-day period (see Figure 2). If the starting point to take astronomical equinoxes and solstice (as of IV century), from the rhythmic unit 40-40-9-1 within each quarter, the match date, more than two-thirds of non-transition Twelve and great holy days, it can not be a coincidence.
Referring to the scheme of reconstruction of the annual East-round festivities. If the church, divided by 12 months, the calendar had "dvanadesyat" major holidays, the pre-Christian figure was nine, the number of solar "terms." One indication of this is counting Russian proverb: "There is one God, two Tavlya Moses, three patriarchs on the ground … eight laps SUN NINE YEAR IN JOY (emphasis added), the ten commandments of God …" and so what were, although to the name, the "joy" when they observed the eastern Slavs?
It is natural to assume that eight of them are confined to the four phases and four polufazam Sun. The most important is undoubtedly the sacrament Kupala — the summer solstice on June 22 (in this article, all dates are given in the new style, almost coincides with the astronomical dates "staroyulianskogo" and the ancient solar calendar). The second most important and related party was the winter solstice December 22 — Kolyada.
associated with the ancient sun
chronology — a cross in a circle,
inflorescences, etc. — can be seen
in wood carving, embroidery,
Metal products later
period, when the meaning of these elements
Old ornament was already forgotten
These holidays are tops many days of summer and winter solstices. Not once have become recognized as the beginning of a new solar cycle: in ancient times there were no modern concept of "new year", time was cyclical, as the movement of the sun. For example, during the Christmas Carols Slavs celebrated the beginning of the World "heavenly dawn", the ancient cry "Ovsen-Tausenev", repeated in various ways, means "dawn" as akin to the Greek word Eos, literally "dawn" or Latvian aust « to dawn. " Moreover, the word "Rosh Hashanah" suggests that summer Slavs also noted the new year. But once again a reservation: the phrase "new year" was originally applied to the other Slavic feast — the day of the vernal equinox. Slavonic god accurately reflect modern understanding of this event as the onset "of suitable" for agricultural work time.
East Slavic name of the holiday of spring and autumn equinoxes are not preserved, restored them only hypothetically. The basis for the reconstruction could be Ukrainian, dating back to the Slavonic, the names of March "berezen" and September "Veresen". It is possible that prior to the adoption of Church of the term "equinox" (carbon copy of the Greek) there his Old Slavic name that is associated with the concept of solar "turn" — "Veresen" (or "spindles"?), You can pull together within the meaning of the name of the Slovenian October obrocnik that is, "turning" a month. The word "Veresen" apparently held out for the title of the autumn feast followed by a 40-day period. The vernal equinox and the appropriate "time" was called differently: in the "Dictionary of Old Russian" Sreznevskii led one of the archaic names brezozor April. It consists of two parts: the Indo-European basis braz / brez (from Old Russian brezg "Dawn") and the Slavic root divisor associated with the words vzor, me to see (to see). Within the meaning — is "the contemplation of Dawn", which can be attributed to the rite of the meeting of the sun on the vernal equinox. Later, the word became a berezozol and was interpreted as a "time piece of birch ash," which was hardly calendar ritual significance in the life of the Slavs.
Four of the Ancient festival, celebrated "osminy" of the year, as mentioned above, have been moved from the 45th to the 40th day after the respective phase of the Sun. Apparently, such a transfer has occurred in other European nations. For example, in the calendar of the Catholic Church have remained distinct national origin holiday "Day of the dead" (Latin Defuncti) on November 2 and "Candles" (Latin Candelae) on February 2. The "Sunny Cola" they could match the names "Santa" (given the Polish-Belarusian Dziady) or "Parents", "Roditeleva mentions" November 2, and keep the name of pan-European holiday "Candles" ("Svechnikov") however, he had not celebrated the 2nd and the 1st of February, exactly on the 40th day after the winter solstice. After the adoption of Christianity holiday "candle" in Russia was replaced Candlemas (February 2), and the holiday "Parents," "grandparents" in the XIV century, the transition is made and dated for the following Saturday before Memorial Day October 26 mph. Demetrius — "Demetrius SATURDAY."
Traces of two other "intermediate" holidays almost did not survive. The calendar allows you to define a scheme to date: after one "period" after the spring equinox, that is May 1, and 40 days after Kupala and an additional five days of "the end of the year", that is, on August 5. Try, though hypothetical, assume that 1 May Slavs celebrated ancient Radonitsa — a holiday of spring renewal. He was not moving. Is it because of his ritual was moved later to "Egor Day" on April 23 (for nine days before May 1)? Easter church calendar cycle time has erased from people's memory almost all traces radonichnyh celebrations. Now Radonitsa called a day of remembrance of the dead, is celebrated through one Deviatiny after Easter, but in the XIX century and the other still remembered his name "Red (Kresna) Hill", explained by ancient ideas about the mysterious "Kresen" resurrection of souls. Apparently, before Radonitsa started another 40-day "time", called "Kresen" and summing June 22 for the summer sacrament Crecy — rebirth of the sun and the sacred fire midsummer bonfire.
Holiday, falls on August 5, and precede the next solar magpies. What is it called? Perhaps, like the glow of the month — Dawn? In ancient times, the word means "a strong desire and passion", it is akin to the verb "covet" — "burn, excite, keen." Dal gives the phrase "girl prizarila guy", "come to the dawn." Obviously, in the harsh ancient times, when the survival of the genus marital ties tightly regulated community, the holiday season Dawn opened prewedding "merrymaking" and "festivities" youth. At the same time, in the month of glow blossomed lovage — a favorite flower girl's love charms and divination, and bore another name — "Dawn."
The eight annual holidays "Sunny Cola" or started or completed a certain "time", often giving him the meaning of the name. What remains unclear, But what are the ninth festival, the same 'ninth joy "folk sayings. Perhaps it was noted during the long summer "solstice" sacred end of the year — the ancient Slavic Velikoden, the initial "holiday celebration" when for a few days joined together all the annual festival of the Sun, almost calling at this time in the lands of the eastern Slavs ? ..
The ratio of the ancient peoples of the holidays, which is the revered "sacraments", called for a special ritual of purification and initiation of pre and after the holiday, apparently, and commit to protect and thanksgiving rituals. Eastern Slavs duration of these cult activities, as if framing a holiday equaled a nine-day week. In turn, the start or end of such periods themselves can be festive, revered days. Something similar happened in other European nations: 9 days lasted rites in the Eleusinian mysteries of the Greeks, in the same period was the ancient Romans worship the souls of ancestors (Manoff), the Romans even had a special deity of the ninth day of the infant's life — Nundina, with "devyatidnevok" (nundin) they determined the calendar dates of days of trading, etc.
The motif of the sacred nine
seen in the picture
(XIII century to the PX
Based on the reconstruction of the solar calendar, we can assume that the word "holy", the Belarusians and Ukrainians still means "celebration", and preserved in a Russian diminutive "Christmastide," primarily means "dedication" — nine-day rituals of preparation of all members of the community to future mysteries. Longest traces of such "holy-initiation" remained before the two major festivals: Kupala ("green Yule") and Kolyada ("winter holidays"). Something like this probably took place and before the two equinoxes. In this case, these four "initiatory" Deviatiny along with days of festivities themselves were already mentioned the "ninth" year "term" — a special, "sanctification" of the year (not having a name.) It is less certain to talk about the existence of such preparatory Deviatiny his four "intermediate" holidays and Deviatiny wards and thanksgiving after the eight annual festivals. It is true that one of the arguments for the existence of the practice can serve as an unexpected and rather precise coincidence of dates such extreme Deviatiny on "Solar Cola" with the dates of a number of Orthodox feasts (see Figure 2): their mutual difference does not exceed 2 — 3 days.
Separate, although very problematic issue is the reconstruction of the solar names "timing." With all the motley spread Slavic folk month names among them are two meaningful number, marks, in fact, two different calendars: the lunar and solar (see table). One group of names is clearly earth, natural farming character: student (s), snow cover (s), fierce, Sukhiy, herbs (s), pollen, Cherven, Lipen, serpen, etc. The other group is etymologically related to the symbolism svetosolnechnoy language and religious terminology (prosinets, glow, brezozor, Kresen, glow, Veresen, korochen). It is there was more of the losses and the later distortion. Apparently, in the Christian era of the titles "Sunny Cola" has been forgotten or moved to new, "lunar" months. But some of them are still in the era of Slavic linguistic unity that persists in some way to the end I millennium BC. e., has been redesigned from the position of the rural labor years: for example, the old glow was turned into a "cut" (from "whipping branches").
Immediately after the Great (a) the day comes "term", the name of which has been completely lost. It is probably in the form of reduced Xph / brightness or near the "heat" as an archaic name of the "new year": Proto-Slavic basis jar to mean "year" is akin uache Avestan, Greek oros, Gothic jer. By V. Dahl, the old meaning of the word "zhar" — a "time of summer heat, low water … July, sometimes with the addition of the first half of August or the last of June." It is easy to see that the "heat" coincided with the time of the "time" to "Solar Cola", which lasted from June 26 to August 4. It was the hottest, "Awesome" time of year, during the "Yaren" — the highest powers of the earth, plants, animals, humans, "yaryu", "Yasmin" called in Russia "fat plant because the soil."
When and who created the "Solar colony" of the Eastern Slavs, it is unlikely to exist in the ideal, complete form, which is a real reconstruction? That question can not be answered clearly: too deep in Indo-European roots of his past go. Because of the gradual development of dating can be, perhaps, only the final stage of processing of the ancient calendar of the East Slavic soil, IV-X centuries, under the new conditions of the North-Eastern Europe, when there was a settlement of the Slavs of these areas. Under the influence of religious ideas of the Balkan, Iranian, German and later Jewish and Christian origin, in this era of "Russian faith" was gradually taking the features of "predhristianstva." "Solar colony" was in the heart of start the process, and the time of its finalization, were obviously, VIII-X centuries. In this case, could not detect a striking similarity of rhythmic structure of the church and the pagan calendar. The most reasonable explanation of this fact — the existence of their common ancient European calendar ritual tradition associated with the archaic solar calendar.
Church when creating your calendar is not eager to put aside "pagan heritage." To rethink the form it took him along with the architecture basil, sacred ornaments, antique hymnography and classical philosophy. It is this message of the Byzantine faith, clothed in the higher forms of the ancient culture, and perceived at baptism Russia. By the end of the millennium has become the sacred word for the Slavs in the holy book, the sign — in the icon, the sanctuary — in the church temple, and "Solar colony" — the Christian calendar.